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State of New York Department of Agriculture 

Twenty-seventh Annual Report Vol. 2 Part II 

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Report of the New York Agricultural Experiment Station for the Year 1919 





To the Board of Control of the New York Agricultural Experiment Station: 

Gentlemen. It gives me pecioliar pleasure to transmit to you for 
publication a manuscript prepared from notes by Dr. E. Lewis Sturte- 
vant, the distinguished first Director of this Station, the publication to 
be known as " Stiortevant's Notes on Edible Plants." 

Dr. Sturtevant was one of that group of men who early espoused the 
cause of agricultural science in the United States, a field in which he 
became distinguished, his studies in economic botany being one of his 
notable achievements. When he retired in 1887 as Director of this 
Station, he left behind him a voluminous manuscript consisting of a com- 
pilation of existing knowledge on the edible food plants of the world, a 
piece of work involving a laborious and extended research in botanical 
literature. F.or twenty years this manuscript remained untouched, when 
Dr. U. P. Hedrick undertook its editing, a difficult and arduous task, well 
performed, in order that so valuable a collection of knowledge might 
become available to botanists and to students of food economics. 

It is especially appropriate that such a volume should be issued at this 
time. Food problems are becoming more and more acute as the demand 
for food increasingly overshadows the supply. Primitive peoples depended 
upon food resources which are now neglected. Other sources of possible 
human nutrition have doubtless remained untouched, and the time may 
come when a comprehensive utilization of food plants will be essential to 
human sustenance. It is believed, therefore, that the information so ably 
brought together by Dr. Sturtevant cannot fail to become increasingly 

Very respectfully, 

New York Agricultural Director 

Experiment Station 
Geneva, N. Y. 

June I, 1919. 


All who have attempted to study the origin and history of cultivated 
plants must have been struck with the paucity and inaccuracy of information 
on the subject. For nearly nineteen hundred years, to be written in Pliny 
was proof sufficient; yet much of Pliny's history is inaccurate though still 
repeated in periodicals and poptilar works. Linnaeus, the great system- 
atizer, gave the origin of most of the plants he described; but of these, 
De CandoUe, by long odds the best plant historian, says, " three out of 
four of Linnaeus' indications of the original home of cultivated plants are 
incomplete or incorrect." De CandoUe, in his turn, usually accurate, is 
exceedingly scant, giving the origin of but 249 cultivated plants, not all 
edible, while Sturtevant, in the text in hand, puts down 2897 which may be 
used for food, most of which are cultivated. 

The query at once comes to mind as to the respects in which Sturte- 
vant adds new knowledge on an old subject. New knowledge may be 
found on the following subjects: (i) The original home of many esculents 
is given for the first time. (2) New landmarks in the histories of edible 
plants are pointed out. (3) An effort is made to mention all cultivated 
esculents. (4) Though the book contains much new information as to the 
history of the food plants of the Old World, it is especially full and acctirate 
in the discussion of the esculents of the New World. (5) Sturtevant presents 
much new information on the variations that have been produced in plants 
by cultivation. (6) His book adds much to geographical botany. (7) He 
contributes much data for the study of acclimatization. 

It is pertinent to inquire as to the qualifications and opportunities 
Stvirtevant may have had to illuminate so vast a subject as that of edible 
plants. To answer this query, and for the added reason that a book can 
be used with greatest profit only when its author is known, a brief biography 
of Sturtevant follows this Preface. 

Sturtevant' s Notes on Edible Plants is a compilation from four sources, 
namely : the first seven reports of the New York State Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station; a manuscript of 1600 closely written imperial octavo sheets 


entitled, Notes on Edible Plants, left at this Station by the author; a series 
of articles in the American Naturalist on the history of garden vegetables, 
running for four years beginning with 1887; and between forty and fifty 
thousand card index notes which belong in part to this Station and in part 
to the Missouri Botanical Garden. The material used was written previous 
to 1892, the author having spent at least a quarter-century in its preparation. 
The editor must now state what his task has been. 

With so great a wealth of material much has had to be discarded. 
A great mass of cultural notes has not been used. Descriptions of many 
varieties of many species were discarded. Vernacular names in many 
languages and dialects were omitted. Botanical synonyms have had to 
be left out. Sturtevant's discussions of edible ftingi, while full for the time 
in which they were written, are, in the light of recent research, so scant and 
fragmentary that the editor, unable to revise or add to them, has with 
many regrets excluded them. The unused material amoimts to several 
times that used. 

After sorting the material, the next task was to arrange it for publication. 
This work fell into four well-defined divisions of labor: 

First, some standard of botanical nomenclature had to be adopted that 
the many botanical names from the several hundred authors quoted by 
Sturtevant could be made to conform as far as possible to one standard. 
Index Kewensis was taken as the authority best suited for the work in hand ; 
this standard has seldom been departed from even though departure seemed 
most necessary in the light of later botanical studies ; to have begim making 
departures would have entailed too great a task. 

Second, Sturtevant's citations to literature, except in the series of 
articles in the American Naturalist, usually consist only of the name of 
the book and the author. Since a book such as this is almost worthless 
without full citations, these, as far as possible, have been completed and 
verified, a task requiring borrowed books from a dozen or more libraries 
and the labor of several persons for months. Even after great effort to 
insure fullness and correctness, no doubt many mistakes have crept into 
the citations. 

Third, bibliographical information is given in detail, since to cite 
unknown authors is a worthless procedure. It seems a simple task to 
catalog a collection of books. But the difficulties, especially in the case 
of early books, were found to be many. Anonymous writers, noms de plume, 
cross-references, borrowed material, numerous editions, works of com- 


mentators and editors bearing the names of original authors, all confuse 
and make the task of the bibliographer complex and difficult. 

Fourth, the material had to be arranged. Sturtevant in his discussions 
of vegetables in the reports of this Station, in his card index of edible 
plants ana in his History of Gardeti Vegetables in the American Naturalist, 
arranges the plants in accordance with the English vernacular names; 
but in his partly completed manuscript, undoubtedly written with the 
expectation of publishing, the plants are arranged alphabetically according 
to genera. The last plan seemed to suit the present work best and was 
adopted. The natural order of the genera is given; species are alpha- 
betically arranged under each genera; while, to make them as prominent as 
possible, English vernacular names are printed in capitals after the species. 
The vernacular names are those used by the authorities quoted or are 
taken from standard botanical text-books. 

While the changes and omissions made by the editor leave that which 
remains substantially as written by Dr. Sturtevant, yet there has been so 
much cutting and fitting that it would be unjust to hold Sturtevant respon- 
sible for infelicities that may appear. Despite the editor's efforts to retain 
the diction, style and individuality of Dr. Sturtevant, the quality of the 
work is no doubt marred by passing through hands other than those of the 

The following acknowledgments must be recorded: The editor is 
grateful to Dr. Sturtevant's children for permission to publish their father's 
work; and to his associates in the Horticultural Department of this Station 
for assistance in reading the manuscript and proof of the book, especially to 
J. W. Wellington who has had charge of standardizing botanical names, 
verifying references and preparing the bibliography. 


Horticulturist, New York Agricultural Experiment Station. 


Edward Lewis Sturtevant, farmer, botanist, physician and author, 
was one of the giants of his time in the science of agriculture. Through 
natural endowment, industry and rare mental attainments, he accomplished 
more than most men in scientific research by his own efforts. But, possibly, 
he achieved even more through his influence on his fellow-workmen than 
by his own endeavors. Rare, indeed, are the men in any field of attainment 
who have furnished so freely as he from an inexhaustible store of information 
unfailing aid and inspiration to those who worked with him. The happy 
combination of these two qualities, work and ability to help others work, 
led Sturtevant to success significant enough to make him one of the honor 
men of agriculture in the United States. From this brief and incommen- 
siorate tribute, we pass to a sketch of Sturtevant's active life. 

As to genealogy, the line of descent runs from Samuel, the first Sturte- 
vant in America, who landed in Plymouth in 1642, through generations 
living in Plympton and Wareham, Massachusetts, to Consider Sturtevant 
who purchased a farm at Winthrop, Maine, in 1810. Here Dr. Sttirtevant's 
father was bom but later moved to Boston, the birthplace of Dr. Sturte- 
vant. His mother was Mary Haight Leggett from a family of fighting 
Quakers who settled at West Farm, New York, about 1700. 

Bom in Boston, January 23, 1842, Sturtevant, as a child, was taken 
by his parents to Philadelphia and here, with little time intervening, his 
father and mother died. Young Sturtevant's aunt, a Mrs. Benson, became 
his guardian, and with her the lad moved to Winthrop, Maine, the birth- 
place of his father. His early school days were spent in New Jersey, though 
later he prepared for college at Blue Hill, Maifie. His preliminary edu- 
cation finished, Sturtevant, in 1859, entered Bowdoin College, to remain 
imtil 1 86 1, when, at the urgent call of the country for college men to serve 
in the civil strife then raging, he enlisted in the Union army. 

To classical Bowdoin, Sturtevant owed much for his ability to write. 
Few scientists who have written so much and so rapidly, have written 
as well. His English is not ornate but is vivid, terse, logical, happy in 

i sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

phrasing and seldom at loss for the proper word. To classical Bowdoin, 
too, Sturtevant owes his remarkable ability to use languages. Greek, 
Latin, French and German in the written form were familiar to him, and 
he was able to read, more or less well, scientific treatises in several other of 
the European languages. Though he was not graduated with his class at 
Bowdoin, the college later gave him her degree of Bachelor of Arts and 
still later further honored him with her Master of Arts. 

Sturtevant entered the Union army in September, 1861, as First 
Lieutenant of Company G, 74th Regiment of Maine Volvinteers. It speaks 
well for the youth of barely twenty-one that the following January he 
became Captain of his company. Company G was a part of the 19th Army 
Corps which, during Captain Sturtevant's service in it, was stationed on 
the lower Mississippi where, possibly, its most important work was the siege 
of Port Hudson. A part of Sturtevant's time in the army was spent on 
the staff of General Nickerson, 3d Brigade, 2d Division, serving with the 
rank of Captain. Possibilities of ftirther service, higher promotion, or, on 
the other hand, death or woimds on the battle field, were cut short by an 
attack of typhoid malaria which so incapacitated him that he returned 
home in 1863, his career in the army ended. 

The next landmark in Sttirtevant's life is a course in the Harvard 
Medical School from which he received a degree in 1866. But, possessed 
of a degree from one of the leading medical colleges in the country, he did 
not begin the practice of medicine, and, in fact, never followed the profession. 
We may assume, however, that the training in a medical school txomed 
his attention to science, for, possibly, the best science in American insti- 
tutions at this time was to be found in a few leading schools of medicine. The 
year following the completion of the medical course was spent with his 
brother Thomas in Boston. 

In 1867, E. Lewis, Joseph N. and Thomas L. Sturtevant purchased 
land at South Framingham, Massachusetts. The farm soon became famous, 
under the name " Waushakum Farm," for a series of brilliant experiments 
in agriculttire which are still models in experimental acumen and con- 
scientious execution. Here, almost at once, E. Lewis Sturtevant began 
the foundation of a great agricultural and botanical library, one possibly 
not surpassed in these fields of science by any other private collection, 
while, as it was eventually developed, for Prelinnean works it is still unsur- 
passed by any other American library. Here, too, almost at once, Stvirte- 
vant started the studies of cultivated plants recorded in this volume. 


The immediate concern of the Sturtevant brothers, however, was 
the development of a model dairy farm of Ayrshire cattle. Waushakum 
Farm soon became the home of this breed. Several scientific aspects of 
this work with Ayrshires are worth noting. Milk records of the herd 
and of individual animals, covering many milking periods, were kept and 
still constitute, according to dairymen of our day, a most valuable con- 
tribution to dairying. As an outcome of their researches with this breed, 
a monograph of 252 pages was published on Ayrshire cattle by the brothers 
in 1875. Out of their work with Ayrshires came the North American 
Ayrshire Register published by E. Lewis and Joseph N. Sturtevant in 
several annual voltimes. These books are still in use by breeders of 
Ayrshires and are of permanent value as records of the breed. E. Lewis 
Sturtevant in particular gave attention to the physiology of milk and 
milk secretion. His studies of fat globules in milk of different breeds 
of cows attracted much attention in the agricultural press, and he was soon 
in great demand as a speaker before agricultural and dairy associations. 

But even in these first days on Waushakiim Farm, the Ayrshires 
did not occupy all of his time. One is amazed in looking through the 
agricultural papers of the late sixties and early seventies at the number 
of articles signed by E. L. Sturtevant still in his twenties. These early 
articles show originality, intense curiosity in regard to everything new, 
scientific imagination, a mind fertile in fruitful ideas and tremendous 
industry. These first articles in the press, too, show that he early possessed 
initiative, a trait which he retained throughout his scientific life. In all of 
his work it was seldom that he had to seek ideas or suggestions from others, 
though he was possessed of a mind which appreciated new trains of 
thought, and many there were of his day who coiild speak of his kindly 
interest in the work of others. 

Indian corn attracted Sttortevant from the first. No sooner had he 
settled on Waushakum Farm than he began a botanical and cultural study 
of maize which he continued to the time of his death. The first fruits 
of his work with corn was the introduction of an improved variety of Yellow 
Flint, the new sort being called " Waushakum." This variety was wonder- 
fvilly productive, yields of 125 bushels of shelled com to the acre being 
common. Breeding this new variety was a piece of practical work that 
brought the head of Waushaktim Farm more prominence in agriculture 
than any of his scientific work, " scientific farming " at that time not 
being in high repute with tillers of the soil. 


Sturtevant wrote much on Indian com, contributing many short articles 
on its culture on the farm and several long treatises on its botany and the 
classification of its many varieties. Perhaps the most notable of the 
scientific articles are in the Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Society for 
August, 1894, and Bulletin 57 on Varieties of Corn from the United States 
Department of Agriculture. The last-named work is a monograph on 
maize which is still the best authority on this valuable plant and a 
permanent tide mark, as it were, to show Sturtevant's ability in working 
up the history of cultivated plants. Besides setting forth the botany 
of com, this bulletin describes 800 varieties, gives their synonyms and 
establishes a scientific nomenclatiire for Indian com. The varieties are 
placed in groups in accordance with their relationship, thvis giving to 
scientist and farmer a classification of this immensely variable plant. 

To Sttirtevant is given the credit of having bmlt the first lysimeter 
in America. This instrument, to measure the percolation of water through 
a certain depth of soil, was put in on the Waushakum Farm in 1875. It 
covered five-thousandths of an acre and meastired water percolations to 
the depth of twenty-five inches. Records from the apparatus were kept 
from late in 1875 to the beginning of 1880 a little more than four full 
years. The results, presented in papers at several scientific meetings, and 
freely discussed in the agricultural press, gave him high standing among 
agricvdtviral experimenters in America. 

In spite of duties that must have claimed much of his time on Wausha- 
kum Farm, Sturtevant foimd time to imdertake investigations in many 
diverse fields of agriculture. As the years advanced, he put more 
and more energy in the rapidly growing field of agricultviral research 
until finally experimentation came to claim most of his attention. His 
eminence in research on Waushakum Farm brought him many opportu- 
nities to speak and write on agricultural affairs, in which work his facile 
pen and ready speech greatly enhanced his reputation as an experimenter. 
A natural outcome of his growth in the work he had chosen was that his 
services shotild be sought in scientific institutions having to do with agri- 
culture. In 1882, the Board of Control of the New York State Agricialtural 
Experiment Station, located at Geneva, New York, selected him Director 
of the Station, an institution just created by the State Legislature, and 
asked him to organize the work. 

Perhaps Sturtevant was the more ready to give up Waushaktim Farm 
and devote his whole time to scientific research for the reason that in 1879, 


the trio that had for twelve years made the farm famous was broken by 
the death of one of the three brothers, Joseph N. Sturtevant. The asso- 
ciation of these two brothers had been so close that the obituary of Joseph, 
written by E. L. Stiutevant for the Scientific Farmer, becomes of interest 
in this biography. We publish it in full: 

"Joseph N. Sturtevant, bom April i, 1844; died Jan. 19, 1879. 
Member of the Massachusetts State Board of Agriculture 1873-5. A brief 
record of a short but useful life. And yet this life, which struggled with 
the difficulties brought about by ill health from birth, made the most 
of the few well moments, and has made an impress upon agricultural thought 
which shall continue even if the originator be unrecognized and forgotten. 
Honest in thought as in action, caring nothing for applause, a true philan- 
thropist in all that constitutes the word, a careful thinker, considerate 
towards the opinions of others, and yet possessing a positiveness of character 
which came through conviction, his advice was often sought and seldom 
unheeded. Without personal vanity, as delicate as a woman towards 
the rights of others, a mind trained to goodness for its own sake, one who 
believed in good because of the good, and hated evil because of the evil, 
the future life was lost sight of in the present, and there was nothing addi- 
tional that religion coiold bring, because he was true religion itself in every 
fibre of body and movement of mind. His creed, 

What is excellent, 
As God lives in permanent.' 

And his life and creed were as on; and he was one who held familiar con- 
verse with self, and was trustful of man's power to do the right as well 
as to think it, and looked upon wrong as the mar which came through 
the self rather than others, and in purity of thought sought that purity 
of life which distinguished him. 

" He has appeared before the public as one of the authors of The 
Dairy Cow, Ayrshire, as one of the editors of the North American Ayrshire 
Register, and as contributor to our various agricultural papers. In the 
Scientific Farmer he has contributed many articles without signature, some 
signed J. N. S., others signed Zelco, and a few imder his own name. He , 
commenced writing for the Country Gentleman in 1868, using the nom de 
plume of Zelco, and although this was his favorite paper before the close 
connection with the Scientific Farmer arose, yet he wrote occasionally 
for the Massachusetts Ploughman, New England Farmer, National Live 
Stock Journal, and other papers, but usually upon request. The series of 


' In and Out Papers,' written under the nom de plume of Alex. B., in the 
Scientific Farmer, commencing with the May number for 1876, and con- 
tinuing till the farewell in the April number for 1878, when his health broke 
down, has received marked attention, and showed the possibilities of a 
literary career, had only the health which admitted of close and continuous 
application been granted. 

" The trio at Waushakum Farm is now broken. Three brothers 
purchased the farm and formed one life in 1 866, and for twelve years there 
have been harmonious thought and action, and now and now a 
wearying sense of desolation." 

The invitation to take up work in New York was accepted and Dr. 
Stvirtevant moved at once to Geneva to become, in his new work in agri- 
cultural research, an explorer in an almost virgin field. The splendid 
institutions we now have, created by the Hatch Act of Congress, did not 
come into existence imtil 1888. But six other States had planned to begin 
experimental work in agriculture, four of which had made modest starts, but 
as yet not much had been accomplished. There were but few models in 
the Old World, and these were established in very different environment. 
The financial support was meager, and encouragement from those the Station 
sought to serve was correspondingly small. The new Director had to deal 
with the fundamentals of agrictdtural research at a time when few men 
cotild see the need of such research, and almost no one could be fovmd to 
help carry the work forward. 

Under many difficvilties and discour3,gements. Dr. Sttirtevant began 
to develop the Station. His plan was more comprehensive than any 
other yet conceived in America. All phases of agricultiire as carried 
on in New York were to be recognized. Horticulture, live-stock and crop 
departments were organized with chemical and botanical departments as 
handmaids. A notable group of men was brought to form the new staff 
and within a few years, gauged by the time and opportimity, the Station 
was doing epoch-making work. One needs only to name the staff, every- 
one destined to make a high name for himself in his field of endeavor, to 
measvtre the high standard Sturtevant set. Thus, in the Third Annual 
Report of the Station, the Director has as his staff: C. S. Plumb, Assist- 
ant to the Director; Emmett S. Goff, Horticulturist; J. C. Arthur, Botanist; 
S. Moulton Babcock, Chemist; and E. F. Ladd, Assistant Chemist. These 
men helped to lay broad and deep the foundation of the Station. 

Dr. Sturtevant was Director of the New York Station from July, 


1882, to March, 1887 not quite five years. Much of his time must have 
been taken up with executive work incidental to a new institution. Yet 
the six reports of the Station show much real research material, and much 
extension work, more needed then than now, that speak well for the initiative 
and industry of the Director and his small staff. Be it remembered that 
in these early days there were no laboratories and but scant equipment, 
with only the small sum of $20,000 annually available for maintenance, 
salaries and improvements. The Board of Control confessedly did not have 
clear ideas of the function of the Station, and there were many opponents 
in the press, and even on the farms, who lost no opportunities to criticise. 

One of the best measures of the man can be foimd in the initial policy 
of the Station as determined by Dr. Sturtevant. Widely divergent opinions 
prevailed as to the work of such institutions. Dr. Sturtevant asserted 
that the fimction of a Station was to " discover, verify and disseminate." 
He saw clearly from the very first the need of well-established fundamental 
principles in agriculttire and set his staff at the work of discovering principles. 
His scientific work on Waushakum Farm had taught him that there were 
many possible errors in prevailing experimental work, and he at once set 
about determining their source and the best means of minimizing them. 
During his stay at the New York Station, in several reports he urged the 
importance of learning how to experiment, how to interpret results and 
pointed out errors in certain kinds of experimentation. He believed that 
the management and responsibility for a station should rest with the Director 
alone as the only way in which unity and continuity of direction could be 
secured. Those conversant with experiment stations must see how generally 
these views of Dr. Sturtevant now prevail and must give him credit for 
very materially helping to fotmd the splendid system of present-day experi- 
ment stations. 

These five years at Geneva added greatly to Dr. Stvirtevant's store 
of knowledge of cultivated plants. During the time he was Director, 
all the varieties of cultivated esctilents that could be obtained were grown 
on the grounds of the Station. The early volumes of the reports of this 
Station are filled with descriptions of varieties of ciiltivated plants grown 
on the groimds. Now, it is certain that if additions are to be made to the 
knowledge of the origin of cultivated plants, such additions must come 
largely from experimental observations of the plants themselves to ascertain 
the stages through which they have come from the wild to the cultivated 
form. The remarkable collection of plants grown under Dr. Sturtevant's 

8 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

direction gave, as this text shows on many pages, an unsurpassed oppor- 
tiinity to study plants in the steps they have taken from first cultivation 
to their present forms. 

Dr. Sturtevant's opportiinities for research in books during this director- 
ship was hardly less remarkable. The Sturtevant Prelinnean Library, 
now in the Missouri Botanical Garden, nimibers over 500 titles in several 
languages. These, with most of the more modem texts on plants, gave 
him sources of information then possessed by few other students of 
plants, for many of the rarer books were inaccessible to Americans of Sturte- 
vant's time. In this great library, the patience and erudition of Dr. Sturte- 
vant became priceless. Here, he sought historical mention of edible plants; 
travelers' descriptions of them; the names of the many esculents used by 
various peoples; their geographical distributions; their various uses; culttiral 
treatments ; the connections of food plants with great migrations of mankind 
both in ancient and modem times. He studied selection as affected by the 
likes and dislikes of various peoples, and gave partictilar attention to the 
studies of archaeologists on the material remains of plants. 

In 1887, Dr. Sturtevant gave up his charge of the Station at Geneva 
and returned to the old home at South Framingham. But the oppor- 
tunity for experimental work on Waushakum Farm had passed. The city 
had encroached upon the country, and where had been pastvires and farm 
fields were now town lots and dwellings. The inclination for research 
which throughout his life had animated Sturtevant, now took the turn, 
more than ever, of research in books. Near the old home, into which he 
moved with his family, he housed his library in a small building and set 
to work. Always diligent with the pen, and his favorite subject the history 
of plants, there is no question but that he now determined to put in per- 
manent form the many articles he had printed here and there on the origin, 
history and variations in cioltivated plants. His manuscripts, notes and 
the articles in American Naturalist indicate such a determination. Had 
not ill health and untimely death intervened, it is probable that Stttrtevant 
would have put forth the volume which now, a quarter-century later, 
comes from the hands of an editor. 

The idea of writing a history of food plants came to Dr. Sturtevant 
long before his retirement from active professional work in fact must have 
been in his mind from college days. His books were well under way and 
much had been accomplished as early as 1880, for in April of that year he 
wrote to the Country Gentleman asking its readers to give him information 


on the introduction of food plants, for seeds of new or curious esculents, 
for reports on the foods of agricultural Indians, stating the purpose of these 
questions as follows: " I am collecting the material for writing a Flora 
Dielica, or a history of food plants, with especial reference to the distri- 
bution and variation of cultivated plants. My inquiries thus far embrace 
1,185 genera, and (including probably some synonyms) 3,087 species of 
food plants." Then follow numerous questions, after which he further 
states: " Geographical botany, acclimatization through variations, the 
increase of varieties with the increase of knowledge and the spread of 
civilization, what man has done and what man can hope to do in modifying 
vegetable growth to his use and support is a subject of great interest 
as well as importance; and it seems desirable that information which can 
be obtained now, while our country is not yet wholly occupied, should be 
put upon record against the time when the ascertaining of these facts will 
be more difficiilt." 

The manuscripts at the disposal of the editor show Dr. Sturtevant 
to have been an omnivorous reader. A glance at the foot-note citations 
to literature in this text shows the remarkable range of his readings in agri- 
culture, botany, science, history, travel and general literature. Besides the 
mass of material from which this text has been taken, there is in the pos- 
session of the Geneva Station the manuscript of an Encyclopedia of Agri- 
culture and Allied Subjects, work at which, as the title page says, began 
March 3, 1879. This encyclopedia, imfortunately for all engaged in 
agriculture, was completed only to the letter M. Its 1200, closely written, 
large-size pages form, as far as they go, a full dictionary on agriculture. 
In addition to the manuscripts left at this Station, are card notes on agri- 
cultural, botanical and historical matters, while another set, with but few 
duplicates of cards, are in the possession of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 
This set, much the better of the two, was put in shape and presented to 
the Missouri Botanical Garden only a few weeks before Dr. Sturtevant's 

In addition to his experimental and executive work, his Notes on 
Edible Plants and the Encyclopedia of Agriculture, Sturtevant found time 
to contribute himdreds of articles, long and short, to the agricultural and 
scientific press. Those of most note are recorded in the bibliography which 
follows, but the total output of his thirty years of literary work is better 
gaged as to quantity by a series of scrapbooks in which he systematically 
preserved his pen contributions. There are twelve volumes of these scrap- 


books filled with newspaper and magazine articles, the earliest written 
being dated November 2, 1867, and the last October 6, 1896. Besides 
these, there are two voltunes containing sixty-fovtr pamphlets most of 
which are named in the accompanying bibliography. Thtis roughly to 
state the qtiantity of a man's work may seem to indicate only the prod- 
igality of his pen. So to judge Dr. Sturtevant does him a great injustice, 
for everything to which he set his pen is thoughtful, lucid and logical even 
if not always adorned by grace of expression. There is often in his writings 
a happy turn of phrase, and the inevitable word usually turns up at the 
right place 

The newspapers of the two States in which he lived furnished the 
medium through which Dr. Sturtevant reached the general reader, and 
for the farmer he had at his command the agricultural press of the whole 
coimtry. Contributions of scientific character were published in American 
Naturalist, Botanical Gazette, Garden and Forest, Torrey Botanical Club 
Bulletin and Science. The indexes of the magazines, dviring the time 
of Stiirtevant's active work, furnish sufficient clues to his contributions. 

For a little more than two years, Dr. Sturtevant was associated with 
E. H. Libby, as editor of the Scientific Farmer, after which, for nearly a year 
and a half, he was sole editor. The joint editorship began in March, 1876, 
and ended in May, 1878, the magazine being discontinued in October, 
1879. The Scientific Farmer was in all matters pertaining to agriciolture 
abreast of the times in most matters in advance of the times not- 
withstanding which it was not a financial success, and, becoming too heavy 
a drain on its owner's pocket, was discontinued. The magazine was pub- 
lished before the days of experiment station btilletins and contains the 
gist of the agricultural investigations then being carried on, most of it 
being reported by the investigators themselves. As editor. Dr. Sturte- 
vant asstuned the role of analyst of the scientific work in the agriculture 
of the times, using, as all must agree, singularly good judgment and dis- 
crimination in his discussions of the work of others. 

One of the great pleasures of Dr. Sturtevant's life seems to have been 
active participation in the several scientific societies to which he belonged. 
He was long a Fellow in the American Association for the Advancement of 
Science; he was one of the founders of the Society foi the Promotion of 
Agricultural Science, serving as its first secretary and fourth president; 
while in Massachusetts, he was active in the Massachusetts Horticultural 
Society; and during his directorship of the New York Station was one of 


the leaders in the Western New York Horticulttiral Society. He was, 
too, at various times, a member of several general agricultural and dairy- 
men's organizations. He was never a passive member in any of the societies 
in which he was interested and to those named, in particular, presented 
many papers, while the minutes of the meetings record that his voice was 
heard in all important discussions. 

Dr. Sturtevant's wedded life began in 1864 when he married Mary 
Elizabeth Mann. To this happy union were born fovir children, two sons 
and two daughters, the wife and mother dying in 1875. In 1883, he again 
married, taking as his wife Hattie Mann, sister to the first wife. By this 
marriage there was one son. Dr. Sturtevant's colleagues at Geneva, to 
several of whom the writer is indebted for much information, speak of the 
devotion of the husband and father to his family and say that he rarely 
sought companionship outside the home circle and that, on their part, 
mother and children were devoted to the head of the household and con- 
stantly gave him substantial help in his work. The eldest daughter, 
Grace Sturtevant, talented with pencil and brush, made the drawings 
and colored sketches to illustrate her father's writings on peppers and sweet 
potatoes, while those of maize, published in the Report of the New York 
Station for 1884, were done by Mrs. Stxirtevant. 

In 1893, Dr. Sturtevant was a victim of one of the epidemics of grippe 
which each returning winter ravaged the coimtry. He never fully recovered 
from this attack and his health began to fail tintil shortly it was found 
that tuberculosis had secured firm hold. With the hope that the disease 
might be thrown off, three winters were passed in California with temporary 
but not permanent relief. July 30, 1898, he passed away. It was a fitting 
death ; he passed qmetly to sleep in the old home on Waushakvim Farm 
to which his work had given distinguished name. 


The bibliography of Dr. Sturtevant's principal writings discloses a 
lasting basis for his high place among agrictdtural experimenters. For this 
bibliography the reader is indebted to Professor C. S. Plumb of the Ohio 
State University, assistant to Dr. Sturtevant while Director of the New 
York Experiment Station, an intimate friend, and one who best knew his 
work. The bibliography was prepared for the Missouri Botanical Garden 
and was printed in the Tenth Annual Report of that institution. 

Why the Ayrshire Cow should be the Dairyman's Choice. Trans. Vermont Dairymen's 

Association, 1872, pp. 150-159. 
Cost of a Crop of Com to the Massachusetts Fanner. Agriculture of Massachusetts, 1872-73, 

part II, pp. 80-89. 
Ayrshire Points. Ohio Agricultural Report, 1872, pp. 261-270. Reprinted in Mark Lane 

Express, London, Eng., Feb. 3, 1873; in Farmers' Magazine, London, May, 1873, 

p. 230; and in the North British Agriculturist, Edinburgh, Scotland, July 16, 1873. 
The Claims of the Ayrshire Cow upon the Dairy Farmer. Trans. N. Y. State Agr. Society, 

1872-76, pp. 266-279. Copied in Gardeners' Chronicle and Agricultural Gazette, 
England, May 3, 1873, p. 624. 
Food, Physiology and Force. A^. H. Agriculture, 1874, p. 157. Also in Scientific Farmer, 

July, 1879, p. 89, and Scientific American Supplement, No. 186. 
Milk: Physiological and Miscellaneous. A Prize Essay. Transactions New York State 

Agricultural Society, 1872-76, pp. 91-124, plates III. 
Milk: Some Considerations concerning its Morphology. Report Massachusetts State 

Board of Agriculture, 1873-74, pp. 374-388. 
Milk: Its t>-pal Relations, etc. A lecture before the Vermont Dairymen's Association, 

Jan. 21, 1874. Printed for the author, 1874, pp. 20, figs. 3. Also in gth Report 

American Dairymen's Association. 
Physiological Considerations concerning Feeding for Butter and Cheese. Report Con- 
necticut Board of Agriculture, 1874, pp. 67, figs. 4. 
Cream. American Dairymen's Association Report, 1874, p. 39. Also in New England 

Farmer, Jan. 23, 1875. 
Associate Dairying. The appendix to Flints' Milch Cows and Dairy Farming. No name 

The Wild Cattle of Scotland, or White Forest Breed. American Naturalist, vol, VIII, 

March, 1874, pp. 135-145- 



The Law of Inheritance; or the Philosophy of Breeding. Twenty-second Annual Report 

Massachusetts State Board of Agriculture, 1875, pp. 48. 
Chemical Com Growing. Trans. Middlesex South Agricultural Society, 1875, pp. 11-32. 
The Dairy Cow. A Monograph of the Ayrshire Breed of Cattle. By E. Lewis Sttirte- 

vant, M. D., and Joseph N. Sturtevant, of Waushakum Farm, South Framingham, 

Mass. With an appendix on Ayrshire. 
Jersey and Dutch Milks; their Formation and Peculiarities. Boston, Mass. A.Williams 

& Co., 1875. Cloth, 12 mo., pp. 252. Illustrated. 
The Dairy Cow What she is and whence she came. Report Maine State Board of Agri- 
culture, 1875-76, pp. 112-125. 
Plant Food and Agriculture: Report Connecticut Board of Agriculture, 1876, pp. 14. 
American Agricultural Literature. Proc. Fifth Annual Session National Agr. Congress, 

Philadelphia, Sept. 12-14, 1876, pp. 30-37. 
Agriculture. Report Massachusetts State Commissioners to the Centennial Exhibition at 

Philadelphia, 1876, pp. 49-53. 
Philosophy of Dairying. Trans. American Dairymen's Association, 1876, pp. 90. 
Inter Cultural Tillage. Report Connecticut State Board of Agriculture, 1877-78, pp. 42. 
Dairying vs. Thoroughbred Bulls. Trans. Vermont Dairymen's Association, 1876, pp. 60. 
Fertilizer Laws. Agriculture of Pennsylvania, 1877, pp. 108. 
Com Culture. Ibid., 1878, pp. 252-256. 
Seed Breeding. Report Connecticut Board of Agriculture, 1878, pp. 149-187. Reprinted in 

Monthly Journal of Science, Aug., 1879. 
Seed Com. Report Maine State Board of Agriculture, 1878-79, pp. 30-47. 
Fertility. Journal American Agricultural Association, vol. i. 
Com Culture at Waushakimi Farm. Trans. New York State Agricultural Society, vol. 

32, 1872-76, pp. 170-176. 
Indian Com. Trans. New York State Agricultural Society, 1872-76, pp. 37-74. 
Some Thoughts and Facts concerning the Food of Man. Report Connecticut Board of 

Agriculture, 1880, pp. 114-155. 
Seedless Fruits. Trans. Mass. Horticultural Society, part I, 1880, pp. 29. 
Deerfoot Farm Centrifugal Dairy. Report United States Commissioner of Agriculture, 

pp. 629-65 1 , plates III. Reprinted in Journal of Royal Agricultural Society of England, 

Second Series, vol. XVIII, 1882, pp. 475-495. 
Thoughts on Agrictiltural Education. Report Connecticut State Board of Agriculture, 

1881, pp. 19. 
The Growing of Com. Twenty-eighth Annual Report of the Massachusetts State Board of 

Agriculture, 1881, pp. 77-130. 
Lysimeter Records. Proc. American Assoc, for Advancement of Science, 1881, pp. 37-39- 
Experimental Observations on the Potato. Trans. N. Y. State Agricultural Society, 

1877-82, pp. 261-265. 
The Need of a Better Seed Supply. Ibid., pp. 286-289. 

Conditions Necessary to Success in Dairying. Report New York State Dairymen's .Asso- 
ciation, 1883, pp. 56-60. 


Relations between Seeding and Quality in certain Vegetables and Fruits. Proc. Society 

for the Promotion of Agr. Science, vol. I, 1883, pp. 109-118. 
Different Modes of Cutting Potatoes for Planting. Ibid., pp. 77-78. 
Agricultural Botany. Proc. Society for the Promotion of Agri. Science, 1883, p. 7. Also 

Trans: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1883, pp. 293-295, Abstract. 
History of Cereal Plants. Sibley's Grain and Farm Seeds Annual, 1883, pp. 5-14. 
Maize: An Attempt at Classification. Rochester, N. Y., 1884, pp. 9. Illustrated. 

Printed for private distribution only. 
Agricultural Botany. American Naturalist, June, 1884, pp. 573-577, fig. 3. 
Hungarian Grass. Trans. N. Y. State Agricultural Society, vol. 33, 1877-82, pp. 208-220. 
Experiment Stations. Ibid., pp. 235-243. 
The Feeding of Spoiled Brewer's Grains. Report New York State Dairymen's Association, 

1884, pp. 46-64. 

Influence of Isolation upon Vegetation. Proc. American Association for the Advancement 

of Science, 1884. 
Dairy Interests in General. Report New York State Dairymen's Association, 1884, pp. 

The Work of the Station. Ninth Annual Report New York State Dairymen's Association, 

1885, pp. 25-29. 

A List of Edible Fungi. Trans. Mass. Horticultural Society, 1881, pp. 322-348. 
Germination Studies. Proc. Amer. Assn. for the Advancement of Science, 1885, pp. 287-291. 
An Observation on the Hybridization and Cross Breeding of Plants. Proc. Amer. Assn. 

for Adv. of Science, vol. 34, 1885, pp. 283-287. 
Germination Studies. Ibid., pp. 287-291. 

Lowest Germination of Maize. Botanical Gazette, April, 1885, pp. 259-261. 
Cultivated Food Plants. Proc. Society for the Promotion of Agricultural Science, 1885, 

pp. 59-72. 
Indian Com and the Indian. American Naturalist, March, 1885, pp. 225-234. 
Kitchen Garden Esctolents of American Origin. American Naturalist, I, May, 1885, 

pp. 444-457- n, June, 1885, pp. 542-552- HI, July, 1885, pp. 658-669. 
Horticultviral Botany. Proc. Western New York Hort. Society for 1886, pp. 25-32. 
A Study of the Dandelion. American Naturalist, Jan. 1886, pp. 5-9. Illustrated. 
A Study of Garden Lettuce. American Naturalist, March, 1886, pp. 230-233. 
History of Celery. American Naturalist, July, 1886, pp. 599-606, figs. 3. 
History of Garden Vegetables. American Naturalist, 1887, vol. 21, pp. 49-59; 125-133; 

321-333:433-444; 701-712; 826-833; 903-912; 975-985- 1888, vol. 22, pp. 420-433; 

802-808; 979-987. 1890, vol. 24, pp. 30-48; 143-157; 629-646; 719-744. 
The Dandelion and the Lettuce. Proc. Society for Promotion of Agricultural Science, 

1886, vol. 3, pp. 40-44. 

A Study in Agricultural Botany. Ibid., 1886, vol. 4, pp. 68-73. 

Atavism the Result of Cross Breeding in Lettuce. Ibid., 1886, vol. 4, pp. 73-74. 

History of the Cturant. Proc. Western New York Hort. Society, 1887. 

Seed Germination A Study. Agricultural Science, Feb., 1887. 


Capsicum umbilicatum. Bull. Torrey Botanical Club, April, 1888. 

Capsicum fasiculatum. Ibid., May, 188H. 

Notes on the History of the Strawberry. Trans. Mass. Horticultural Society, 1888, pp. 

Seedless Fruits. Memoirs Torrey Botanical Club, vol. i, part 4, 1890. 

Ensilage Experiments in 1884-1885 at the New York State Agricultural Experiment 
Station. Trans. New York State Agr. Society, 1889, pp. 116-120. 

Forage Crops: Maize and Sorghum. Ibid., pp. 135-143. 

Agricultural Botany. Ibid., pp. 335-338. 

Edible Plants of the World. Agricultural Science, vol. 3, no. 7, 1889, pp. 174-178. 

The Tomato. Report Maryland Experiment Station, 1889, p. 18. 

Huckleberries and Blueberries. Trans. Mass. Hort. Society, 1890, pp. 17-38. 

Concerning some names for Cucurbitae. Bull. Torrey Botanical Club, October, 1891. 

Notes on Maize. Bull. Torrey Botanical Club, vol. 21, 1894, pp. 319-343; 503-523. 

Paramount Fertilizers. Report Mass. State Board of Agriculture, 1888, pp. 37-55. 

Report of the New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, 1882-1887, first six vol- 
umes. The following are the special topics reported on by Dr. Sturtevant: 

1882. Organization of Station work. Experiments with wheat, barley and oats. 
Studies on Maize. Experiments with potatoes. Forage crops. 

1883. Botanical notes. Studies on Maize. Station-grown seeds. Weight of 
seeds. Relation of feed to milk. Experiments with potatoes. Experiments with 
corn. Experiments with grasses. 

1884. Feeding experiments and milk analysis. Study of milk. Experiments with 
potatoes. Wheat improvement. Experiments with corn. Germination of seeds. 
Study of maize, including sweet, pop and dent corn. 

1885. Starch waste as cattle food. Ensilage and forage crops. Studies on com. 
Fertilizers on potatoes. Tests on germinatien of maize and other seeds. The sweet 

1886. Cattle feeding experiments. Temperature and crops. Vitality of seeds as 
influenced by age. Experiments with cabbage. Studies of Indian corn. 

1887. Feeding for beef. Experiments with potatoes. Seed germinations. 


Aberia caffra Harv. & Sond. Bixineae. kai apple, kau apple, kei apple. 


South Africa. The fruits are of a golden- yellow color, about the size of a small apple. 
They are used by the natives for making a preserve and are so exceedingly acid when 
fresh that the Dutch settlers prepare them for their tables, as a pickle, without vinegar.* 

Abronia arenaria Menzies. Nyctagineae. 

Seashore of Oregon and California. The root is stout and fusiform, often several 
feet long.^ The Chinook Indians eat it.' 

Abrus precatorius Linn. Leguminosae. coral-bead plant, love pea. red-bead 


A plant common within the tropics in the Old World, principally upon the shores. 
The beauty of the seeds, their use as beads and for necklaces, and their nourishing qualities, 
have combined to scatter the plant.* The seeds are used in Egypt as a pulse, but Don * 
says they are the hardest and most indigestible of all the pea tribe. Brandis says the 
root is a poor substitute for licorice. 

Abutilon esculentum A. St. Hil. Malvaceae. 

Brazil. The Brazilians eat the corolla of this native plant cooked as a vegetable.'' 

A. indicum Sweet 

Old World tropics. The raw flowers are eaten in Arabia.' The leaves contain 
a large quantity of mucilage. 

Acacia Leguminosae. 

From various acacias comes gum arable which is stated by some to be a highly nutri- 
trious article of food. Dimng the whole time of the gum harvest in Barbary, the Moors 
of the desert live almost entirely upon it. It is claimed that six ounces are sufficient for 
the support of a man during twenty-four hotirs. Gum arable is also used as food by the 

' Jackson, J. R. Treas. Bol. 2:1255. 1876. 

' Brewer and Watson Bol. Col. 2:4. 1880. (A. latifolia) 

' Brown, R. Sot. Soc. Edinb. 9:381. 1868. 

* De CandoUe, A. Gwg. Bo/. 2:769. 1855. 
Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 2:342. 1832. 

Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 139. 1876. 

' Saint Hilaire, A. Fl. Bras. Merid. 1:160. 1825. 
' Forskal F/. ^eg. ^ra6. XCIII. 1775. {Hibiscus esculeiUus) 


i'8 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

Hottentots of southern Africa, and Sparmann states that, in the absence of other pro- 
visions, the Bushmen live on it for days together.* At Swan River, Australia, an acacia, 
called manna by the natives, produces a large quantity of gum resembling gum arabic, 
and this, says Drummond,' forms an important article of native food. The experiment 
of Magendie,' however, showed that dogs could not support life on gum, and Dr. Hammond * 
believes that, so far from having any value as an alimentary substance, it is positively 

A. abyssinica Hochst. 

Abyssinia. Hildebrant mentions that gum is collected from this species.' 

A. arabica Willd. babool-bark. gum arabic tree, suntwood. 

North and central Africa and southwest Asia. It furnishes a gvim arabic of superior 
quality.' The bark, in times of scarcity, is groimd and mixed with flour in India,' and 
the gum, mixed with the seeds of sesame, is an article of food with the natives.* The 
gum serves for nourishment, says Himiboldt,' to several African tribes in their passages 
through the dessert. In Barbary, the tree is called atteleh. 

A. bidwilli Benth. 

Australia. The roots of young trees are roasted for food after peeling.*' 

A. catechu Willd. catechu, khair. wadalee-gum tree. 

East Indies. Furnishes catechu, which is chiefly used for chewing in India as an 
ingredient of the packet of betel leaf.** 

A. concinna DC. soap-pod. 

Tropical Asia. The leaves are acid and are used in cookery by the natives of India 
as a substitute for tamarinds. It is the fei-tsau-tau of the Chinese. The beans are about 
one-half to three-fourths inch in diameter and are edible after roasting.** 

A. decora Reichb. 

Australia. The gum is gathered and eaten by Queensland natives.*' 

A. decuirens Willd. black wattle, green wattle, silver wattle. 
Australia. It yields a gimi not dissimilar to gtmi arabic.** 

' Rhind, W. Hist. Veg. King. 557. 1855. 

' Hooker, W. J. Journ. Bot. 2:359. 1840. 

' Stille, A. Therap. Mat. Med. 1:113. 1874. 

< Ibid. 

Fltickiger and Hanbury Pharm. 234. 1879. 

U. S. Disp. 6. 1865. 

' Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 182. 1874. 

Drury, H. Useful Pis. Ind. 5. 1858. 

Humboldt, A. Polii. Essay New Spain 2:423. 1811. 

> Palmer, E. Journ. Roy. Soc. New So. Wales 17:93. 1884. 

Dutt, U. C. Mat. Med. Hindus 158. 1877. 

Smith, F. P. Contrib. Mat. Med. China l. 1871. 

" Palmer, E. Journ. Roy. Soc. New So, Wales 17:94. 1884. 

" Mueller, F. Sel. Pis. 4. 1891. 



A. ehrenbergiana Hayne 

Desert regions of Libya, Nubia, Dongola. It yields a gum arabic.^ 

A. famesiana Willd. cassie-oil plant, huisache. opopanax. popinac. sponge 


Tropics. This species is cultivated all over India and is indigenous in America from 
New Orleans, Texas and Mexico, to Buenos Aires and Chile, and is sometimes cultivated. 
It exudes a gam which is collected in Sind.* The flowers distil a delicious perfume. 

A. ferruginea DC. 

India. The bark steeped in " jaggery water " fresh, sweet sap from any of several 
palms is distilled as an intoxicating liquor. It is very astringent.' 

A. flexicaulis Benth. 

Texas. The thick, woody pods contain roimd seeds the size of peas which, when 
boiled, are palatable and nutritious.* 

A. glaucophylla Steud. 

Tropical Africa. This species fiunishes gum arable^ 

A. gummifera Willd. barbary-gum. morocco-gum. 

North Africa. It yields gum arable in northern Africa.' 

A. homalophylla A. Cunn. myall-wood, violet- wood. 
This species yields gum in Australia.' 

A. horrida Willd. cape-gum tree, dornboom. 

South Africa. This is the dornboom plant which exudes a good kind of gum.' 

A. leucophloea Willd. kuteera-gum. 

Southern India. The bark is largely used in the preparation of spirit from sugar 
and palm-juice, and it is also used in times of scarcity, ground and mixed with flour. 
The pods are used as a vegetable, and the seeds are ground and mixed with flotu".' 

A. longifolia Willd. Sydney golden wattle. 

Australia. The Tasmanians roast the pods and eat the starchy seeds.^" 

A. pallida F. Muell. 

Australia. The roots of the yotmg trees are roasted and eaten." 

' U. S. Disp. 6. 1865. 

' Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 180. 1876. 

Drury, H. Useful Pis. Ind. 8. 1858 

<Havard,V. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 499 1885. 

Flfickiger and Hanbury Pharm. 234. 1879. 

Mueller, F. Sel. Pis. 3. 1876. 
'Baillon, H. Hisl. Pis. 2:51. 1872. 
Mueller, F. Sel. Pis. 7. 1891. 

Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 184. 1874. 

"Baillon. H. Hist. Pis. 2:52. 1872. (A. sophorae) 

" Palmer, E. Journ. Roy. Soc. New So. Wales 17:94- 1884. 

20 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

A. penninervis Sieber. blackwood. mountain hickory. 

Australia. This species yields gum gonate, or gonatic, in Senegal.' 

A. Senegal Willd. gum Arabic tree. 

Old World tropics. The tree forms vast forests in Senegambia. It is called nebul 
by the natives * and furnishes gum arabic. 

A. seyal Delile gum arabic tree, thirsty thorn, whistling-tree 

North Africa, Upper Egypt and Senegambia. It furnishes the best gum arabic' 
It is called glute by the Arabs of the upper Nile and whistling tree by the natives of Sudan. 
The holes left by the departure of a gall insect are rendered musical by the wind.* 

A. stenocarpa Hochst. ' gum arabic tree. 

Southern Nubia and Abyssinia. The gum of this tree is extensively collected in 
the region between the Blue Nile and the upper Atbara. It is called taleh, talha or kakul} 

A. suaveolens Willd. 

Australia. The aromatic leaves are used in infusions as teas.* 

A. tortilis Hayne 

Arabia, Nubia and the desert of Libya and Dongola. It furnishes the best of gum 

Acaena sanguisorbae Vahl. Rosaceae. new Zealand bur. 

Australia. The leaves are used as a tea by the natives of the Middle Island in New 
Zealand, according to Lyall. It is the piri-piri of the natives.' 

Acanthorhiza aculeata H. Wendl. Palmae. 

Mexico. The pulp of the fruit is of a peculiar, delicate, spongy consistence and is 
pure white and shining on the outside. The juice has a peculiar, penetrating, sweet flavor, 
is abundant, and is obviously well suited for making palm-wine. The fruit is oblong, 
about one inch in longest diameter. It is grown in Trinidad. 

Acanthosicyos horrida Welw. Cttcurbitaceae. naras. 

Tropics of Africa. The fruit grows on a bush from four to five feet high, without 
leaves and with opposite thorns. It has a coriaceous rind, rough with prickles, is about 
15-18 inches aroimd and inside resembles a melon as to seed and pulp. When ripe it has 
a luscious sub-acid taste.'" The btxshes grow on little knolls of sand. It is described, 

' Baillon, H. Hist. Pis. 2:50. 1872. (A. adstringens) 
Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 186. 1874. {A. verek) 
MueUer, P. Sel. Pis. 12. 1891. 

Schweinfurth, G. Heart Afr. i:<)7,gS. 1874. (A. fistula) 

Fluckiger and Hanbury Pharm. 206. 1879. 

BaiUon, H. Hist. Pis. 2: 56. 1872. T 

'MueUer, F. Sel. Pis. 1. 1880. 

Black, A. A. Treas. Bot. 1:5. 1870. 

Prestoe, H. Trinidad Bot. Card. Rpt. 39. 1880. {Chamaerops stauracanlha) 
" Alexander, J. E. Exped. Disc. A fr. 2:68. 1837. 


however, by Anderson ' as a creeper which produces a kind of prickly gourd about the 
size of a Swede turnip and of delicious flavor. It constitutes for several months of the 
year the chief food of the natives, and the seeds are dried and preserved for winter 

Acer dasycarpum Ehrh. Sapindaceae. silver maple, soft maple, white maple. 

North America. The sap will make sugar of good quality but less in quantity than 
the sugar maple. ^ Sugar is made from this species, says Loudon,' in districts where the 
tree abounds, but the produce is not above half that obtained from the sap of the sugar 

A. platanoides Linn. Norway maple. 

Eiu-ope and the Orient. From the sap, sugar has been made in Norway, Sweden 
and in Lithuania.'' 
A. pseudo-platanus Linn, mock plane, sycamore maple. 

Europe and the Orient. In England, children suck the wings of the growing keys 
for the sake of obtaining the sweet exudation that is upon them.^ In the western High- 
lands and some parts of the Continent, the sap is fermented into wine, the trees being 
first tapped when just coming into leaf.' From the sap, sugar may be made but not in 
remunerative quantities.^ 

A. rubrum Linn, red maple, swamp maple. 

North America. The French Canadians make sugar from the sap which they call 
plaine, but the product is not more than half that obtained from the sugar maple.* In 
Maine, sugar is often made from the sap. 
A. saccharinum Wangenh. rock maple, sugar maple. 

North America. This large, handsome tree must be included among cultivated food 
plants, as in some sections of New England groves are protected and transplanted for the 
use of the tree to furnish sugar. The tree is found from 48 north in Canada, to the 
mountains in Georgia and from Nova Scotia to Arkansas and the Rocky Mountains. 
The sap from the trees growing in maple orchards may give as an average one pound of 
sugar to four gallons of sap, and a single tree may furnish four or five pounds, although 
extreme jields have been put as high as thirty-three pounds from a single tree. The 
manufacttu-e of sugar from the sap of the maple was known to the Indians, for Jefferys, ' 
1760, saj^ that in Canada " this tree affords great quantities of a cooling and wholesome 
liquor from which they make a sort of sugar," and Jonathan Carver,'" in 1784, says the 

' Anderson Lake N garni 16. 1856. 

Hough, F. B. Elem. For. 237, 238. 1882. 

Loudon, J. C. Arb. Frut. Brit. 1:424. 1854 
Loudon, y. C. Arb. Frut. Brit. 1:410. 1854. 
Loudon, J. C. Arb. Frut. Brit. 1:41s. 1854. 

Johnson, C. P. Useful Pis. Gt. Brit. 63. 1862. 
' Johns, C. A. Treas. Bot. 1:8. 1870. 

Loudon, J. C. Arb. Frut. Brit. 1:427. 1854. 
Jefferys, T. Nat. Hist. Amer. 41. 1760. 

"Carver, J. Travs. No. Amer. 496. 1778. 


Nandowessies Indians of the West " consume the sugar which they have extracted from 
the maple tree." In 1870, the Winnebagoes and Chippewas are said often to sell to the 
Northwest Pur Company fifteen thousand pounds of sugar a year. The sugar season 
among the Indians is a sort of carnival, and boiling candy and pouring it out on the snow 
to cool is the pastime of the children. 

A. tataricum Linn. Tartarian maple. 

Orient. The Calmucks, after depriving the seeds of their wings, boil them in water 
and afterwards use them for food, mixed with milk and butter.' 

Achillea millefolitun Linn. Compositae. hundred-leaved grass, milfoil, ncse- 


Eiu-ope, Asia and America. In some parts of Sweden, yarrow is said to be employed 
as a substitute for hops in the preparation of beer, to which it is supposed to add an intoxi- 
cating effect.^ 

Achras sapota Linn. Sapotaceae. naseberry. sapodilla. sapota. 

South America. This is a tree found wild in the forests of Venezuela and the Antilles. 
It has for a long time been introduced into the gardens of the West Indies and South 
America but has been recently carried to Mauritius, to Java, to the Philippines, and to 
the continent of India.' The sapodilla bears a round berry covered with a rough, brown 
coat, hard at first, but becoming soft when kept a few days to mellow. The berry is about 
the size of a small apple and has from 6 to 12 cells with several seeds in each, surrounded 
by a pulp which in color, consistence, and taste somewhat resembles the pear but is sweeter.* 
The fruit, when tree-ripe, is so full of milk that little rills or veins appear quite through 
the pulp, which is so acerb that the fruit cannot be eaten until it is as rotten as medlars.* 
In India, Firminger ' says of its fruit: " a more luscious, cool and agreeable fruit is not to 
be met with in any country in the world; " and Brandis ' says: " one of the most pleasant 
fruits known when completely ripe." It is grown in gardens in Bengal. 

Achyranthes bidentata Bltime. Amarantaceae. 

Tropical Asia. The seeds were used as food during a famine in Rajputana, India. 
Bread made from the seeds was very good. This was considered the best of all substitutes 
for the usual cereals.* 

Aciphylla glacialis F. Muell. Umbelliferae. 

Australia. This species is utilized as an alimentary root.* 

' Browne, D. J. Trees Amer. 73. 1846. 

-U S. Disp. 17. 1865. 

' Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpl. 349. 1859. 

< Lnnan, J. Hort. Jam. 2:2. 1814. 

5 Ibid. 

Firminger, T. A. C. Gard. Ind. 255. 1874. 

' Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 288. 1874. 

King Bot. Soc. Edinb. 10:198, 244. 1870. (A. aspera) 

Baillon, H. Hisl. Ph. y-.ig^. 1881. 


Aconitum lycoctontun Linn. Ranunculaceae. wolfsbane. 

Middle and northern Europe. The root is collected in Lapland and boiled for food. 
This species, says Masters in the Treasury of Botany, does not possess such virulent proper- 
ties as others. 

A. napelliis Linn, aconite, bear's-foot. friar's-cap. helmet-flower, luckie's 


Northern temperate regions. Cultivated in gardens for its flowers. A narcotic 
poison, aconite, is the product of this species and the plant is given by the Shakers of 
America as a medicinal herb. In Kunawar, however, the tubers are eaten as a tonic' 

Acorus calamus Linn. Aroideae. myrtle flag, sweet flag. 

Northern temperate regions. The rhizomes are used by confectioners as a candy, 
by perfiuners in the preparation of aromatic vinegar, by rectifiers to improve tjie flavor 
of gin and to give a peculiar taste to certain varieties of beer. In Europe and America, 
the rhizomes are sometimes cut into slices and candied or otherwise made into a sweetmeat. 
These rhizomes are to be seen for sale on the street comers of Boston and are frequently 
chewed to sweeten the breath. In France it is in cultivation as an ornamental water plant. 

A. gramineus Soland. grass-leaved sweet flag. 

Japan. The root of this species is said to possess a stronger and more pleasant taste 
and smell than that of A. calamus. It is sometimes cultivated in gardens. 

Acrocomia lasiospatha Mart. Palmae. macaw, mucuja palm. 

West Indies and Brazil. Its fruit is the size of an apricot, globidar and of a greenish- 
olive color, with a thin layer of firm, edible pulp of an orange color covering the nut, 
and, though oily and bitter, is much esteemed and eagerly sought after by the natives.2 
This is probably the macaw tree of Wafer. 

A. mexicana Karw. coquito habraso. coyoli palm. 

Mexico. The fruit, in Mexico, is eaten by the inhabitants but is not much esteemed. 

A- sclerocarpa Mart, mucuja palm. 

Tropics of America. The young leaves of this palm are eaten as a vegetable. It is 
cultivated in British hot-houses.' The fruit is the size of a crab and contains a sweet, 
edible kernel. The husks are full of oil. 

Acronychia laurifolia Blume. Rutaceae. jambol. 

Tropics of Asia. The black, juicy, sweetish-acid fruit is an esculent.* In Cochin 
China the young leaves are put in salads. They have the smell of cimiin and are not 
unpleasant.^ In Ceylon the berries are called jambol. 

' Fluckiger and Hanbury Pharm. 15. 1879. 

' Seemann, B. Pop. Hist. Palms 48. 1856. 

Masters, M. T. Treas. Bot. 1:14. 1870. 

* Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 1:781. 1831. {Cyminosma pedunculata) 


24 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

Actiiudia callosa Lindl. Ternstroemiaceae. kokuwa. 

Japan and Manchuria. This vine is common in all the valleys of Yesso and extends 
to central Nippon. It is vigorous in growth and fruits abundantly. The fruit is an oblong, 
greenish berry about one inch in length; the pulp is of uniform texture, seeds minute and 
skin thin. When fully ripe it possesses a very delicate flavor.' 

A. polygama Franch. & Sav. 

Northern Japan. This is somewhat less desirable than A. callosa, as it fruits less 
abundantly and the vine is not so rich in foliage.* 

Adansonia digitata Linn. "Malvaceae, baobab, cork tree, monkeybread. sour 

East Indies. This tree has been found in Senegal and Abyssinia, as well as on the 
west coast of Africa, extending to Angola and thence across the country to Lake Ngami. 
It is cultivated in many of the warm parts of the world. Mollien,' in his Travels, states 
that to the negroes, the Baobab is perhaps the most valuable of vegetables. Its leaves 
are used for leaven and its bark for cordage and thread. In Senegal, the negroes use 
the pounded bark and the leaves as we do pepper and salt. Hooker* says the leaves 
are eaten with other food and are considered cooling and useful in restraining excessive 
perspiration. The fruit is much used by the natives of Sierra Leone. It contains a 
farinaceous pulp full of seeds, which tastes like gingerbread and has a pleasant acid flavor.' 
Brandis * says it is used for preparing an acid beverage. Monteiro ' says the leaves are 
good to eat boiled as a vegetable and the seeds are, in Angola, pounded and made into 
meal for food in times of scarcity; the substance in which they are imbedded is also edible 
but strongly and agreeably acid. 

The earliest description of the Baobab is by Cadamosto, 1454, who found at the mouth 
of the Senegal, trunks whose circumference he estimated at 112 feet. Perrottet says 
he has seen these trees 32 feet in diameter and only 70 to 85 feet high. 

A. gregorii F. Muell. cream of tartar tree, sour gourd. 

Northern Australia. The pulp of its fruit has an agreeable, acid taste Hke cream 
of tartar and is peculiarly refreshing in the sultry climates where the tree is found.' 

Adenanthera abrosperma F. Muell. Leguminosae. 

Australia. The seeds are roasted in the coals and the kernels are eaten.' 

A. pavonia Linn, barbadoes pride, coral pea. red sandalwood. 

One of the largest trees of tropical eastern Asia. The seeds are eaten by the common 

Penhallow, D. P. Amer. Nat. 16:120. 1882. (A. arguta) 

Drury, H. Vsejul Pis. Ind. 15. 1858. 


'Sabine, J. Trans Hort. Soc. Land. s:444. 1824. 

Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 30. 1874. 

' Montoro, J. J. Angola, River Congo 1:128. 1875. 

Black, A. A. Treas. Boi. 1:18. 1870. 

Palmer, E. Journ. Roy. Sac. New So. Wales 17:94. 1884. 


people.* It has been introduced into the West Indies and various parts of South 

Adenophora communis Fisch. Campanulaceae. 

Eastern Europe. The root is thick and esculent.' 

Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. Polypodiaceae. capillaire. dudder grass, maiden- 

Northern temperate climates. In the Isles of Arran, off the Galway coast of Britain, 
the inhabitants collect the fronds of this fern, dry them and use them as a substitute 
for tea.* 

Aeginetia indica Linn. Orobanchaceae. 

Tropics of Asia. An annual, leafless, parasitic herb, growing on the roots of various 
grasses in India and the Indian Archipelago. Prepared with sugar and nutmeg, it is 
there eaten as an antiscorbutic' 

Aegle marmelos Correa. Rutaceae. ball tree, bela tree, bengal quince, golden 


East Indies. The Bengal quince is held in great veneration by the Hindus. It is 
sacred to Siva whose worship cannot be accomplished without its leaves. It is incumbent 
on all Hindus to cultivate and cherish this tree and it is sacrilegious to up-root or cut it 
down. The Hindoo who expires under a bela tree expects to obtain immediate salva- 
tion.' The tenacious pulp of the fruit is used in India for sherbet and to form a conserve.' 
Roxburgh observes that the fruit when ripe is delicious to the taste and exquisitely fra- 
grant. Horsfield ' says it is considered by the Javanese to be very astringent in quality. 
The Bengal quince is grown in some of the gardens of Cairo. The perfvuned pulp within 
the ligneous husk makes excellent marmalade. The orange-like fruit is very palatable 
and possesses aperient qualities.' 

Aegopodium podagraria Linn. Umbelliferae. ashweed. bishop's-weed. goutweed. 

ground ash. herb GERARD. 

Europe and adjoining Asia. Lightfoot '" says the young leaves are eaten in the spring 
in Sweden and Switzerland as greens. It is mentioned by Gerarde." In France it is an 
inmate of the flower garden, especially a variety with variegated leaves. 

Lunan, J. Hort. Jam. 1:7. 1814. 

' Hooker, W. J. Journ. Bot. 4:343- 1842. 

Johns, C. A. Treas. Bot. i:ig. 1870. {A. Uliifolia) 

Johnson, C. P. Useful Pis. Ct. Brit. 295. 1862. 
Black, A. A. Treas. Bot. 1:23. 1870. 

Dutt, U. C. Mat. Med. Hindus 129. 1877. 
' Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 57. 1874. 

Ainslie, W. Mat. Ind. 2:188. 1826. 

Card. Chron. 746. 1875. 

" Lightfoot, J. Fl. Scot. 1:170. 1789. 
John."!, C. A. Treas. Bot. i :23. 1870. 

26 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

Aerva lanata Juss. Amarantaceae. 

Tropical Africa and Arabia. According to Grant,' this plant is used on the Upper 
Nile as a pot-herb. 

Aesculus califomica Nutt. Sapindaceae. California horse-chestnut, 

A low-spreading tree of the Pacific Coast of the United States. The chestnuts are 
made into a gruel or soup by the western Indians.'' The Indians of California pulverize 
the nut, extract the bitterness by washing with water and form the residue into a cake 
to be used as food.* 

A. hippocastaniun Linn, horse-chestnut. 

Turkey. The common horse-chestnut is cultivated for ornament but never for the 
piupose of a food supply. It is now known to be a native of Greece or the Balkan 
Mountains.'' Pickering* says it was made known in 1557; Brandis,* that it was culti- 
vated in Vienna in 1576; and Emerson,^ that it was introduced into the gardens of France 
in 161 5 from Constantinople. John Robinson ' says that it was known in England 
about 1580. It was introduced to northeast America, says Pickering,' by Etiropean 
colonists. The seeds are bitter and in their ordinary condition inedible but have been 
used, says Balfour/" as a substitute for coffee. 

A. indica Coleb. 

Himalayas. A lofty tree of the Himalaya Moimtains called kunour or pangla}^ In 
times of scarcity, the seeds are used as food, ground and mixed with flour after steeping 
in water. '^ 

A. parviflora Walt, buckeye. 

Southern states of America. The fruit, according to Browne," may be eaten boiled 
or roasted as a chestnut. 

Afzelia africana Sm. Leguminosae. 

African tropics. A portion of the seed is edible." 

A. quanzensis Welw. makola. 

Upper Nile. The yoimg purple-tinted leaves are eaten as a spinach.'' 

Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 465. 1879. 
Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 582. 1879. 

U. S. D. A. Rpt. 405. 1870. 

* Robinson, J. Agr. Mass. 34. 1850. 
'Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 892. 1879. 
Brandis, D. Forest Fl. lo^. 1876. 

' Emerson, G. B. Trees, Shrubs Mass. 2:546. 1875, 
Robinson, J. Letter to Dr. Sturlevant Oct. 13, 1881. 
Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 892. 1879. 

Balfour, J. H. Man. Bot. 459. 1875. 

" Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 735. 1879. {Pavia indica) 

"Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 113. 1876. 

" Browne, D. J. Trees Amer. 121. 1846. (A. macroslachya) 

MBaillon, H. Hist. Pis. 2:161. 1872. 

"Speke, J. H. Journ. Disc. Source Nile 568. 1864. 


Agapetes saligna Benth. & Hook. Vacciniaceae. 

East Indies. The leaves are used as a substitute for tea by the natives of Sikkim.^ 

Agave americana Linn. Amaryllideae. American aloe, century plant, maguey. 

Tropical America. The first mention of the agave is by Peter Martyr,^ contem- 
porary with Colvunbus, who, speaking of what is probably now Yucatan, says: " They 
s&Y the fyrst inhabitants lyved contented with the roots of Dates and magueans, which 
is an herbe much lyke unto that which is commonly called sengrem or orpin." The 
species of agave, called by the natives maguey, grows luxuriantly over the table-lands 
of Mexico and the neighboring borders and are so useful to the people that Prescott ' 
calls the plant the " miracle of nature." From the leaves, a paper resembling the ancient 
papyrus was manufactured by the Aztecs; the tough fibres of the leaf afforded thread of 
which coarse stuffs and strong cords were made; the leaf, when washed and dried, is 
employed by the Indians for smoking like tobacco but being sweet and gummy chokes 
the pipe; an extract of the leaves is made into balls which lather with water like soap; 
the thorns on the leaf serve for pins and needles; the dried flower-stems constitute a thatch 
impervious to water; about Quito, the flower-stem is sweet, subacid, readily ferments and 
forms a wine called pulque of which immense quantities are consumed now as in more 
ancient times; from this pulque is distilled an ardent, not disagreeable but singularly 
deleterious spirit known as vino mescal. The crown of the flower-stem, charred to black- 
ness and mingled with water, forms a black paint which is used by the Apaches to paint 
their faces; a fine spirit is prepared from the roasted heart by the Papajos and Apaches; 
the bulbs, or central portion, partly in and partly above the ground are rich in saccharine 
matter and are the size of a cabbage or sometimes a bushel basket and when roasted are 
sweet and are used by the Indians as food. Hodge,* writing of Arizona, pronounces the 
bulbs delicious. Bartlett * mentions their use by the Apaches, the Pimas, the Coco Mari- 
copas and the Bieguenos Tubis. 

The agave was in cultivation in the gardens of Italy in 1586 and Clusius saw it in 
Spain a little after this time.' It is now to be found generally in tropical countries. The 
variety which furnishes sisal hemp was introduced into Florida in 1838 and in 1855 there 
was a plantation of 50 acres at Key West. 

A. palmeri Engelm. 

Arizona. The central bud at certain seasons is roasted and eaten by the Indians 
and a spirit is also distilled from it.^ 

A. pairyi Engelm. mescal. 

New Mexico and northern Arizona. This plant constitutes one of the staple foods 

' Hooker, J. D. Illuslr. Himal. Pis. PI. XV. A. 1855. 

Eden ffii/. Trar. 142. 1577. 

' Prescott, W. H. Corui. Mex. 1:137. 1843. 

* Hodge, H. C. Arizona 245. 1877. 

' Bartlett, J. R. Explor. Texas 1:292. 1854. 

De CandoUe, A. Geog. JSo/. 2:739. 1855. 

' Newberry Pop. Sci. Month. 32:40. 1888. 

'28 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

of the Apaches. When properly prepared, it is saccharine, palatable and wholesome, 
mildly acid, laxative and antiscorbutic' 

A. utahensis Engelm. utah aloe. 

Utah and Arizona. The bulb of the root is considered a great delicacy by the Indians, 
who roast and prepare it for food which is said to be sweet and delicious.^ 
A. wislizeni Engelm. 

Mexico. The young stems when they shoot out in the spring are tender and sweet 
and are eaten with great relish by the Mexicans and Indians.' 

Aglaia edulis A. Gray. Meliaceae. 

Fiji Islands and the East Indies. The natives eat the aril which surrounds the seed 
and call it gumi.* The fruit is edible, having a watery, cooling, pleasant pulp.' The 
aril is large, succulent and edible. ' 

A. odorata Lour. 

China. Firminger ^ says this plant never fruits in Bengal. The flowers are bright 
yellow, of the size and form of a pin head and are delightfully fragrant. Fortune ' says 
it is the lan-hwa u yu-chu-lan of China and that the flowers are used for scenting tea. 
Smith ' says it is the san-yeh-lan of China, that the flowers are used for scenting tea and 
that the tender leaves are eaten as a vegetable. 

Agrimonia eupatoria Linn. Rosaceae. agrimony, cocklebur. liverwort, sticklewort. 
North temperate regions. The dried leaves are used by coimtry people as a sort 
of tea but probably only for medicinal qualities.'' 

Agriophyllum gobicum Bunge. Chenopodiaceae. 
Siberia. The seeds are used as food." 

Agropyron repens Beauv. Gramineae. quack grass. 

Temperate regions. This is a troublesome weed in many situations yet Withering '* 
states that bread has been made from its roots in times of want. 

Ailanthus glandulosa Desf. Simarubeae. tree of heaven, varnish tree. 

China. Smith " says that the leaves are used to feed silkworms and, in times of 
scarcity, are used as a vegetable. 

' Havard, V. Torr. Bot. Club Bui. 123. 1895. 
Case Bot. Index 19. 1880. 

Havard, V. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 519. 1885. 
* Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 1:683. 1831. 
Wight, R. lUustr. Ind. Bot. 1:146. 1840. (Milnea edulis) 
' Royle, J. P. Illustr. Bot. Himal. 1:140. 1839. 
' Firminger, T. A. C. Card. Ind. 429. 1874. 
Portwne, R. Resid. Chinese 201. 1857. 
Smith, P. P. Contrib. Mat. Med. China. 6. 1 871. 
' Johnson, C. P. Useful Pis. Gl. Brit. 95. 1862. 
" Rigil Card. Chron. 19:472. 1883. 
" Johnson, C. P. Useful Pis. Gt. Brit. 290. 1862. 
" Smith, P. P. Contrib. Mat. Med. China 6. 1871. 


Akebia lobata Decne. Berberideae. 

Japan. The fruits of the wild vines are regularly gathered and marketed in season.' 

A. quinata Decne. 

China. The fruit is of variable size biit is usually three or four inches long and two 
inches in diameter. The pulp is a homogeneous, yellowish-green mass containing 40 to 
50 black, oblong seeds. It has a pleasant sweetish, though somewhat insipid taste.^ 

Alangium lamarckii Thw. Cornaceae. 

A small tree of the tropics of the Old World. On the coast of Malabar, the fruit 
is an article of food. It affords an edible fruit.' The fruit in India is mucilaginous, sweet, 
somewhat astringent but is eaten.* 

Albizzia julibbrissin Durazz. Leguminosae. 

Asia and tropical Africa. The aromatic leaves are used by the Chinese as food.' 
The leaves are said to be edible.* The tree is called nemu in Japan.'' 

A. lucida Benth. 

East Indies. The edible, oily seeds taste like a hazelnut.' 

A. monilifera F. Muell. 

Australia. The pods are roasted when yoimg and are eaten by the natives.' 

A. montana Benth. 

Java. Sometimes used as a condiment in Java." 

A. myriophylla Benth. 

East Indies. With bark of this tree, the mountaineers make an intoxicating liquor." 

A. procera Benth. 

Tropical Asia and Australia. In times of scarcity, the bark is mixed with flour.'* 

Albuca major Linn. Liliaceae. 

South Africa. In Kaffraria, Thunberg '' says the succulent stalk, which is rather 
mucilaginous, is chewed by the Hottentots and other travellers by way of quenching 

^ Amer. Card. 12:1^0. 1891. 


' Royle, J. F. Illustr. Bot. Himal. 1:215. 1839. 

* Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 250. 1874. 

* Bretschneider Bo/. 5iM. 52. 1882. (Acacia julibrissin) 
Smith, F. P. Contrib. Mat. Med. China 2. 1871. 
'Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 2:420. 1820. (Acacia nemu) 
Baillon, H. Hist. Pis. 2: $6. 1872. {Acacia lucida) 

Drury, H. Useful Pis. Ind. 9. 1858. 

> Palmer, E. Journ. Roy. Soc. New So. Wales 17:94. 1884. 

"Baillon, H. Hist. Pis. 2:58. 1872. 

" Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 176. 1874. 

" Thunberg, C. P. Traw. 1:146. 1795. 


Aletris farinosa Linn. Haemodoraceae. ague-root, colic-root, crow-corn, star 

GRASS. unicorn-root. 

North America. This plant, says Masters,' is one of the most intense bitters known, 
but, according to Rafinesque,^ the Indians eat its bulbs. 

Aleurites triloba Forst. Euphorhiaceae. candlenut tree, country walnut, otaheite 
Tropical Asia and Pacific Islands. This is a large tree ctaltivated in tropical countries 
for the sake of its nuts. It is native to the eastern islands of the Malayan Archipelago 
and of the Samoan grbup. In the Hawaiian Islands, it occurs in extensive forests. The 
kernels of the nut when dried and stuck on a reed are used by the Polynesians as a sub- 
stitute for candles and as an article of food in New Georgia. When pressed they yield 
a large proportion of pure, palatable oil, also used as a dr3ang oil for paint and known as 
walnut-oil and artist 's-oil.' 

Alhagi camelorum Fisch. Legwminosae. camelsthorn. manna-plant. 

The Orient and central Asia. This indigenous shrub furnishes a manna by 

A. maurorum Medic. Persian manna-plant. 

North Africa to Hindustan. Near Kandahar and Herat, manna is found and col- 
lected on the bushes of this desert plant at flowering time after the spring rains.' This 
manna is supposed by some to have been the marma of Scripture but others refer the manna 
of Scripture to one of the lichens. 

Alisma plantago Linn. Alismaceae. mad-dog weed, water-plantain. 

North temperate zone and Australia. The solid part of the root contains farinaceous 
matter and, when deprived of its acrid properties by drjdng, is eaten by the Calmucks.* 

Allium akaka Gmel. Liliaceae. 

Persia. This plant appears in the bazar in Teheren as a vegetable ' under the name 
of wolag. It also grows in the Alps. The whole of the yovmg plant is considered a delicacy 
and is used as an addition to rice in a pilau.* 

A. ampeloprasum Linn, great-headed garlic levant garlic wild leek. 
/ (y.^''^ Europe and the Orient. This is a hardy perennial, remarkable for the size of the 

, *, bulbs. The leaves and stems somewhat resemble those of the leek.' The peasants in 

certain parts of Southern Europe eat it raw and this is its only known use.'" 

' Masters, M. T. Treas. Bot. 1:35. 1870. 

'Rafinesque, C. S. Fl. La. 18. 1817. 

'Black, A. A. Treas. Bot. 1:36. 1870. 

Don, G. Hisl. Dichl. Pis. 2:310. 1832. 

Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 145. 1876. 

Johns, C. A. Treas. Bol. 1:38. 1870. 

,' Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 356. 1859. {A. latifoUum) 

> Ibid. 

'Burr, F. Field, Card. Veg. 12^. 1863. 

" Bon Jard. 414. 1882. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 31 

A. angulosum Linn, mouse garlic. 

Siberia. Called on the upper Yenisei mischei-tschesnok, mouse garlic, and from early 
times collected and salted for winter use.' 

A. ascalonicum Linn, shallot. 

Cultivated everywhere. The Askolonion krommoon of Theophrastus and the Cepa 
ascolonia of Pliny, are supposed to be our shallot but this identity can scarcely be claimed 
as assured. It is not established that the shallot occurs in a wild state, and De Candolle 
is inclined to believe it is a form of A. cepa, the onion.^ It is mentioned and figiu-ed in 
nearly all the early .botanies, and many repeat the statement of Pliny that it came from 
Ascalon, a town in Syria, whence the name. Michaud, in his History oj the Crusades, 
says that oiir gardens owe to the holy wars shallots, which take their name from Ascalon.^ 
Amatus Lusitanus,* 1554, gives Spanish, Italian, French and German names, which go 
to show its early cultitre in these coimtries. In England, shallots are said to have been 
ciiltivated in 1633,* but Mcintosh' says they were introduced in 1548; they do not 
seem to have been known to Gerarde in 1597. In 1633, Worlidge ^ says " eschalots art 
now from France become an English condiment." Shallots are enumerated for Ameri- 
can gardens in 1806.* Vilmorin ' mentions one variety with seven sub- varieties. 

The bulbs are compound, separating into what are called cloves, hke those of garlic, 
and are of milder flavor than other cultivated ailiimis. They are used in cookery as a 
seasoner in stews and soups, as also in a raw state; the cloves, cut into small sections, form 
an ingredient in French salads and are also sprinkled over steaks and chops. They make 
an excellent pickle. In China, the shallot is grown but is not valued as highly as is A. 

A. canadense Linn, tree onion, wild garlic. 

North America. There is some hesitation in referring the tree onion of the garden 
to this wild onion. Loudon " refers to it as " the tree, or bulb-bearing, onion, syn. ^gyp- 
tian onion, A. cepa, var. vimparium; the stem produces bulbs instead of flowers and when 
these bulbs are planted they produce underground onions of considerable size and, being 
much stronger flavored than those of any other variety, they go farther in cookery." 
Booth '^ says, " the bulb-bearing tree onion was introduced into England from Canada in 
1820 and is considered to be a vivaparous variety of the common onion, which it resembles 
in appearance. It differs in its flower-stems being svirmounted by a cluster of small green 

.' Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 813. 1879. 
' De Candolle, A. Orig. Pis. Cult. 70. 1885. 

Michaud Hist. Crusades 3:329. 1853. 

* Dioscorides, Amatus Lusitanus Ed. 287. 1554. 
' Miller Card. Dtc/. 1807. 

Mcintosh, C. Book Card. 2:27. 1855. 

' Worlidge, J. Syst. Hart. 193. 1683. 

' McMahon, B. Amer. Card. Cal. 190. 1806. 

VilmorinLei Pis. Polag. 200. 1883. 

" Smith, F. P. Contrib. Mat. Med. China 7. 1871. 

"Loudon, J. C. Horl. 661. i860. 

"Booth, W.B. Treas. Bol. i-.^o. 1870. 


btdbs instead of bearing flowers and seed." It is a peculiarity of A. canadense that it often 
bears a head of bulbs in the place of flowers; its flavor is very strong; it is found through- 
out northern United States and Canada. Mueller ' says its top bulbs are much sought 
for pickles of superior flavor. Brown ^ says its roots are eaten by some Indians. In 
1674, when Marquette ' and his party journeyed from Green Bay to the present site of 
Chicago, these onions formed almost the entire source of food. The Ivmibermen of Maine 
often used the plant in their broths for flavoring. On the East Branch of the Penobscot, 
these onions occur in abundance and are bulb-producing on their stalks. They grow in 
the clefts of ledges and even with the scant soil attain a foot in height. In the lack of 
definite information, it may be allowable to suggest that the tree onion may be a hybrid 
variety from this wild species, or possibly the wild species improved by cultivation. The 
name, Egyptian onion, is against this surmise, while, on the other hand, its apparent 
origination in Canada is in its favor, as is also the appearance of the growing plants. 

A. cepa Linn, onion. 

Persia and Beluchistan. The onion has been known and cultivated as an article 
of food from the earliest period of history. Its native country is unknown. At the 
present time it is no longer foimd growing wild, but all authors ascribe to it an eastern 
origin. Perhaps it is indigenous from Palestine to India, whence it has extended to China, 
Cochin China, Japan, Europe, North and South Africa and America. It is mentioned 
in the Bible as one of the things for which the Israelites longed in the wilderness and com- 
plained about to Moses. Herodotus says, in his time there was an inscription on the 
Great Pyramid stating the simi expended for onions, radishes and garlic, which had been 
consumed by the laborers during the progress of its erection, as 1600 talents. A variety 
was cultivated, so excellent that it received worship as a divinity, to the great amusement 
of the Romans, if Juvenal * is to be trusted. Onions were prohibited to the Egyptian 
priests, who abstained from most kinds of pulse, but they were not excluded from the 
altars of the gods. Wilkinson ^ says paintings frequently show a priest holding them in 
his hand, or covering an altar with a bundle of their leaves and roots. They were intro- 
duced at private as well as public festivals and brought to table. The onions of Egjrpt 
were mild and of an excellent flavor and were eaten raw as well as cooked by persons of 
all classes. 

Hippocrates* says that onions were commonly eaten 430 B. C. Theophrastus,' 322 

B. C, names a number of varieties, the Sardian, Cnidian, Samothracian and Setanison, 
all named from the places where grown. Dioscorides,* 60 A. D., speaks of the onion as 
long or round, yellow or white. Colimiella,' 42 A. D., speaks of the Marsicam, which 

Mueller, F. Sel. Pis. 28 B. 1891. 
Brown, R. Card. Chron. 1320. 1868. 
' Case Bol. Index 34. 1880. 

De Candolle, A. Geog. Bot. 828. 1855. 

Wilkinson, J. G. Anc. Egypt, i : 168. 1854. 

Hippocrates Opera Comarius Ed. 113. 1546. 

' Theophrastus Hist. PI. Bodaeus Ed. 761, 785. 1644. 

Dioscorides Ruellius Ed. 135. 1529. 
Columella lib. 12, c. 10. 


the country people call unionem, and this word seems to be the origin of our word, onion, 
the French ognon. Pliny,i 79 A. D., devotes considerable space to cepa, and says the 
round onion is the best, and that red onions are more highly flavored than the white. 
Palladius,^ 210 A. D., gives minute directions for culture. Apicius,' 230 A. D., gives a 
number of r^ipes for the use of the onion in cookery but its uses by this epicurean writer 
are rather as a seasoner than as an edible. In the thirteenth century, Albertus Magnus * 
describes the onion but does not include it in his list of garden plants where he speaks of 
the leek and gariic, by which we would infer, what indeed seems to have been the case 
with the ancients, that it was in less esteem than these, now minor, vegetables. In the 
sixteenth centiuy, Amatus Lusitanus^ says the onion is one of the commonest of veg- 
etables and occurs in red and white varieties, and of various qualities, some sweet, others 
strong, and yet others intermediate in savor. In 1570, Matthiolus* refers to varieties 
as large and small, long, round and flat, red, bluish, green and white. Laurembergius,' 
1632, says onions differ in form, some being round, others, oblong; in color, some white, 
others dark red; in size, some large, others small; in their origin, as German, Danish, 
Spanish. He says the Roman colonies during the time of Agrippa grew in the gardens 
of the monasteries a Russian sort which attained sometimes the weight of eight pounds. 
He calls the Spanish onion oblong, white and large, excelling all other sorts in sweetness 
and size and says it is grown in large abundance in Holland. At Rome, the sort which 
brings the highest price in the markets is the Caieta; at Amsterdam, the St. Omer. 

There is a tradition in the East, as Glasspoole * writes, that when Satan stepped out 
of the Garden of Eden after the fall of man, onions sprang up from the spot where he 
placed his right foot and garlic from that where his left foot touched. 

Targioni-Tozzetti * thinks the onion wiU probably prove identical with A. fistulosum 
Linn., a species having a rather extended range in the mountains of South Russia and 
whose southwestern limits are as yet unascertained. 

The onion has been an inmate of British gardens, says Mcintosh, '" as long as they 
deserve the appellation. Chaucer," about 1340, mentions them: " Wei loved he garleek, 
onyons and ek leekes." 

Hiunboldt '^ says that the primitive Americans were acquainted with the onion and 
that it was called in Mexican xonacatl. Cortez," in speaking of the edibles which they 

' Pliny lib. 19, c. 32. 

Palladius lib. 3, c. 24. 

Apicjus Opson. 1709. 

Albertus Magnus Veg. Jessen Ed. 487. 1867. 
Dioscorides Amatus Lusitanus Ed. 273. 1554. 

Matthiolus Comment 389. 1570. 

' Laurembergius Apparat. Plant. 27. 1632. 
Glasspoole, H. G. Ohio State Bd. Agr. Rpt. 29:422. 1874. 
Targioni-Tozzetti Journ. Hort. Soc. Land. 9: 147. 1855. 
" Mcintosh, C. Book Card. 2:31. 1855. 
" Chaucer Prologue V 634. 1340. 
De CandoUe, A. Geog. Bo/. 2:829. 1855. 



found on the march to Tenochtitlan, cites onions, leeks and garlic. De Candolle ' does 
not think that these names apply to the species cultivated in Europe. Sloane,' in the 
seventeenth century, had seen the onion only in Jamaica in gardens. The word xonacatl 
is not in Hernandez,' and Acosta * says expressly that the onions and garlics of Peru came 
originally from Europe. It is probable that onions were among the garden herbs sown 
by Columbus at Isabela Island in 1494, although they are not specifically mentioned. 
Peter Martyr ' speaks of " onyons " in Mexico and this must refer to a period before 1526, 
the year of his death, seven years after the discovery of Mexico. It is possible that onions, 
first introduced by the Spaniards to the West Indies, had already found admittance to 
Mexico, a rapidity of adaptation scarcely impossible to that civilized Aztec race, yet 
apparently improbable at first thought. 

Onions are mentioned by Wm. Wood,^ 1629-33, as cultivated in Massachusetts; in 
1648, they were cultivated in Virginia;' and were grown at Mobile, Ala., in 1775.* In 
1779, onions were among the Indian crops destroyed by Gen. Sullivan ' near Geneva, 
N. Y. In 1806, McMahon *" mentions six varieties in his list of American esculents. In 
1828, the potato onion, A. cepa, var. aggregatum G. Don, is mentioned by Thorbum " as 
a " vegetable of late introduction into our country." Burr ^ describes fourteen varieties. 

Vilmorin ' describes sixty varieties, and there are a number of varieties grown in France 
which are not noted by him. In form, these may be described as flat, flattened, disc- 
form, spherical, spherical-flattened, pear-shaped, long. This last form seems to attain an 
exaggerated length in Japan, where they often equal a foot in length. In 1886, Kizo 
Tamari," a Japanese commissioner to this country, says, " Otur onions do not have large, 
globular bulbs. They are grown just like celery and have long, white, slender stalks." 
In addition to the forms mentioned above, are the top onion and the potato onion. The 
onion is described in many colors, such as white, dull white, silvery white, pearly white, 
yellowish-green, coppery-yellow, salmon-yellow, greenish-yellow, bright yellow, pale 
salmon, salmon-pink, coppery-pink, chamois, red, bright red, blood-red, dark red, purplish. 

But few of oiir modem forms are noticed in the early botanies. The following 
synonymy includes all that are noted, but in establishing it, it must be noted that many 
of the figures upon which it is founded are qtiite distinct: 

' De Candolle, A. Geog. Bot. 2:829. 1855. 
' Ibid. 

Eden Hist. Trav. 1577. 
' Wood, W. New Eng. Prosp. 2:7. 1634. 
'' Perf. Desc. Va. 4. 1649. Force Coll. Tracts 2:1838. 
'Romans Nat. Hist. Fla. 1:115. 1775. 
Conover, G. S. Early Hist. Geneva 47. 1879. 
"> McMahon, B. Amer. Card. Col. 582. 1806. . 
" Thorbum Cat. 1828. 
" Burr, F. Field, Gard. Veg. 129. 1863. 
" Vilmorin Les Pis. Potag. 51. 1883. 
^*Amer. Hort. Sept lo, 1886. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 35 


Btdb flat at bottom, tapering towards stem. 

Cepa. Fuchsius, 430. 1542. 

Cepa rotunda. Bodaeus, 787, 1644. 

Caepe sive Cepa rubra ei alba. Bauhin, J. 2: S49. 1651. 

Geani de Rocca. Vilm. 387. 1883. 

Mammoth Pompeii. American Seedsmen. 

Golden Queen. American Seedsmen. 

Paris Silverskin. American Seedsmen. 

Silver White Etna. American Seedsmen. 

The difference at first sight between the crude figure of Fuchsius and the modern 
varieties is great, but ordinary experience indicates that the changes are no greater than 
can be observed under selection. 

Bulb round at bottom, tapering towards stem. 

Zwiblen. Roeszl. 121. 1550. 

Cepa. Trag. 737. 1552. 

Caepa. Cam. Epit. 324. 1586. 

Blanc hatij de Valence. Vihn. 378. 1883. 

Neapolitan Marzajola. American Seedsmen. 

Round White Silverskin. American Seedsmen. 

White Portugal. American Seedsmen. 

Bulb roundish, flattened above and below. 

Cepa. Matth. 276, 1558; Pin. 215. 1561. 

Caepa capitata. Matth. 388. 1570. 

Cepe. Loh. Obs. 73. 1576; 7cw. 1:150. 1591. 

Cepa rubra. Get. 134. 1597. 

Cepa rotunda. Dod. 687. 1616. 

Rouge gros-plat d'ltalie. Vilm. 387. 1883. 

Bermuda. American Seedsmen. 

Large Flat Madeira. American Seedsmen. 

W ether sfield Large Red. American Seedsmen. 

Bulb rounded below, flattened above. 

Cepa. Pictorius 82. 1581. 

Philadelphia Yellow Dutch, or Strasburg. American Seedsmen. 

Bulb spherical, or nearly so. 

Cepa. Trag. 737. 1552. Lauremb. 26. 1632. 
Cepe. Lob. Obs. 73. 1576; Icon. 1:150. 1591. 
Cepe alba. Ger. 134. 1597. 
Caepa capitata. Matth. 419. 1598. 
Juane de Danvers. Vilm. 380. 1883. 
Danvers. American Seedsmen. 

36 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 


Bulb concave on the bottom. 

Cepa rotunda. Bodaeus 786. 1644. 
Extra Early Red. American Seedsmen. 


Bulb oblong. 
Caepa. Cam. Epit. 324. 1586. 
Cepae Hispanica ohlonga. Lob. /com. 1:150. 1591. 
Cepa oblonga. Dod. 687. 1616; Bodaeus 787. 1644. . 
Piriform. Vilm. 388. 1883. 

The top onion. 
In 1587, Dalechamp ' records with great surprise an onion plant which bore small 
bulbs in the place of seed. 

A. cemuum Roth, wild onion. 

Western New York to Wisconsin and southward. This and A. canadense formed 
almost the entire source of food for Marquette ^ and his party on their journey from Green 
Bay to the present site of Chicago in the fall of 1674. 

A. fistulosum Linn, ciboul. two-bladed onion, welsh onion. 

Siberia, introduced into England in 1629.' The Welsh onion acquired its name from 
the German walsch (foreign).^ It never forms a bulb like the common onion but has 
long, tapering roots and strong fibers.^ It is grown for its leaves which are used in salads. 
Mcintosh * says it has a small, flat, brownish-green bulb which ripens early and keeps well 
and is useful for pickling. It is very hardy and, as Targioiy-Tozzetti ' thinks, is probably 
the parent species of the onion. It is mentioned by McMahon ' in 1806 as one of the 
American garden esculents; by Randolph in Virginia before 181 8; and was cataloged for 
sale by Thorburn in 1828, as at the present time. 

A. neapolitanum Cjt. daffodil garlic. 

Europe and the Orient. According to Heldreich,' it yields roots which are edible. 

A. obliquum Linn. 

Siberia. From early times the plant has been cultivated on the Tobol as a substitute 
for garlic.'" 

' Dalechamp, J, Hist. Gen. PL (Lugd.) 532. 1587. 

' Case Bo/. /nie* 34. 1880. 

Booth, W. B. Treas. Bot. 1:40. 1870. 

Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Ph. 582. 1879. 

Booth, W. B. Treas. Bot. 1:40. 1870. 

Mcintosh, C. Book Card. 2:41. 1855. 

' Targioni-Tozzetti Journ. Hort. Soc. Land. 9:147. 1855. 
McMahon, B. Amer. Card. Col. 582. 1806. 
MueUer, F. Set. Pis. 19. 1880. 
"Pickering, C Chron. Hist. Pis. 8i:s. 1879. 


A. odorum Linn, fragrant-flowered garlic. 

Siberia. This onion is eaten as a vegetable in Japan.* 

A. oleraceum Linn, field garlic. 

Evirope. The young leaves are used in Sweden to flavor stews and soups or fried 
with other herbs and are sometimes so employed in Britain but are inferior to those of 
the cultivated garlic.^ 

A. porrum Linn. leek. 

Found growing wild in Algiers but the Bon Jardinier ' says it is a native of Switzer- 
land. It has been cultivated from the earliest times. This vegetable was the prason 
of the ancient Greeks, the porrum of the Romans, who distinguished two kinds, the capi- 
tatum, or leek, and the sectile, or chives, although Colimiella,* Pliny,' and Palladius,' 
indicate these as forms of the same plant brought about through difference of culture, the 
chive-like form being produced by thick planting. In Europe, the leek was generally 
known throughout the Middle Ages, and in the earlier botanies some of the figtires of the 
leek represent the two kinds of planting alluded to by the Roman writers. In England, 
1726, Townsend ' says that " leeks are mightily used in the kitchen for broths and sauces." 
The Israelites complained to Moses of the deprivation from the leeks of Egypt during 
their wanderings in the wilderness. Pliny * states, that in his time the best leeks were 
brought from Egypt, and names Aricia in Italy as celebrated for them. Leeks were brought 
into great notice by the fondness for them of the Emperor Nero who used to eat them for 
several days in every month to clear his voice, which practice led the people to nickname 
him Porrophagus. The date of its introduction into England is given as 1562, but it cer- 
tainly was cultivated there earlier, for it has been considered from time immemorial as 
the badge of Welshmen, who won a victory in the sixth century over the Saxons which 
they attributed to the leeks they wore by the order of St. David to distinguish them in the 
battle. It is referred to by Tusser and Gerarde" as if in common use in their day. 

The leek may vary considerably by culture and often attain a large size; one with the 
blanched portion a foot long and nine inches in circumference and the leaf fifteen inches 
in breadth and three feet in length has been recorded."* Vilmorin " described eight varieties 
in 1883 but some of these are scarcely distinct. In 1806, McMahon" named three 
varieties among American garden esculents. Leeks are mentioned by Romans '^ as grow- 

' Card. Chron. 25:458. 1886. 

' Johnson, C. P. Useful Pis. of Gt. Brit. 270. 1862. 

'Bon. Jard. 550. 1882. 

.* Columella lib. 2, c. 8. 

' Pliny lib. 19, c. 34. 

Palladius lib. 3, c. 24. 

' Townsend Seedsman 37. 1726. 

Mcintosh, C. Book Card. 2:44. 1855. 
Gerarde, J. Herb. 139. 1597. 
'"Card. Chron. 26:599. 1886. 

" Vilmorin Les Pis. Potag. 416. 1883. 

" McMahon, B. Anter. Card. Cat. 581. 1806. 

" Romans Nat. Hist. Fla. 1:115. 1 775- 

38 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

ing at Mobile, Ala., in 1775 and as ciiltivated by the Choctaw Indians. The reference 
to leeks by Cortez is noticed under A. cepa, the onion. The lower, or blanched, portion 
is the part generally eaten, and this is used in soups or boiled and served as asparagus.' 
Buist * names six varieties. The blanched stems are much used in French cookery. 
A. reticulatum Fras. 

North America. This is a wild onion whose root is eaten by the Indians.' 
A. roseum Linn, rosy-flowered garlic. 

Mediterranean countries. According to Heldreich,* this plant yields edible roots. 
A. rotundum Linn. 

Europe and Asia Minor. The leaves are eaten by the Greeks of Crimea.^ 
A. rubellum Bieb. 

Europe, Siberia and the Orient. The bulbs are eaten by the hill people of India 
and the leaves are dried and preserved as a condiment.* 

A. sativum Linn, clown's treacle, garlic. 

Europe. This plant, well known to the ancients, appears to be native to the plains 
of western Tartary ' and at a very early period was transported thence over the whole 
of Asia (excepting Japan), north Africa and Europe. It is believed to be the skorodon 
hemeron of Dioscorides and the allium of Pliny. It was ranked by the Egyptians among 
gods in taking an oath, according to Pliny. The want of garlics was lamented to Moses 
by the Israelites in the wilderness. Homer' makes garlic a part of the entertainment 
which Nestor served to his guest, Machaon. The Romans are said to have disliked it on 
account of the strong scent but fed it to their laborers to strengthen them and to their 
soldiers to excite courage. It was in use in England prior to 1548 and both Tvimer ' and 
Tusser '" notice it. Garlic is said to have been introduced in China 140-86 B. C." and to 
be found noticed in various Chinese treatises of the fifteenth, sixteenth, seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries.''' Loureiro " found it under cultivation in Cochin China. 

The first mention of garlic in America is by Peter Martyr," who states that Cortez 
fed on it in Mexico. In Peru, Acosta " says " the Indians esteem garlike above all 
the roots of Europe." It was cultivated by the Choctaw Indians in gardens before 

Burr, p. Field, Card. Veg. 126. 1863. 
,' Buist, R. Fam. Kitch. Card. 84. 1851. 

' Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 605. 1879. 

* Mueller, F. Sel. Pis. 28 B. 1891. 

' Pallas, P. S. Trav. Russia 2:449. 1803. (A. descendens) 

Royle, J. F. Illustr. Bot. Himal. 1:393. 1839. 

' Pickering Chron. Hist. Pis. 145. 1879. 

' Treas. Bot. 1:41. 1870. 

Miller Card. Diet. 1807. 

"Mcintosh, C. Book Card. 2:29. 1855. 

" Bretschneider, E. On the Study 15. 1870. 

" Bretschneider, E. Bot. Sin. 59, 78, 83, 85. 1882. 

" Loureiro i''/. CocWn. 201. 1790. 

"Eden Hist. Trav. 1577. 

" Acosta Nat. Mor. Hist. Ind. 261. 1604. Hakl. Soc Ed. 1880. 


177s ' and is mentioned among garden escvilents by American writers on gardening in 1806 
and since. The plant has the well-known alliaceous odor which is strongly penetrating, 
especially at midday. It is not as much used by northern people as by those of the south 
of Eitrope. In many parts of Europe, the peasantry eat their brown bread with slices of 
garlic which imparts a flavor agreeable to them. In seed catalogs, the sets are listed while 
seed is rarely offered. There are two varieties, the common and the pink. 

A. schoenoprasum Linn, chive, give. 

North temperate zone. This perennial plant seems to be grown in but few American 
gardens, although McMahon,^ 1806, included it in his list of American esculents. Chive 
plants are included at present among the supplies offered in our best seed catalogs. In 
European gardens, they are cultivated for the leaves which are used in salads, soups and 
for flavoring. Chives are much used in Scotch families and are considered next to 
indispensable in omelettes and hence are much more used on the Continent of Europe, 
particularly in Catholic countries. In England, chives were described by Gerarde' as 
"a pleasant Sawce and good Pot-herb;" by Worlidge* in 1683; the chive was among 
seedsmen's supplies ' in 1726; and it is recorded as formerly in great request but now of 
little regard, by Bryant * in 1783. 

The only indication of variety is found in Noisette,' who entimerates the civette, the 
cive d'Angleterre and the cive de Portugal but says these are the same, only modified by 
soil. The plant is an humble one and is propagated by the bulbs; for, although it produces 
flowers, these are invariably sterile according to Vilmorin. 

A. scorodoprasum Linn, rocambole, sand leek. Spanish garlic. 

Europe, Caucasus region and Syria. This species grows wild in the Grecian Islands 
and probably elsewhere in the Mediterranean regions.* Loudon says it is a native of 
Denmark, formerly cultivated in England for the same purposes as garlic but now com- 
paratively neglected. It is not of ancient culture as it cannot be recognized in the plants 
of the ancient Greek and Roman authors and finds no mention of garden cultivation by 
the early botanists. It is the Scorodoprasum of Clusius,' 1601, and the Allii genus, 
ophioscorodon dictum quibusdam, of J. Bauhin,^" 1651, but there is no indication of culture 
in either case. Ray," 1688, does not refer to its cultivation in England. In 1726, how- 
ever, Townsend " says it is " mightly in request; " in 1783, Bryant ^ classes it with edibles. 

Romans Nat. Hist. Fla. 1:84. 1775. 

McMahon, B. Amer. Card. Cat. 581. 1806. 
Gerarde, J. Herb. 12,^. 1597. 

Worlidge, J. Syst. Hort. 194. 1683. 
' Townsend Seedsman 25. 1726. 

Bryant Fl. Diet. 92. 1783. 

' Noisette Man. Jard. 353. 1829. 

De CandoUe, A. Geog. Bot. 2 : 83 1 . 1 855. 

Clusius Hist. 190. 1601. 
"Bauhin, J. Hii/. P/. 2:559. 1651. 
"Ray, J. Hist. PI. 2:1120. 1688. 

" Townsend Seedsman 25. 1726. 
" Bryant Fl. Diet. 23. 1783. 


In France it was grown by Quintyne, 1690. It is mentioned by Gerarde as a cultivated 
plant in 1596. Its bulbs are smaller than those of garlic, milder in taste and are pro- 
duced at the points of the stem as well as at its base. Rocambole is mentioned among 
American garden esculents by McMahon,' 1806, by Gardiner and Hepburn,* i8i8, and 
by Bridgeman,' 1832. 

A. senescens Linn. 

Europe and Siberia. This species is eaten as a vegetable in Japan.* 
A. sphaerocephalum Linn, round-headed garlic. 

Europe and Siberia. From early times this species has been eaten by the people about 
Lake Baikal.' 

A. stellatum Eras. 

North America. " Bulb oblong-ovate and eatable." ' 

A. ursinum Linn, bear's garlic, buckrams, gipsy onion, hog's garlic 


Europe and northern Asia. Gerarde,^ 1597, says the leaves were eaten in Holland. 
They were also valued formerly as a pot-herb in England, though very strong.* The 
bulbs were also used boiled and in salads.* In Kamchatka this plant is much prized. 
The Russians as well as the natives gather it for winter food.'* 

A. vineale Linn, crow garlic, field garlic stag's garlic 

Europe and now naturalized in northern America near the coast. In England, the 
leaves are used as are those of garlic." 

AUophyllus cobbe Bltmie. Sapindaceae. 

Eastern Asia. The berries, which are red in color and about the size of peas, are 
eaten by the natives.'* 

A. zeylanicus Linn. 

Himalayas. The fruit is eaten." 

Alocasia indica Schott. Aroideae. pai. 

East Indies and south Asia, South Sea Islands and east Australia. The underground 
stems constitute a valuable and important vegetable of the native dietary in India. The 

' McMahon, B. Amer. Card. Cal. 190. 1806. 

' Gardiner and Hepburn Amer. Card. 40. 181 8. 

' Bridgeman Young Card. Asst. 89. 1857. 

*Gari. CAron. 25:458. 1886. 

' Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 753. 1879. 

Wood, A. Class Book BoL^jw. 1855. 

' Gerarde, J. Herb. 142. 1597. 

Johnson, C. P. Useful Ph. Gt. Brit. 2-71. 1862. 

Gerarde, J. Herb. 142. 1597. 

" Glasspoole, H. G. Ohio State Bd. Agr. Rpt. 29:428. 1874. 
" Johnson, C. P. Useful Pis. Gt. Brit. 271. 1862. 
" Ainslie. W. Mat. Ind. 2:413. 1826. 
" Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 343. 1859. (Scmidelia africana) 


stems sometimes grow to an immense size and can be preserved for a considerable time, 
hence they are of great importance in jail dietary when fresh vegetables become scarce 
in the bazar or jail-garden.' For its esculent stems and small, pendulous tubers of its 
root, it is cultivated in Bengal and is eaten by people of all ranks in their curries. In 
the Polynetian islands its large tuberous roots are eaten.* Wilkes' says the natives of 
the Kingsmill group of islands cultivate this species with great care. The root is said 
to grow to a very large size. 

A. macrorhiza Schott. ape. taro. 

Tropics of Asia, Australia and the islands of the Pacific. The root is eaten in India, 
after being cooked, but it is inferior to that of A. esculentum.* The roots are also eaten 
in tropical America as well as by the people of New Caledonia, who cultivate it.^ It fur- 
nishes the roasting eddas ' of Jamaica and the tayoea of Brazil.' It is the taro of New 
Holland, the roots of which, when roasted, afford a staple aliment to the natives.* Wilkes ' 
states that this plant is the ape of the Tahitians and is cultivated as a vegetable. 

Aloe sp. Liliaceae. aloe. 

The Banians of the African coast, according to Grant,'" cut the leaves of an aloe 
into small pieces, soak them in lime-juice, put them in the sim, and a pickle is thus formed. 

Alpinia galanga Willd. Sdtamineae. galangal. galingale. 

Tropical eastern Asia. The root is used in place of ginger in Russia and in some 
other countries for flavoring a liquor called nastoika. By the Tartars, it is taken with 
tea." In Cochin China the fresh root is used to season fish and for other economic 

A. globosa Horan. 

China. The large, round China cardamons are supposed to be produced by this 
species." The Mongol conquerors of China set great store on this fruit as a spice.'* 

A. striata Hort. amomum. cardamom. 

East Indies. This is probably the antomon of Dioscorides. It is found in Sumatra, 
Java and other East Indian islands as far as Burma and produces the round cardamoms 
of commerce. 

' EHitt, U. C. Mat. Med. Hindus 253. 1877. 

Seemann, B. Fl. Viii. 286. 1865-1873. 

Wilkes, C. U.S. Explor. Exped.%:i. 1845. 

<Ainslie, W. 3/a/. /ni. 2:463. 1826. 

' LaBillardi^e Voy. Recherche Perouse 2:236. 1799. 

Hughes, G. Nat. Hist. Barb. 227. 1750. 

' Schomburgkh Hist. Barb. 587. 1848. 

Hooker, W.J. Bot. Misc. 1:25^, 261. 1830. (Caladium glycyrrhiza) 

Wilkes, C. U. S. Explor. Exped. 2:51. 1845. 
> Speke, J. H. Joitrn. Disc. Source Nile 583. 1864. 
" Fluckiger and Hanbury PAarm. 641. 1879. 
Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. syo. 1879. 
" Masters, M. T. Treas. Bot. 1:52. 1870. {Amnmum globosum) 
"Smith, P.P. Contrib. Mat. Med. China li. iS-t. 


A. uviformis Horan. 

Tropical Asia. The fruit is said to be edible.* 

Alsodeia physiphora Mart. Violarieae. 

Brazil. Used as a spinach in Brazil.^ The green leaves are very mucilaginous, and 
the negroes about Rio Janeiro eat them with their food.* 

Alsophila lunixlata R. Br. Cyatheaceae. tree fern. 

Viti. The yovmg leaves are eaten in times of scarcity.* 

A. spinulosa Hook. 

This is the pugjik of the Lepchas who eat the soft, watery pith. It is abundant in 
East Bengal and the peninsula of India. 

Alstroemeria haemantha Ruiz & Pav. Amaryllideae. herb lily. 
Chile. The plant ftimishes a farina from its roots. 

A. ligtu Linn. 

Chile and the mountains of Peru. A farina is obtained from its roots. It is called 
in Peru lintu, in Chile utat.^ Its roots furnish a palatable starch.' 

A. revoluta Ruiz & Pav. 

Chile. Its roots furnish a farina.' 

A. versicolor Ruiz & Pav. 

Chile. A farina is obtained from its roots.* In France it is an inmate of the flower 

Althaea officinalis Linn. Malvaceae, marshmallow. white mallow. 

The plant is found wild in Europe and Asia and is naturalized in places in America. 
It is cultivated extensively in Europe for medicinal purposes, acting as a demulcent. In 
812, Charlemagne' enjoined its culture in France. Johnson says*" its leaves may be 
eaten when boiled. 

A. rosea Cav. hollyhock. 

The Orient. This species grows wild in China and in the south of Europe. Forskal " 
says it is cultivated at Cairo for the sake of its leaves, which are esculent and are used 

> Masters, M. T. Treas. Bot. 1:534. 1870. (Globba uviformis) 

' Lindley Veg. King. 339. 1846. (Conohoria loboloba) 

Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 1:340. 1831. {Gonohoria loboloba) 

<Seemann, B. Fl.VUi.Z3A- 1865-73. 

Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 661. 1879. 

Mueller, P. Stl. Pis. 33. 1891. (A. pallida) 

' Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 661. 1879. 


Fluckiger and Hanbury Pharm. 85. 1879. 

" Johnson, C. P. Useful Pis. Gt. Brit. 59. 1862. 

" Pickering, C. Geog. Dist. Ans. Pis. 47. 1 863-1 876. 


in 'Egyptian cookery. It possesses similar properties to the marshmallow and is used for 
similar purposes in Greece.' 

Am ara n thus blitum Linn. Amarantaceae. amaranthus. wild elite. 
Temperate and tropical zones. The plant finds use as a pot-herb.'' 

A. campestris Willd. 

East Indies. This species is one of the pot-herbs of the Hindus.' 

A. diacanthus Rafin. 

North America. Rafinesque ^ says the leaves are good to eat as spinach. 

A. gangeticus Linn, amaranthus. 

Tropical zone. This amaranthus is cultivated by the natives in endless varieties 
and is in general use in Bengal. The plant is pulled up by the root and carried to market 
in that state.* The leaves are used as a spinach.' Roxburgh ' says there are four leading 
varieties ctiltivated as pot-herbs: Viridis, the common green sort, is most cultivated; Ruber, 
a beautiful, bright colored variety; Albus, much cultivated in Bengal; Giganteus, is five 
to eight feet high with a stem as thick as a man's wrist. The soft, succulent stem is 
sliced and eaten as a salad, or the tops are served as an asparagus.* In China, the plant 
is eaten as a cheap, cooling, spring vegetable by all classes.' It is much esteemed as 
a pot-herb by all ranks of natives.'" This species is cultivated about Macao and the neigh- 
boring part of China and is the most esteemed of all their svunmer vegetables." 

A. paniculatus Linn, prince's feather, red amaranth. 

North America and naturalized in the Orient. This plant is extensively cultivated 
in India for its seed which is ground into flour. It is very productive. Roxburgh ^ says 
it will bear half a pound of floury, nutritious seed on a square yard of ground. Titford '' 
says it forms an excellent pot-herb in Jamaica when boiled, exactly resembling spinach. 

A, polygamus Linn, goose-foot. 

Tropical Africa and East Indies. This plant is cultivated in India and is used as 
a pot-herb." It has mucilaginous leaves without taste.'* This amaranthus is a common 

Masters, M. T. Treas. Bot. 1:46. 1870. 
Balfour Man. Bol. 562. 1875. 
Ainslie, W. Mat. Ind. 2:3^2. 1826. 
Rafinesque, C. S. Fl. La. 32. 1817. 
' Roxburgh, W. Hort. Beng. 67. 1814. 
Firminger, T. A. C. Card. Ind. 142. 1874. 

Smith, F. P. Conlrib. Mat. Med. China 12. 187 1. 
"Wight, R. Icon. Pis. 2:71:^. 1843. (A. tristis) 
"Livingstone,!. Trans. Hort. Soc. Land. 5:54. 1824. (A. tristis) 
Mueller, F. Sel. Pis. 34. 1891. 

" Titford, W. J. Hort. Bot. Amer. VII of Addenda. 1812. (A. sanguineus) 
"Royle, J. F. Illustr. Bot. Himal. 1:321. 1839. 
" Ibid. 


weed everywhere in India and is much used by the natives as a pot-herb.* Drury says it 
is considered very wholesome.' This species is the goose-foot of Jamaica, where it is 
sometimes gathered and used as a green.' 

A. polystach3rus Willd. 

East Indies. The species is cultivated in India as a pot-herb for its mucilaginous 
leaves but is tasteless.* 

A. retroflexus Linn, green amaranth, pigweed. 

North America. This weed occiurs around dwellings in manured soil in the United 
States whence it was introduced from tropical America.' It is an interesting fact that 
it is cultivated by the Arizona Indians for its seeds.' 

A. spinosus Linn, prickly calalue. thorny amaranth. 

Tropical regions. This is a weed in cultivated land in Asia, Africa and America. 
It is activated sometimes as a spinach.'' In Jamaica, it is frequently used as a vegetable 
and is wholesome and agreeable.* It seems to be the prickly calalue of Long.' 

A. viridis Linn. 

Tropics. This plant is stated by Titford '" to b3 an excellent pot-herb in Jamaica 
and is said to resemble spinach when boiled 

Ambelania acida Aubl. Apocynaceae. 
Guiana. The fndt is edible." 

Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt. Rosaceae. western service berry. 

North America. In Oregon and Washington, the berries are largely employed as 
a food by the Indians. i^' " The fruit is much larger than that of the eastern service 
berry; growing in favorable localities, each berry is full half an inch in diameter and very 
good to eat. 

A. canadensis Medic, grape-pear, juneberry. service berry, shad, sweet pear. 

North America and eastern Asia. This bush or small tree, according to the variety, 

is a native of the northern portion of America and eastern Asia. Gray " describes five 

Wight, R. Icon. Pis. 2:719. 1843. (A. polygonoides) 

2 Drury, H. Useful Plants Ind. 31. 1858. {A. polygonoides) 

'Lunan, J. Hort. Jam. 1:3,81. 1814. 

* Royle, J. F. Illustr. Bot. Himal. 1:321. 1839. 
' Gray, A. Man. Bot. 412. 1868. 

Brewer and Watson Bot. Cat. 2:41. 1880. 

' De CandoUe, A. P. Geog. Bot. 2:778. 1855. 

Lunan, J. Hort. Jam. 1:143. 1814. 

' Long Hist. Jam. 3:771. 1774. 

' Titford, W. J. Hort. Bot. Amer. VII of Addenda. 1812. {A. sanguineus) 

" Unger, F. U. S. Pal. Off. Rpt. 351 1859. 

" Vasey U. S. D. A. Rpt. 162. 1875. 

" Case Bot. Index 38. 1881. 

" Grav. A. Man. Bot. 162. 1868. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 45 

forms. For many years a Mr. Smith,' Cambridge, Massachusetts, has cultivated var. 
oblongifolia in his garden and in 1881 exhibited a plate of very palatable fruit at the 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society's show. The berries are eaten in large quantities, 
fresh or dried, by the Indians of the Northwest. The frmt is called by the French in 
Canada poihs, in Maine sweet pear ^ and from early times has been dried and eaten by the 
natives. It is called grape-pear in places, and its fruit is of a purplish color and an agree- 
able, sweet taste.' The pea-sized fruit is said to be the finest fruit of the Saskatchewan 
country and to be used by the Cree Indians both fresh and dried.^ 

A. vulgaris Moench. amelanchier. 

Mountains of Europe and adjoining portions of Asia.^ This species has long been 
cultivated in England, where its fruit, though not highly palatable, is eatable. It is valued 
more for its flowers than its fruit.' 

Ammobroma sonorae Torr. Lennoaceae. 

A leafless plant, native of New Mexico. Col. Grey, the original discoverer of this 
plant, found it in the country of the Papago Indians, a barren, sandy waste, where rain 
scarcely ever falls, but " where nature has provided for the sustenance of man one of the 
most nutritious and palatable of vegetables." The plant is roasted upon hot coals and 
ground with mesquit beans and resembles in taste the sweet potato " but is far more 
delicate." It is very abundant in the hills; the whole plant, except the top, is buried in 
the sand.'' 

Amomum, Scitamineae. cardamom. 

The aromatic and stimulant seeds of many of the plants of the genus Amomum are 
known as cardamoms, as are those of Elettaria. The botanical history of the species 
producing the varioiis kinds is in much confusion. One species at least is named as under 

A. angustifolivim Sonner. great cardamom. 

Madagascar. This plant grows on marshy grounds in Madagascar and affords in 
its seeds the Madagascar, or great cardamoms of commerce. It is called there longouze.^ 

A. aromaticuin Roxb. 

East Indies. The fruit is used as a spice and medicine by the natives and is sold 
as cardamoms. 

A. gramim-paradisi Linn, grains of paradise. 

African tropics. The seeds are made use of illegally in England to give a fictitious 

' Smith, B. G. Note by Sturtevant. 

Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 804. 1879. {A. botryapium) 

Johns, C. A. Treas. Bot.i:$o. 1870. 

* Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Ph. 2:604. 1832. (A. ovalis) 
Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 356. 1879. 
Johns, C. A. Treas. Bot. i-.^o. 1870. 

' Masters, M. T. Treas. Bot. 2:1260, 1261. 1876. 

Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 821. 1879. 

46 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

strength to spirits and beer, but they are not particularly injurious.' The seeds resemble 
and equal camphor in warmth and pungency.* 

A. mnximum Roxb. Java cardamom 

Java and other Malay islands. This species is said to be cultivated in the mountains 
of Nepal. 

A. melegueta Rose, melegueta pepper. 

African tropics. The seeds are exported from Guiana where the plant, supposed to 
have been brought from Africa, is cultivated by the negroes. The hot and peppery seeds 
form a valued spice in many parts of India and Africa. 

A. villosum Lour. \ 

East Indies and China. This plant is supposed to yield the hairy, round, China 

A. xanthioides Wall, bastard cardamom. 

Burma. In China, says Smith,^ the seeds are used as a preserve or condiment and 
are used in flavoring spirit. 

Amorphophallus campanulatus Blimie. Aroideae. amorphophallus. telinga potato. 
Tropical Asia. This plant is much cultivated, especially in the northern Circars, 
where it is highly esteemed for the wholesomeness and nourishing quality of its roots. 
The telinga potato is cooked in the manner of the yam and is also used for pickling.^ When 
in flower, the odor exhaled is most overpowering, resembling that of carrion, and flies cover 
the club of the spadix with their eggs. The root is very acrid in a raw state; it is eaten 
either roasted or boiled. At the Society Islands the fruit is eaten as bread, when bread- 
fruit is scarce and in the Fiji Islands is highly esteemed for its nutritive properties.' 

A. lyratus Kunth. 

East Indies. The roots are eaten by the natives and are thought to be very nutritious. 
They require, however, to be carefully boiled several times and to be dressed in a particular 
manner in order to divest them of a somewhat disagreeable taste.' 

Amphicarpaea edgeworthii Benth. Leguminosae. wild bean. 

Himalayas. A wild, bean-like plant, the pods of which are gathered while green and 
used for food.* 

A. monoica Ell. hog peanut. 

North America. A delicate vine growing in rich woodlands which bears two kinds 
of flowers, the lower ones subterranean and producing fruit. It is a native of eastern 

' Masters, M. T. Treas. Bot. 1:52. 1870. 

2 Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 842. 1879. (A. grandiflorum) 

' Masters, M. T. Treas. Bot. 1:52. 1870. 

* Smith, F. P. Contrih. Mat. Med. China 16. 1871. 

' Drury, H. Useful Pis. Ind. 32. 1858. 

' Seemann, B. Fl. Viti. 284. 1865-73. 

' Drury, H. Useful Pis. Ind. 56. 1858. {,Arum lyratum Roxb.) 

Georgeson Amer. Card. 14:85. 1893. 


United States.* Porcher ^ says that in the South the subterranean pod is cultivated as 
a vegetable and is called hog peanut. 

Anacarditun humile St. Hil. Anacardiaceae. monkey-nut. 

Brazil., The nuts are eaten and conserves are made of the fruit.' 
A. nanum St. Hil. 

Brazil. The nuts are eaten and conserves are made of the fruit.* 
A. occidentale Linn, cashew. 

This tree is indigenous to the West Indies, Central America, Guiana, Peru and Brazil 
in all of which countries it is cultivated. The Portuguese transplanted it as early as the 
sixteenth centiuy to the East Indies and Indian archipelago. Its existence on the eastern 
coast of Africa is of still more recent date, while neither China, Japan, or the islands of 
the Pacific Ocean possess it.' The shell of the fruit has thin layers, the intermediate one 
possessing an acrid, caustic oil, called cardol, which is destroyed by heat, hence the kernels 
are roasted before being eaten; the younger state of the kernel, however, is pronounced 
wholesome and delicious when fresh. Drury * says the kernels are edible and wholesome, 
abounding in sweet, milky juice and are used for imparting a flavor to Madeira wine. 
Ground and mixed with cocoa, they make a good chocolate. The juice of the fruit is 
expressed, and, when fermented, yields a pleasant wine; distilled, a spirit is drawn from 
the wine making a good punch. A variety of the tree is grown in Travancore, probably 
elsewhere, the pericarp of the nuts of which has no oil but may be chewed raw with impunity. 
An edible oil equal to olive oil or almond oil is procured from the nuts but it is seldom 
prepared, the kernels being used as a table fruit. A gtim, similar to gimi arabic, called 
cadju gum, is secreted from this tree. The thickened receptacle of the nut has an agree- 
able, acid flavor and is edible.' 

A. rhinocarpus DC. wild cashew. 

South America. This is a noble tree of Columbia and British Guiana, where it is called 
wild cashew. It has pleasant, edible fruits like the cashew. In Panama, according to 
Seemann, the tree is called espave, in New Granada caracoli.^ 

Anagallis arvensis Linn. Primulaceae. pimpernel, poor man's weatherglass, 
shepherd's clock. 
Europe and temperate Asia. Pimpernel, according to Fraas,' is eaten as greens in 
the Levant. Johnson "* says it forms a part of salads in France and Germany. The flowers 
close at the approach of bad weather, hence the name, poor man's weatherglass. 

Gray, A. Man. Bot. 530. 1908. 

' Porcher, F. P. Res. So. Fields, Forests 227. 1869. 

Baillon, H. Hisi. Pis. S-i04- 1878. 


Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 347 . 1859. 

Drury, H. Useful Pis. Ind. 33. 1858. 

' Masters, M. T. Treas. Bot. 1:58. 1870. 
Black, A. A. Treas. Bot. 2:973. 1870. (Rhinocarpus) 
Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 200. 1879. 
" Johnson, C. P. Useful Pis. Gt. Brit. 212. 1862. 

48 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

Anamirta paniculata Colebr. Menispermaceae. 

East Indies. A strong, climbing shrub found in the eastern part of the Indian Penin- 
sula and Malay Islands. From this plant is produced a deleterious drug illegally used 
in England to impart bitterness to beer.' 

Ananas sativus Schult. Bromeliaceae. pineapple. 

Tropical America. In 1493, the companions of Columbus, at Guadeloupe island, 
first saw the pineapple, the flavor and fragrance of which astonished and delighted them, 
as Peter Martyr records. The first accurate illustration and description appear to have 
been given by Oviedo in 1535. Las Casas,^ who reached the New World in 1502, men- 
tions the finding by Columbus at Porto Bello of the delicious pineapple. Oviedo,' who 
went to America in 1513, mentions in his book three kinds as being then known. Benzoni,* 
whose History of the New World was pubUshed in 1568 and who resided in Mexico from 
1541 to 1555, says that no fruit on God's earth could be more agreeable, and Andre Thevet,* 
a monk, says that in his time, 1555-6, the nanas was often preserved in sugar. De Soto,' 
1557, speaks of " great pineapples " " of a very good smell and exceeding good taste " in 
the Antilles. Jean de Lery,' 1578, describes it in his Voyage to Brazil as being of such 
excellence that the gods might luxuriate upon it and that it should only be gathered by 
the hand of a Venus. Acosta,' 1578, also describes this fruit as of " an excellent smell, 
and is very pleasant and delightful in taste, it is full of juice, and of a sweet and sharp 
taste." He calls the plant ananas. Raleigh,' 1595, speaks of the " great abundance of 
pinas, the princesse of fruits, that grow under the Sun, especially those of Guiana." 

Acosta states that the ananas was carried from Santa Cruz in Brazil to the West 
Indies, and thence to the East Indies and China, but he does not pretend by this that 
pineapples were not to be found out of Brazil, for he describes an idol in Mexico, Vitzili- 
putzli, as having " in his left hand a white target with the figures of five pineapples, made 
of white feathers, set in a crosse." Stephens,'" at Tuloom, on the coast of Yucatan, found 
what seemed intended to represent a pineapple among the stucco ornaments of a ruin. 
We do not know what to make of Wilkinson's " statement of one instance of the pineapple 
in glazed pottery being among the remains from ancient Egypt. It has probably been 
cultivated in tropical America from time immemorial, as it now rarely bears seeds. 
Humboldt '^ mentions pineapples often containing seeds as growing wild in the forests of 

* Masters, M. T. Treas. Bot. 1:58. 1870. {A. cocculus) 
Irving, W. Columbus 2:324. 1848. 

Mcintosh, C. Book Card. 2:61^1. 1855. 



" De Soto Disc. Conq. Fla. 1557. Hakl. Soc. Ed. 18. 1851. 

' Booth, W. B. Treas. Bot. 1:60. 1870. 

Acosta Nat. Mor. Hist. Ind. 1578. Hakl. Soc. Ed. 1:236. 1880. 

Raleigh Disc. Guiana. Hakl. Soc. Ed. 73. 1848. 
"Stephens Trav. Yucatan 2:406. 1841. 

" Wilkinson Anc. Egypt. 2:36. 1854. 

" De CandoUe, A. P. Ceog. Bot. 2:927. 1855. 

sturteva.nt's notes on edible plants 49 

the Orinoco, at Esmeralda; and Schomburgk' found the wild fruit, bearing seeds, in con- 
siderable quantity throughout Guiana. Piso ^ also mentions a pineapple having many 
seeds growing wild in Brazil. Titford ' says this deHcious fniit is well known and very 
common in Jamaica, where there are several sorts. Unger'' says, in 1592 it was carried 
to Bengal aifii probably from Peru by way of the Pacific Ocean to China. Ainslie' says 
that it was introduced in the reign of the Emperor Akbar by the Portuguese who brought 
the seed from Malacca; that it was naturalized in Java as early as 1599 and was taken 
thence to Evu-ope. In 1594, it was ctiltivated in China, brought thither perhaps from 
America by way of the Philippines.* An anonymous writer states that it was quite com- 
mon in India in 1549 and this is in accord with Acosta's statement. 

The pineapple is now grown in abundance about Calcutta, and Firminger ' describes 
ten varieties. It is now a common plant in Celebes and the Philippine Islands. The 
Jesuit, Boymins,' mentions it in his Flora Sinensis of 1636. A white kind in the- East 
Indies, says Unger,' which has run wild, still contains seed in its fruit. In 1777, Captain 
Cook planted pineapples in various of the Pacific Isles, as at Tongatabu, Friendly Islands, 
and Society Islands. Afzelius '" says pineapples grow wild in Sierra Leone and are culti- 
vated by the natives. Don " states that they are so abundant in the woods as to obstruct 
passage and that they bear fruit abundantly.^^ In Angola, wild pines are mentioned by 
Montiero," and the pineapple is noticed in East Africa by Krapf. R. Brown " speaks 
of the pineapples as existing upon the west coast of Africa but he admits its American 
origin. In Italy, the first attempts at growing pineapples were made in 1616 but failed. 
At Leyden, a Dutch gardener was successful in growing them in 1686. The fruit, a:s 
imported, was known in England in the time of Cromwell and is again noticed in 1661 
and in 1688 from Barbados. The first plants introduced into England came from Holland 
in 1690, but the first success at culture dates from 17 12. 

Anaphalis margaritacea Benth. & Hook. Compositae. pearly everlasting. 

North America. Josselyn,'^ prior to 1670, remarks of this plant that "the fishermen 
when they want tobacco, take this herb: being cut and dryed." In France, it is an inmate 
of the flower garden. 

' Raleigh Disc. Guiana. Hakl. Soc. Ed. 74. 1848. 

5 De CandoUe, A. P. Geog. Bot. 2:927. 1855. 

Titford, W. J. Hort. Bot. Amer. 54. 1812. 

Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 331. 1859. (Bromelia ananas) 

'Ainslie, W. Mat. Ini. 1:^,15. 1826. 


' Firminger, T. A. C, Card. Ind. 174. 1874. 

' Boston Daily Advertiser Aug. 10, 1880. 

Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 331. 1859. (Bromelia ananas) 
" Sabine, J. Trans. Hort. Soc. Lond. 5:461. 1824. {Bromelia ananas) 
" Ibid. 
" Ibid. 

" Montiero, J. J. Angola, River Congo 2:2()?i. 1875. 
" De CandoUe, A. Geog. Bot. 2:927. 1855. 
"Josselyn, J. Voy. 78. 1663. 


Anchomanes hookeri Schott. Aroideae. 

Eastern equatorial Africa. The large biilb is boiled and eaten.' 

Anchusa officinalis Linn. Boragineae. anchu. bugloss. 

Europe. Johnson ' says, in the south of France and in some parts of Germany, where 
it is common, the young leaves are eaten as a green vegetable. 

Ancistrophyllum secundiflorum G. Mann & H. Wendl. Palmae. 

African tropics. The stems are cut into short lengths and are carried by the 
natives upon long journeys, the soft central parts being eaten after they have been properly 

Andropogon schoenanthus Linn. Gramineae. camel's hay. geranium grass, lemon 


Asia, African tropics and subtropics. This species is commonly cultivated for the 
fine fragrance of the leaves which are often used for flavoring custard.* When fresh and 
young, the leaves are used in many parts of the country as a substitute for tea and the 
white center of the succulent leaf-ciilms is used to impart a flavor to curries.* The tea 
made of this grass is considered a wholesome and refreshing beverage, says Wallich,* 
and her Royal Majesty was supplied with the plant from the Royal Gardens, Kew, 

Aneilema loureirii Hance. Commelinaceae. 

China. The plant is cultivated and its tubers are eaten by the Chinese.'' They are 
also eaten in India.' 

Angelica sylvestris Linn. Umbelliferae. ground ash. holy ghost, wild angelica. 

Europe and the adjoining portions of Asia. On the lower Volga, the young stems 
are eaten raw by the natives. Don ^ says it is used as archangelica, but the flavor is 
more bitter and less grateful. 

Angiopteris evecta Hoffm. Filices. 

A fern of India, the Asiastic and Polynesian Islands. The caudex, as also the thick 
part of the stipes, is of a mealy and mucilaginous nature and is eaten by the natives in 
times of scarcity.'" 

* Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 733. 1879. 

* Johnson, C. P. Useful Pis. Gt. Brit. iSi. 1862. 

' Williams, B. S. Choice Stove, Greenhouse Pis. 33. 1876. {Calamus secondiflorus) 

* Firminger, T. A. C. Gard. Ind. 334. 1874. 

* Drury, H. Vsejul Pis. of Ind. 37. 1858. (A. citralus Hort.) 
Wallich Pis. Asiat. 3:48 PI. 280. 1832. - 
'Royle, J. F. Illustr. Bat. Himal. 1:403. 1839. 

Henfrey, A. Bo<. 380. 1870. 
Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 3:323. 1834. 
"Smith, J. Dom. Bot. 171. 1882. 


Angraeciim fragrans Thou. Orchideae. bourbon tea. faham tea. 

The leaves of this orchid are very fragrant and are used in Bourbon as tea. It has 
been introduced into France. ^ 

Anisophyllefe laurina R. Br. Rhizophoreae. monkey apple. 

African tropics. The fruit is sold in the markets of Sierra Leone in the months of 
April and May; it is described by Don as being superior to any other which is tasted in 
Africa. It is of the size and shape of a pigeon's egg, red on the sunned side, yellow on the 
other, its flavor being something between that of the nectarine and a plum." 

Annesorhiza capensis Cham, et Schlecht. Umbelliferae. anyswortel. 
Cape of Good Hope. The root is eaten.' 

A. montana Eckl. & Zeyh. 

South Africa. The plant has an edible root.* 

Anona asiatica Linn. AnoncKeae. 

Ceylon and cultivated in Cochin China. The oblong-conical fruit, red on the outside, 
is filled with a whitish, .eatable pulp but is inferior in flavor to that of A. squamosa. 

A. cherimolia Mill, cherimalla. cherimoya. cherimoyer. custard apple. 

American tropics. Originally from Peru, this species seems to be naturalized only 
in the mountains of Port Royal in Jamaica. Venezuela, New Granada and Brazil know 
it only as a plant of cultivation. It has been carried to the Cape Verde Islands and to 
Guinea.* The cherimoya is not mentioned among the fruits of Florida by Atwood in 
1867 but is included in the American Pomological Society's list for 1879.* In 1870, speci- 
mens were growing at the United States Conservatory in Washington. The fruit is 
esteemed by the Peruvians as not inferior to any fruit of the world. Humboldt speaks 
of it in terms of praise. Herndon ' says Huanuco is par excellence the cotmtry of the 
celebrated cherimoya, and that he has seen it there quite twice as large as it is generally 
seen in Lima and of the most delicious flavor. Masters says,* however, that Europeans 
do not confirm the claims of the cherimoya to superiority among fruits, and the verdict 
is probably justified by the scant mention by travellers and the hmited diffusion. 

A. cinerea Dunal. anon, sugar apple, sweetsop. 

West Indies. This species is placed by Unger ' among edible fruit-bearing plants. 

A. muricata Linn, corossol. prickly custard apple, soursop. 

Tropical America. This tree grows wild in Barbados and Jamaica but in Surinam 

'Lindley, J. Treas. Bat. 1:67. 1876. 

2 Sabine, J. Trans. Hort. Soc. Land. 5:446. 1824. 

> Carruthers, W. Treas. Bot. I'.eS. 1870. 

* Mueller, F. Sel. Pis. 225. 1876. 

' Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 350. 1859. 

Amer. Pom. Soc. Cat. XLIV. 1879. 

' Herndon, W. L., and Gibbon, L. Explor. Vail. Amaz. 1:117. 1854. 
Masters, M. T. Treas. Bat. 1:70. 1870. 
Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 350. 1859. 

52 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

has only escaped from gardens. It is odtivated in the whole of Brazil, Peru and Mexico. 
In Jamaica, the fruit is sought after only by negroes. The plant has quite recently been 
carried to Sierra Leone.^ It is not mentioned among the fruits of Florida by Atwood^ 
in 1867 but is included in the American Pomological Society's list for 1879. The smell 
and taste of the fruit, flowers and whole plant resemble much those of the black currant. 
The pulp of the fruit, says Lunan,' is soft, white and of a sweetish taste, intermixed with 
oblong, dark colored seeds, and, according to Sloane, the unripe fruit dressed like turnips 
tastes like them. Morelet * says the rind of the fruit is thin, covering a white, tmctuous 
pulp of a peculiar, but delicious, taste, which leaves on the palate a flavor of perfimied 
cream. It has a peculiarly agreeable flavor although coupled with a biting wild taste. 
Church' says its leaves form corossol tea. 

A. paludosa Aubl. 

Guiana, growing upon marshy meadows. The species bears elongated, yellow berries, 
the size of a hen's egg, which have a juicy flesh.' 

A. palustris Linn, alligator apple, cork-wood, monkey apple, pond apple. 

American and African tropics. The plant bears fruit the size of the fist. The seeds, 
as large as a bean, lie in an orange-colored pulp of an unsavory taste but which has some- 
thing of the smell and relish of an orange.'' The fruit is considered narcotic and even 
poisonous in Jamaica but of the latter we have, says Lunan,* no certain proof. The wood 
of the tree is so soft and compressible that the people of Jamaica call it corkwood and 
employ it for stoppers. 

A. punctata Aubl. 

Guiana. The plant bears a brown, oval, smooth fruit about three inches in diameter 
with little reticulations on its surface. The flesh is reddish, gritty" and filled with little 
seeds. It has a good flavor and is eaten with pleasure.' It is the pinaou of Guiana. 

A. reticulata Linn. anon, bullock's heart, corazon. corossol. custard apple. 
Tropical America. Cultivated in Peru, Brazil, in Malabar and the East Indies. 
This delicious fruit is produced in Florida in excellent perfection as far north as St. Augus- 
tine; it is easily propagated from seed. Masters *" says its yellowish pulp is not so much 
relished as that of the sotu^op or cherimoyer. Lunan " says, in Jamaica, the fruit is much 
esteemed by some people. Unger ^ says it is highly prized but he calls the fruit brown, 

> Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 350. 1859. 
'U. S. D.A. Rpt. 144. 1867. 

Lunan, J. Hort. Jam. 2:180. 1814. 

Morelet Trav. Cent. Amer. 21. 1 87 1. 
Church, A. H. Food 203. 1887. 

Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 350. 1859. 

' Sloane, H. Nat. Hist. Jam. 2:169. 1725. (A.aquatica) 

' Lunan, J. Hort. Jam. i:ii. 1814. 

' Lindley, J. Trans. Hort. Soc. Land. 5:101. 1824. 
"> Masters, M. T. Treas. Bot. 1:70. 1870. 
" Lunan, J. Hort. Jam. 1:256. 1814. 
Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 350. 1859. 


the size of the fist, while Lunan says bi'own, shining, of a yellow or orange color, with a 
reddishness on one side when ripe. 

A. senegalensis Pers. 

African tropics and Guiana. The fruit is not much larger than a pigeon's egg but 
its flavor is said, by Savine, to be superior to most of the other fruits of this genus.' 

A. squamosa Linn. anon, sugar apple, sweetsop. 

It is uncertain whether the native land of this tree is to be looked for in Mexico, or 
on the plains along the mouth of the Amazon. Von Martins ^ found it forming forest 
groves in Para. It is cultivated in tropical America and the West Indies and was early 
transported to China, Cochin China, the Philippines and India. The fruit is conical 
or pear-shaped with a greenish, imbricated, scaly shell. The flesh is white, full of long, 
brown granules, very aromatic and of an agreeable strawberry-like, piquant taste.' 
Rhind * says the pulp is delicious, having the odor of rose water and tasting like clotted 
cream mixed with sugar. Masters * says the fruit is highly relished by the Creoles but is 
little esteemed by Europeans. Lunan * says it is much esteemed by those who are fond 
of fruit in which sweet prevails. Drury ' says the fruit is delicious to the taste and on 
occasions of famine in India has literally proved the staff of life to the natives. 

Anthemis nobilis Linn. Compositae. camomile^ 

Europe. Natiu-alized in Delaware. This plant is largely cultivated for medicinal 
ptuposes in France, Germany and Italy. It has long been cultivated in kitchen gardens, 
an infusion of its flowers serving as a domestic remedy. The flowers are occasionally 
used in the manufacture of bitter beer and, with wormwood, make to a certain extent 
a substitute for hops. It has been an inmate of American gardens from an early period. 
In France it is grown in flower-gardens.* 

Anthericiun hispidum Linn. Liliaceae. st. Bernard's lily. 

South Africa. The sprouts are eaten as a substitute for asparagus. They are by 
no means unpalatable, says Carmichael,' though a certain clamminess which they possess, 
that induces the sensation as of pulling hairs from between one's lips, renders them at first 

Anthistiria imberbis Retz. Gramineae. 

Africa. This grass grows in great luxuriance in the Upper Nile region, 5 5' south, 
and in famines furnishes the natives with a graip.'" 

' Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 69. 1879. 
> Unger, P. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpl. 350. 1859. 


Rhind, W. Hist. Veg. King. 375. 1855. 
' Masters, M. T. Treas. Bol. 1:70. 1870. 
Lunan, J. Hort. Jam. 2:180. 1814. 

' Drury, H. Useful Pis. Ind. 41. 1858. 

Vilmorin Fl. PI. Ter. 103. I870. 3rd Ed. 

Hooker, W. J. Bot. Misc. 2:264. 1831. 

"Speke, J. H. Journ. Disc. Source Nile 586. 1864. (A. ciliata) 


Anthocephalus morindaefolius Korth. Rubiaceae. 

East Indies and Sumatra. This large tree is cultivated in Bengal, North India and 
elsewhere. The flowers are offered on Hindu shrines. The yellow fruit, the size of a 
small orange, is eaten.' The plant is a native of the Siamese countries.* 

Anthriscus cerefolium Hoffm. Umbelliferae. chervil. 

Europe, Orient and north Asia. This is an old fashioned pot-herb, an annual, which 
appears in garden catalogs. Chervil is said to be a native of Europe and was cultivated 
in England by Gerarde' in 1597. Parkinson * says " it is sown in gardens to serve as 
salad herb." Pliny' mentions its use by the Syrians, who cultivated it as a food, and 
ate it both boiled and raw. Booth ' says the French and Dutch have scarcely a soup 
or a salad in which chervil does not form a part and as a seasoner is by many preferred 
to parsley. It seems still to find occasional use in England, Chervil was cultivated in 
Brazil in 1647 ' but there are no references to its early use in America. The earlier writers 
on American gardening mention it, however, from McMahon * in 1806. The leaves, 
when young, are the parts used to impart a warm, aromatic flavor to soups, stews and 
salads. Gerarde ^ speaks of the roots as being edible. There are curled-leaved varieties 

Antidesma bunius Spreng. Euphorhiaceae. 

A tree of Nepal, Amboina and Malabar. Its shining, deep red, fruits are subacid 
and palatable.!" In Java, the fruits are used, principally by Europeans, for preserving." 

A. diandrum Spreng. 

East Indies. The berries are eaten by the natives." The leaves are acid and are 
made into preserve." 

A. ghesaembilla Gaertn. 

East Indies, Malay, Australia and African tropics. The small drupes, dark purple 
when ripe, with pulp agreeably acid, are eaten." 

Apios tuberosa Moench. Leguminosae. groundnut, wild bean. 

Northeast America. The tubers are used as food. Kalm '* says this is the hopniss 
of the Indians on the Delaware, who ate the roots; that the Swedes ate them for want 

' Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 261. 1876. 

'Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. SS^^- 1879. { Nauclea cadamba) 

'Gerarde, J. Herb. 1040. 1633 or 1636. 

Mcintosh, C. Book Card. 2:171. 1855. (Chaerophyllum sativum) 
' Ibid. 

Booth, W. B. Treas. Bot. 1:74. 1870. 
'Churchill Co. Foy. 2:132. 1732. 

' McMahon, B. Amer. Card. Cal. 191. 1806. 

Gerarde, J. Herb. 1040. 1633 or 1636. 
Wight, R. Icon. Pis. 3: PI. 819. 
"Black, A. A. Treas. Bot. 1:75. 1870. 
"Black, A. A. Treas. Bot. 1:76. 1870. 
"Brandis, D. Forest Fl. ^4.7. 1874. 

" Ibid. 

"Kalm, P. Trav. No. Amer. 1:400. 1772. 


of bread, and that in 1749 some of the English ate them instead of potatoes. Winslow ' 
says that the Pilgrims, ditring their first winter, " were enforced to live on ground nuts." 
At Port Royal, in 1613, Biencourt ^ and his followers used to scatter about the woods 
and shores digging ground nuts. In France, the plant is grown in the flower garden.' 

Apium graveolens Linn. Umbelliferae. ache, celery, smallage. 

A plant of marshy places whose habitat extends from Sweden southward to Algeria, 
Egypt, Abyssinia and in Asia even to the Caucasus, Baluchistan and the mountains of 
British India * and has been found in Tierra del Fuego,^' ^ in California ' and in New 
Zealand. Celery is supposed to be the selinon of the Odyssey, the selinon heleion of Hippo- 
crates, the eleioselinon of Theophrastus and Dioscorides and the helioselinon of Pliny 
and Palladius. It does not seem to have been cultivated, although by some commen- 
tators the plant known as smallage has a wild and a cultivated sort. Nor is there one 
clear statement that this smallage was used as food, for sativus means simply planted as 
distinguished from growing wild, and we may suppose that this Apium, if smallage was 
meant, was planted for medicinal use. Targioni-Tozzetti * says this Apium was con- 
sidered by the ancients rather as a fimereal or ill-omened plant than as an article of food, 
and that by early modem writers it is mentioned only as a medicinal plant. This seems 
true, for Fuchsius, 1542, does not speak of its being cultivated and implies a medicinal 
use alone, as did Walafridus Strabo in the ninth century; Tragus, 1552; Pinaeus, 1561; 
Pena and Lobel, i^yo, and Rtiellitis' Dioscorides, 1529. Camerarius' Epitome of Matthiolus, 
1586, says planted also in gardens; and Dodonaeus, in his Pemptades, 1616, speaks of 
the wild plant being transferred to gardens but distinctly says not for food use. Accord- 
ing to Targioni-Tozzetti,' Alamanni, in the sixteenth century, speaks of it, but at the 
same time praises Alexanders for its sweet roots as an article of food. Bauhin's names, 
1623, Apium paltistre and Apium officinarum, indicate medicinal rather than food use, 
and J. Bauhin's name, Apium vulgare ingratus, does not promise much satisfaction in the 
eating. According to Bretschneider,'" celery, probably smallage, can be identified in the 
Chinese work of Kia Sz'mu, the fifth century A. D., and is described as a cultivated plant 
in the Nung Cheng Ts'nan Shu, 1640. We have mention of a cultivated variety in France 
by Olivier de Serres, 1623," and in England the seed was sold in 1726 for planting for the 
use of the plant in soups and broths;'^ and Miller i' says, 1722, that smallage is one of the 

' Young, A. Chron.Pilgr.32g. 1841. 

Parkman, F. Pion. France ioi. 1894. 

Vilmorin Fl. PI. Ter. 105. 1870. 3rd Ed. 

De CandoUe, A. Orig. Cult. Pis. 71. 1885. 

Ross, J. C. Voy. Antarct. Reg. 2: 2()8. 1847. {A. antarticum) 

Cook Foy. 3:198. 1773. 

' Nuttall Jour. Acad. Phila. 1:183. New ser. 

Targioni-Tozzetti Journ. Horl. Soc. Lond. 9: 144. 1855. 


Bretschneider, E. Bot. Sin. 78. 1882. 
" Heuze Pis. Aliment. 1:5. 1873. 
Townsend Seedsman 37. 1726. 
" Miller Bot. Offic. 1722. 

56 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

herbs eaten to purify the blood. Cultivated smallage is now grown in France under the 
name Celeri d couper, differing but little from the wild form. The number of names that 
are given to smallage indicate antiquity. 

The prevalence of a name derived from one root indicates a recent dispersion of the 
cultivated variety. Vilmorin ' gives the following synonyms: French Celeri, English 
celery, German Selleree, Flanders Selderij, Denmark Selleri, Italy Sedano, Spain apio, 
Portugal Aipo. The first mention of the word celery seems to be in Walafridus Strabo's 
poem entitled Hortulus, where he gives the medicinal uses of Apium and in line 335 uses 
the word as follows: "Passio turn celeri cedit devicla medelae." "The disease then to 
celery yields, conquered by the remedy," as it may be literally construed, yet the word 
celeri here may be translated quick-acting and this suggests that our word celery was 
derived from the medicinal uses. Strabo wrote in the ninth century; he was born A. D. 
806 or 807, and died in France in 849. 

Targioni-Tozzetti ^ says, it is certain that in the sixteenth century celery was grown 
for the table in Tuscany. There is no mention of celery in Fuchsius, 1542; Tragus, 1552; 
Matthiolus' Commentaries, 1558; Camerarius' Epitome, 1558; Pinaeus, 1561; Pena and 
Lobel, 1570; Gerarde, 1597; Clusius, 1601; Dodonaeus, 1616; or in Bauhin's Pinax, 1623; 
Parkinson's Paradisus, 1629, mentions Sellery as a rarity and names it Apium dulce. 
Ray, in his Historia Plantarum, 1686, says, "smallage transferred to culture becomes 
milder and less ungrateful, whence in Italy and France the leaves and stalks are esteemed 
as delicacies, eaten with oil and pepper." The Italians call this variety Sceleri or Celeri. 
The French also use the vegetable and the name. Ray adds that in English gardens 
the cultivated form often degenerates into smallage. Quintjme, who wrote' prior to 
1697, the year in which the third edition of his Complete Gardener was published, say^, 
in France " we know but one sort of it." Celeri is mentioned, however, as Apium dulce, 
Celeri Italorum by Toumefort, 1665.^ In 1778, Mawe and Abercrombie note two sorts 
of celery in England, one with the stalks hollow and the other with the stalks solid. 
In 1726, Townsend' distinguished the celeries as smallage and " selery " and the latter 
he says should be planted " for Winter Sallads, because it is very hot." Tinburg * says 
celery is common among the richer classes in Sweden and is preserved in cellars for winter 
use. In 1806, McMahon ' mentions four sorts in his list of garden esculents for Ameri- 
can use. It is curious that no mention of a plant that can suggest celery occurs in Bodaeus 
and Scaliger's edition of Theophrastus, published at Amsterdam in 1 644. 

There is no clear evidence, then, that smallage was grown by the ancients as a food 
plant but that if planted at all it was for medicinal use. The first mention of its ctdtiva- 
tion as a food plant is by Olivier de Serres, 1623, who called it ache, while Parkinson 
speaks of celery in 1629, and Ray indicates the cultivation as commencing in Italy and 

' Vilmorin Les Pis. Potag. 72. 1883. 
'Ta.Tff.oni-Tozzet,ti Journ. Hort. Soc. Lond. 9:144. 1855. 
' Quintyne Comp. Card. 1704. 

* Toumefort Inst. 305. 17 19. 
' Townsend Seedsman. 1726. 

Tinburg Hort. CuJin. 25. 1764. 

' McMahon, B. Amer. Card. Cat. 581. 1806. 


extending to France and England. Targioni-Tozzetti states, however, as a certainty 
that celery was grown in Tuscany in the sixteenth century. The hollow celery is stated 
by Mawe ' to have been the original kind and is claimed by Cobbett,'' even as late as 
182 1, as being the best. 

The fint celeries grown seem to have differed but little from the wild plant, and the 
words celery and (cultivated) smallage were apparently nearly synonymous at one time, 
as we find cultivated ache spoken of in 1623 in France and at later dates petit celeri or 
celeri 4 couper, a variety with hollow stalks, cultivated even at the present time for use 
of the foliage in soups and broths. Among the earlier varieties we find mention of hol- 
low-stalked, stalks sometimes hollow, and solid-stalked forms; at the present time the 
hollow-stalked forms have been discarded. Vilmorin' describes twelve sorts as distinct 
and worthy of culttire in addition to the celeri d. couper but in all there is this to be noted, 
there is but one type. 

In Italy and the Levant, where celery is much grown, but not blanched, the green 
leaves and stalks are used as an ingredient in soups. In England and America, the stalks 
are always blanched and used raw as a salad or dressed as a dinner vegetable. The seeds 
are also used for flavoring. In France, celery is said by Robinson * never to be as well 
grown as in England or America. By cultivation, celery, from a suspicious if not poisonous 
plant, has become transformed into the sweet, crisp, wholesome and most agreeable culti- 
vated vegetable. 

A. graveolens rapaceum DC. celeriac. turnip-rooted celery. 

Europe, Orient, India and California. This variety of celery forms a stout tuber, 
irregularly rounded, frequently exceeding the size of one's fist, hence it is often termed 
turnip-rooted celery. In France, it is commonly grown in two varieties. The tuber, 
generally eaten cooked, is sometimes sliced and used in salads. In Germany, it is com- 
monly used as a vegetable, cooked in soups or cooked and sliced for salads. In England, 
celeriac is seldom grown. In this country, it is grown only to a limited extent and is used 
only by our French and German population. When well grown, these bulbs should be 
solid, tender and delicate. 

In 1536, Ruellius,' in treating of the ache, or unoiltivated smallage as would appear 
from the context, says the root is eaten, both raw and cooked. Rauwolf,^ who travelled 
in the East, 1573-75, speaks of Eppich, whose roots are eaten as delicacies, with salt and 
pepper, at Tripoli and Aleppo; and J. Bauhin,' who died in 1613, mentions a Selinum 
ttiberosutn, sive Buselini specient, as named in Honorius Bellus, which seems to be the first 
mention of celeriac, as the earlier references quoted may possibly refer to the root of the 
ordinary sort, although probably not, for at this date the true celery had scarcely been 

' Mawe and Abercrombie Univ. Card. Bot. 1778. 

Cobbett, W. Amer. Card. 129. 1846. 

Vilmorin Us PI. Potag. 74. 1883. 

Robinson, W. Parks, Card. Paris 496. 1878. 

Ruellius Nat. Slirp. joS. 1536. 

Gronovius Fl. Orient. 35. 1 755. 
'Bauhin, J. Hist. PI. 2: pt. 3, loi. 1651. 

^8 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

sufficiently developed. In 1729, Switzer ' describes the plant in a book devoted to this 
and other novelties but adds that he had never seen it; this indicates that celeriac was 
little known in England at this date, for he adds that the gentleman, who had long been 
an importer of curious seeds, furnished him with a supply from Alexandria. Celeriac is 
again named in England in 1752,* 1765,' and by succeeding writers but is little known 
even at the present time. In 1806, McMahon * includes this in his list of American garden 
esculents, as does Randolph for Virginia before 1818. Biur describes two varieties, and 
two varieties are oflered in our seed catalogs. The history of celeriac is particularly 
interesting, as we seem to have a record of its first introduction and of a size at that time 
which is not approached in modern culture. 

Jo. Baptista Porta, a Neapolitan, writes thus in his Villae, published at Frankfurt 
in 1592 (lib. 10, chap. 21), the translation being liberal: "There is another kind of 
celery called Capitatvim, which is grown in the gardens of St. Agatha, Theano and other 
places in Apulia, granted from nature and unseen and unnamed by the ancients. Its 
bulb is spherical, nearly of the size of a man's head. It is very sweet, odorous and grate- 
ful. Except in rich land, it degenerates, until it differs from the common apium in no 
respects, except in its root, round like a head." 

A. prostratum Labill. Australian celery. 

Australian and Antarctic regions. Mueller ' says this plant can be utilized as a 
culinary vegetable. 

Apocjraum reticulatum Linn. Apocynaceae. dogbane. 

East Indies. According to linger,* this plant furnishes a food. 

Aponogeton distachyum Thunb. Naiadaceae. cape asparagus, cape pond-weed. 

South Africa. This plant has become naturalized in a stream near Montpelier, 
France. Its flowering spikes, known as water untjie, are in South Africa in high repute 
as a pickle ^ and also afford a spinach.* In Kaffraria, the roasted roots are reckoned a 
great delicacy.' 

A. fenestrale Hook, lattice-leaf, water- yam. 

Madagascar. Ellis '" says this plant is not only extremely curious but also very 
valuable to the natives who, at certain seasons of the year, gather it as an article 
of food, the fleshy root, when cooked, yielding a farinaceous substance resembling the 

Switzer, S. Raising Veg. 9. 1729. 

Miller Card. Did. 1752, from Miller Card. Diet. 1807. 

Stevenson Card. Kal. y). 1765. 

McMahon, B. Amer. Gard. Cal. 5%l. 1806. 
'Mueller, F. 5^. P/i. 44. 189 1. 

Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 359. 1859. 
' Hooker, W. J. Bot. Misc. 2:265. 183 1. 
Mueller, F. 5e/. P/i. 45. 1891. 

Thunberg, C. P. Trar. 1:156. 1795. 
'"Ellis, W. Three Visits Madagas. 5^. 1859. (Ouvirandra fenestralis) 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 59 

A. monostachyon Linn. f. 

Tropical eastern Asia. The natives relish the small tubers as an article of diet ; they 
are said to be as good as potatoes, and are esteemed a great deUcacy.' 

Aporosa lindleyana Baill. Euphorbiaceae. 

East Indies. The small, berry-Hke fruit is edible.^ 

Aquilegia canadensis Linn. Ranunculaceae. wild columbine. 

North America. The roots are eaten by some Indians, according to R. Brown.' 

Arachis hypogaea Linn. Leguminosae. earth nut. earth almond, goober, grass 


Tropical America. This plant is now under cultivation in warm climates for the 
seeds which are largely eaten as nuts, and from which an oil is extracted to be used as 
a substitute for olive oil to which it is equal in quality. Although now only under field 
cultivation in America, yet, in 1806, McMahon * included this plant among kitchen-garden 
esculents. For a long time, writers on botany were uncertain whether the peanut was 
a native of Africa or of America, but, since Squier ^ has found this seed in jars taken from 
the mummy graves of Peru, the question of its American origin seems settled. The first 
writer who notes it, is Oviedo in his Cronica de las Indias, who says " the Indians cultivate 
very much the fruit mani." Before this, the French colonists, sent in 1555 to the Brazilian 
coast, became acquainted with it tmder the name of mandobi.^ 

The peanut was figured by Laet, 1625,'' and by Marcgravius, 1648,* as the anchic 
of the Peruvians, the mani of the Spaniards. It seems to be mentioned by Garcilasso 
de la Vega,' 1609, as being raised by the Indians under the name, ynchic. The Spaniards 
call it mani but all the names, he observes, which the Spaniards give to the fruits and 
vegetables of Peru belong to the language of the Antilles. The fruit is raised under- 
grotmd, he says, and " is very like marrow and has the taste of almonds." Marcgravius,'" 
1648, andPiso," 1658, describe and figure the plant, under the name of mandubi, as com- 
mon and indigenous in Brazil. They cite Monardes,'^ an author late in the sixteenth 
century, as having found it in Peru with a different name, anchic.^^ Father Merolla," 

Drury, H. Useful Ph. Ind. 43. 1858. 
Archer Bot. Soc. Edinb. 8:163. 1866. 
Brown, R. Card. Chron. i$20. 1868. 
'McMahon, B. A mer. Card. Col. 581. 1806. 
Squier, E. G. Peru 81. 1877. 
Fluckiger and Hanbtiry Pharm. 186. 1879. 
' Ibid. 

De CandoUe, A. Geog. Bot. 2:963. 1855. 
Vega, G. de la. Roy. Comment. Hakl. Soc. Ed. 2:360. 1871. 
' De Candolle, A. Geog. Bot. 2:963. 1855. 
" Ibid. 

" De Candolle, A. Geog. Bot. 2:962. i855- 
' Ibid. 
"Churchill Coll. Voy. 1:563. 1744. . 

-6o sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

1682, under the name of mandois, describes a vegetable of Congo which grows " three or 
four together like vetches but underground and are about the bigness of an ordinary 
olive. From these milk is extracted like to that drawn from almonds." This may be 
the peanut. In China, especially in Kwangtung, peanuts are grown in large quantities 
and their consiunption by the people is very great. The peanut was included among 
garden plants by McMahon, 1806; Burr, 1863, describes three varieties; and Jefferson 
speaks of its culture in Virginia in 1781. Its culture was introduced into France in 1802,' 
and the peanut was described among pot-herbs by Noisette,^ 1829. 

Aralia cordata Thunb. Araliaceae. udo. 

Japan. The young shoots of this species provide an excellent culinary vegetable.' 
They are used in soups in Japan.^ According to Siebold,' this plant is universally cul- 
tivated in Japan, in fields and gardens. It is valued for its root which is eaten like scor- 
zonera, but the young stalks are likewise a deUcious vegetable.' 

A. quinquefolia Decne & Planch, ginseng. 

North America. The root is collected in large quantities in the hilly regions of Ohio, 
western Virginia, Minnesota and other parts of eastern America for export to China where 
it is valued as a medicine. Some persons in this country are in the habit of chewing the 
root, having acquired a relish for its taste, and it is chiefly to supply the wants of these 
that it is kept in the shops.' 

Araucaria bidwillii Hook. Coniferae. bunya-bunya. 

Australia; the bunya-bunya of the natives. The cones fxomish an edible seed which 
is roasted. Each tribe of the natives has its own set of trees and each family its own 
allotment among them. These are handed down from generation to generation with the 
greatest exactness and are believed to be the only hereditary personal property possessed 
by the aborigines. 

A. brasiliana A. Rich. Brazilian pine. 

Brazil. The seeds are very large and are eatable.* They are sold as an article of 
food in the streets of Rio de Janeiro. 

A. imbricata Pav. Chilian pine, monkey puzzle. 

Southern Chili. The seeds are eaten by the Indians, either fresh, boUed or roasted, 
and from them is distilled a spirituous liquor.' Eighteen good-sized trees will yield enough 
for a man's sustenance all the year round.'* 

> Bon Jard. 685. 1882. 

' Noisette Man. Jard. 329. 1829. 

Mueller, F. Sel. Pis. 45. 1891. 

Bird Unheal. Tracks Jap. 1:2^. 1 88 1. 

Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 4x8.- 1879. {A. edulis) 

Hanbury, D. Set. Papers 261. 1876. 

' U. S. Disp. 636. 1865. (Panax quinquefolium) 

' Gordon, G. Pinelum ij. 1875. 

Gordon, G. Pinetum 41. 1875. 

"> Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 812. 1879. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 6i 

Arbutus andrachne Linn. Ericaceae, strawberry tree. 

East Mediterranean countries.' Its fruit was eaten during the Golden Age.' Don 3 
says the fruit seems to be used in Greece. 

A. canariensis Duham. 

Canary Islands. The berries are made into a sweetmeat.* 

A. menziesii Pursh. madrona. 

Pacific Coast of North America. The berries resemble Morello cherries. When 
ripe they are quite ornamental and are said sometimes to be eaten. ^ 

A. unedo Linn, arbute. cane apples, strawberry tree. 

Mediterranean countries. Theophrastus ^ says the tree produces an edible fruit; PHny,' 
that it is not worth eating. Sir J. E. Smith * describes the frtiit as uneatable in Ireland, 
but W. Wilson * says he can testify from repeated experience that the ripe fruit is really 
very palatable. In Spain, a sugar and a sherbet are obtained from it. 

Archangelica atropurpurea Hoffm. Umbelliferae. great angelica, masterwort. 

North America. This plant is found from New England to Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, 
and northward. Stille '" says the stems are sometimes candied. The root is used in domes- 
tic medicines as an aromatic and stimulant. 

A. gmelini DC. angelica. 

Northwest Asia. This species is used for culinary purposes by the Russians in Kam- 
chatka." The root, dug in the autumn of the first year, is used in medicine as an aromatic 
tonic and possesses the taste and smell of the seeds. 

A. officinalis Hoffm. angelica, archangel, wild parsnip. 

Europe, Siberia and Himalayan regions. This plant is a native of the north of Europe 
and is found in the high, mountainous regions in south Europe, as in Switzerland and 
among the Pyrenees, it is also found in Alaska. Angelica is cultivated in various parts 
of Europe and is occasionally grown in American gardens. The whole plant has a fra- 
grant odor and aromatic properties. Angelica is held in great estimation in Lapland, 
where the natives strip the stem of leaves, and the soft, internal part, after the outer 
skin has been pulled off, is eaten raw hke an apple or turnip.'^ In Kamchatka, the roots 
are distilled and a kind of spirit is made from them, and on the islands of Alaska, where 

Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 102. 1879. 
' Ibid. 

Don, G. Hisl. Dichl. Ph. 3:834. 1834. 
< Andrews Bot. Reposil. 10: PI. 664. 1797. 
Newberry Pacific R. R. Rpt. 6:23, fig. 1857. 

Daubeny, C. Trees, Shrubs Arte. 50. 1865. 

' Bostock and Riley Nat. Hist. Pliny 4:516. 1855. 
Hooker, W. J. Journ. Bot. 1:315. 1834- 


"Stille, A. Therap. Mat. Med. 1:491, 492. 1874. 
" Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 3:324. 1834. 
" Journ. Agr. 2:174. 1831- 

"62 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

it is abundant and called wild parsnip, it is stated by Dall * to be edible. Angelica has 
been in cultivation in England since 1568. The leaf-stalks were formerly blanched and 
eaten like celery. The plant is in request for the use of confectioners, who make an excel- 
lent sweetmeat with the tender stems, stalks, and ribs of the leaves candied with sugar. 
The seeds enter into the composition of many liquors. In the north of Europe, the leaves 
and stalks are still used as a vegetable. 

The medicinal properties of the root were highly prized in the Middle Ages. In 
Pomet,* we read that the seed is much used to make angelica comfits as well as the root 
for medicine. Bryant ' deems it the best aromatic that Europe produces. This plant 
must be a native of northern Europe, for there are no references to it in the ancient authors 
of Greece and Rome, nor is it mentioned by Albertus Magnus in the thirteenth centiuy. 
By Fuchsius, 1542, and succeeding authors it receives proper attention. The German 
name, Heilige Geist Wurz, implies the estimation in which it was held and offers a clue 
to the origin of the word Angelica, or angel plant, which occurs in so many languages, 
as in English, Spanish, Portugese, and Italian, becoming Angilique and Archangilique in 
French, and Angelickwurz in German. Other names of like import are the modem Engel- 
wurz in Germany, Engelkruid in Flanders and Engelwortel in Holland. 

The various figures given by herbalists show the same type of plant, the principal 
differences to be noted being in the size of the root. Pena and Lobel,^ 1570. note a smaller 
variety as cultivated in England, Belgitim, and France, and Gesner is quoted by Camer- 
arius' as having seen roots of three pounds weight. Bauhin,' 1623, says the roots vary, 
the Swiss-grown being thick, those of Bohemia smaller and blacker. 

Garden angelica is noticed amongst American garden medicinal herbs by McMahon,' 
1806, and the seed is still sold by our seedsmen. 

Arctium majus Bernh. Compositae. beggar's buttons, burdock, clotbur. cuckold. 


Europe and Asia and occurring as a weed in the United States. In Japan, burdock 
is said to be cultivated as a vegetable. Gerarde * says " the stalke of the clot-burr e before 
the burres come forth, the rinde peelld off, being eaten raw with salt and pepper, or boyled 
in the broth of fat meate, is pleasant to be eaten." Kalm,' in his Travels in North America, 
writing of Ticonderoga, N. Y., says: " and the governor told me that its tender shoots are 
eaten in spring as radishes, after the exterior part is taken off." In Japan, says Johns, the 
tender stalks are eaten as an asparagus, and its roots are said to be edible. Penhallow " 

' Dall, W. H. Alaska 448. 1897. 
' Pomet Hist. Drugs 42. 1748. 

Bryant Ft. Diet. 53. 1783. 

Pena and Lobel Advers. 311. 1 570. 
' Camerarius /for/. Med. 16. 1588. 

' Bauhin, C. Pinax 155. 1623. 

' McMahon, B. Anter. Card. Cat. sS^. 1806. 

'Gerarde, J. Herb. Si i. 1636. 2nd Ed. 

Kalm, P. Trav. No. Amer. 2:202. 1772. 

" Penhallow, D. P. /I mer. iVa/. 16:120. 1882. {Lappa major) 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 63 

says the Japanese cultivate the root, but as an article of food it is tasteless, hard and 

Arctostaphylos alpina Spreng. Ericaceae, alpine bearberry. 

Arctic regions and mountain svunmits farther south. The berries are eaten in Lap- 
land but are a mawkish food, according to Linnaeus.^ Richardson " says there are two 
varieties, that both are eaten in the autumn and, though not equal to some of the other 
native fruits, are not unpleasant. They are called amprick by the Russians at the mouth 
of the Obi. 

A. glauca Lindl. manzanita. 

CaHfornia. The fruit grows in clusters, is first white, then red and finally black. 
This berry is regarded as eatable but is dry and of little flavor.' 

A. tomentosa Lindl. manzanita 

Southern California. The red berries are used by the Spanish inhabitants of Texas 
to make a cooling, subacid drink. The fruit is used when not quite ripe as a tart apple. 
Dried and made into bread and baked in the sun, the fruit is relished by the Indians.* 

A. uva-ursi Spreng. bearberry. bear's grape, brawlins. creashak. mountain 


North America and Arctic regions. The Chinook Indians mix its dried leaves with 
tobacco. It is used for the same piupose by the Crees who call it tchakoshe-pukk; by the 
Chippewaians, who name it kleh; and by the Eskimos north of Churchill, by whom it is 
termed at-tung-a-wi-at. It is the iss-salth of the Chinooks.^ Its dry, farinaceous berry 
is utterly inedible.' 

Ardisia coriacea Sw. Myrsineae. beef-wood. 

West Indies. According to Sloane,' the drupes are eaten in Jamaica and are accounted 
a pleasant dessert. 

A. esculenta Pav. 

South America. The berries are esculent.' 

Areca catechu Linn. Palmae. areca nut. betel nut. catechu, pinang. 

East Indies. This handsome palm is cultivated throughout the Indian Archipelago, 
in Ceylon and the west side of India for the sake of its seed which is known under the 
names areca nut, pinang and betel nut ; the nut is about the size of a nutmeg. These nuts 
are consumed, when dry, in great quantity, a small portion being separated, put into a 

> Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 3:836. 1834. 
' Richardson, J. Arctic Explor. 2:303. 1851. 

Newberry PaciJU R. R. Rpt. 6:22. 1857. 
*U.S. D.A.Rpt.\\2,. 1870. 

' Hooker, W. J. Fl. Bor. Amer. 2:37. 1840. 

Richardson, J. Arctic Explor. 2:30. 1851. 
' Nuttall, T. No. Amer. Sylva 2: 134. 1865. 
Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. ^-.v). 1838. 


leaf of piper-betle over which a little quick-lime is laid, then rolled up and chewed alto- 
gether.* It tinges the saliva red and stains the teeth. Whole shiploads of this nut, so 
universally in use among the Eastern natives, are exported annually from Simiatra, Malacca, 
Siam and Cochin China. The heart of the leaves, according to Seemann, is eaten as a 
salad and has not a bad flavor as Blanco writes.* 

A. glandiformis Lam. 

Moluccas. In Cochin China the leaves are chewed with the betel nut.' 

A. laxa Buch.-Ham. 

Andaman Islands. The nuts of this plant are used instead of the betel nut by the 
convicts confined on Andaman Islands.* \ 

Arenaria peploides Linn. Caryophylleae. sea chickweed. 

North temperate and Arctic regions. In Iceland, the plant is fermented and in that 
state used as food, like sauerkraut; the plant also forms a wholesome vegetable when 
boiled ^ and is used for a pickle.' 

Arenga saccharifera Labill. Palmae. areng palm. 

Tropical eastern Asia. This palm has been called the most useful of all palms. 
Griffith ^ says, the young albumen preserved in sugar forms one of the well-known pre- 
serves of the Straits. Brandis * says, the heart of the stem contains large quantities of 
sago, and the cut flower-stalks yield a sugary sap of which sugar and palm-wine are made. 
Graham ' says, at Bombay this palm affords tolerably good sago and the sap, palm-wine 
and sugar. Seemann'" says, the bud, or cabbage, is eaten. The sap, of which some three 
quarts a day are collected, furnishes toddy and from this toddy, jaggery sugar is prepared. 
The seed, freed from its noxious covering, is made into a sweetmeat by the Chinese. From 
the pith, a species of sago is prepared which, however, has a peculiar flavor. 

Argania sideroxylon Roem. et Schult. Sapotaceae. argan tree, morocco iron-wood. 
Morocco. From the seeds, the natives extract an oil that is used for cooking and 
lighting. When ripe, the fruit, which is an egg-shaped drupe, falls from the trees and 
the goats then enter into competition with their masters for a share in the harvest. The 
goats, however, swallow the fruit only for the sake of the subacid rind and, being vmable 
to digest the hard seeds, eject them during the process of rumination, when they are gath- 
ered and added to the general store for oil making." 

' Ainslie, W. Mai. Ind. 2:270. 1826. 

Seemann, B. Pop. Hist. Palms 56. 1856. 
Loureiro CocAin. 1:568. 1790. 
'Griffith, W. Palms Brit. Ind. ng. 1850. 

' Johnson, C. P. Useful Pis. Gt. Brit. 54. 1862. 

Balfour, J. H. Man. Bol. 445. 1875. (Honkeneja peploides) 
'Griffith, W. Palms Brit. Ind. 164. 1850. 

Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 551. 1874. 

Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 335. 1879. 
"> Seemann, B. Pop. Hist. Palms 64, 67. 1856. 
" Pharm. Joum., Trans. 1878. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 65 

Arisaema atrorubens Blume. Aroideae. dragon root, jack-in-the-pulpit. Indian 


North America. Cutler ' says, the shredded roots and berries are said to have been 
boiled by the Indians with their venison. Bigelow ^ says, the starfch of the root is deHcate 
and nutritious. It must, however, be obtained from the root by boiHng in order that 
the heat may destroy the acrimonious principle. 

A. costatum Mart. 

Himalayas. This is said by Ellis ' to be a large aroid, called ape in Tahiti, which 
is frequently planted in dry ground. It is considered inferior to taro. 

A. curvatum Kunth. 

Himalayas. The Lepchas of India prepare a food called long from the tuberous root. 
The roots are bvuied in masses imtil acetous fermentation sets in and are then dug, washed 
and cooked, by which means their poisonous properties are in part dispersed, but not 
entirely, as violent illness sometimes follows a hearty meal of tong.* 

A. tortuosum Schott. 

Himalayas. The root is considered esculent by the mountaineers of Nepal.^ 

Arisarum vulgare Targ. Aroideae. 

Mediterranean regions. In north Africa, the roots are much used in seasons of scar- 
city. The root, which is not as large as ovir ordinary walnut, contains an acid jmce, which 
makes it quite uneatable in the natural state. This is, however, removed by repeated 
washings and the residue is innoxious and nutritive." 

Aristotelia macqui L'Herit. Tiliaceae. mountain currant. 

A large shrub called in Chile, maqui. The berries, though small, have the pleasant 
taste of bilberries and are largely consimied in Chile.' 

A. racemosa Hook. 

New Zealand. The natives eat the berries.* 

Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancr. Umbelliferae. arracacha. Peruvian carrot. 

Northern South America. This plant has been cultivated and used as a food from 
early times in the cooler mountainous districts of northern South America, where the 
roots form a staple diet of the inhabitants. The root is not unlike a parsnip in shape but 
more 'blunt; it is tender when boiled and nutritious, with a flavor between the parsnip 
and a roasted chestnut. A fecula, analogous to arrowroot, is obtained from it by rasp- 

' Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 808. 1879. (Arum triphyllum) 
'Bigelow, J. Med. Bol. 1:58. 1817. 
'Ellis, W. Polyn. Research. 1:4s. 1833. 
Moore, T. Treai. Bo/. 2:1347. 1876. 
'Wallich P/j. >lo/. 2:10, Tab. 114. 1830-32. 

Hooker and Ball Marocco, Gt. Alias 342. 1878. 
'Mueller,?. Sel. Pis. 49. 1891. 

Black, A. A. Treas. Bot. 1:92. 1870. 


66 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

ing in water. Arracacha yields, according to Boussingault,' about i6 tons per acre. The 
plant is also found in the mountain regions of Central America. The roots are nutritious 
and palatable and there are yellow, purple and pale varieties.^ Attempts to naturalize 
this plant in field culture in Europe have been unsuccessful. It was introduced into 
Europe in 1829 and again in 1846, but trials in England, France and Switzerland were 
unsuccessful ' in obtaining eatable roots. It was grown near New York in 1825 * and at 
Baltimore in 1828 or 1829 ^ but was found to be worthless. Lately introduced into India, 
it is now fairly established there and Morris considers it a most valuable plant-food, 
becoming more palatable and desirable the longer it is used. It is generally cultivated ' 
in Venezuela, New Granada and Ecuador, and in the temperate regions of these coun- 
tries, Arracacha is- preferred to the potato. The first account which reached Europe 
concerning this plant was published in the Annals of Botany in 1805. It was, however, 
mentioned in a few words by Alcedo,* 1789. 

Artemisia abrotanum Linn. Compositae. old man. southernwood. 

Europe and temperate Asia. This artemisia forms an ingredient, says Lindley, in 
some continental beers. 

A. absinthium Linn, absinthe, wormwood. 

Cultivated in Europe and in England in cottage gardens on a large scale. Bridge- 
man,' 1832, is the first writer on American gardening who mentions absinthe but now 
its seeds are cataloged for sale by all our larger dealers. It is classed among medicinal 
herbs but is largely used in France to flavor the cordial, absinthe, and in America in com- 
pounding bitters. The seed is used by the rectifiers of spirits and the plant is largely 
cultivated in some districts of England for this purpose. It is said occasionally to form 
an ingredient of sauces in cookery. 

A. dracunculus Linn, tarragon. 

East Europe, the Orient and Himalayan regions. Tarragon was brought to Italy, 
probably from the shores of the Black Sea, in recent times. The first mention on record 
is by Simon Seth, in the middle of the twelfth century, but it appears to have been scarcely 
known as a condiment until the sixteenth centtiry.*" It was brought to England in or 
about 1548." The flowers, as Vilmorin says, are always barren, so that the plant can 
be propagated only by division. Tarragon cultttre is mentioned by the botanists of the 
sixteenth century and in England by Gerarde," 1597, and by succeeding authors on gar- 

' Morton Cyc. Agr. i:io8. 1869. {A. esculenta) 

' Mueller Sel. Pis. 50. 1891. 

' Heuze Pis. Aliment. 2:509. 1873. 

*New Eng. Farm. July 22, 1825. 

' ODuper Farm. Libr. 94. 1847. 

'Card. Chron. 26:50. 1886. {A. esculenta) 

' De CandoUe, A. Orig. Cult. Pis. 40. 1885. 

Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 3:378. 1834. 

Bridgeman Young Gard. Asst. 108. 1857. 
'" Targioni-Tozzetti Journ. Hort. Soc. Land. 148. 1854. 
[" Mcintosh, C. Book Gard. 2:167. i855- 
" Gerarde, J. Herb. 11)3. 1597. 


dening. Rauwolf,* 1573-75, found it in the gardens of Tripoli. In America, it is men- 
tioned by McMahon,^ 1806. Its roots are now included in our leading seed catalogs. 
Tarragon has a fragrant smell and an aromatic taste for which it is greatly esteemed by 
the French. In Persia, it has long been customary to use the leaves to create an appetite. 
Together Wkh the young tips, the leaves are put in salads, in pickles and in vinegar for 
a fish sauce. They are also eaten with beefsteaks, served with horseradish. Tarragon 
vinegar, says Mcintosh,' is much esteemed. 

A. maritima Linn, worm-seed. 

Caucasian region, Siberia and Europe. It is a bitter tonic and aromatic. It was 
formerly used to make a conserve with sugar.'' 

A. mutellina Vill. alpine wormwood. 

Europe. The plant is used on the continent in the preparation of Eau d'absinthe, 
which is in request amongst epicures.^ 

A. spicata Wulf. spiked wormwood. 

Europe. The plant is used on the continent in the preparation of Eau d'absinthe. 

A. vulgaris Linn, fellon-herb. mugwort. 

Northern temperate regions. Mugwort was employed, says Johnson," to a great extent 
for flavoring beer before the introduction of the hop. It is still used in England to flavor 
the home-made beer of the cottagers. On the continent, it is occasionally employed as 
an aromatic, cuUnary herb. 

Artocarpus brasiliensis Gomez. Urticaceae. jack. 

Brazil. Professor Hartt ' says the jack is cultivated in the province of Bahia and 
to the north, at Sao Matheus and occasionally as far south as Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The 
fruit is of immense size, being sometimes a foot and a half in the longer diameter. The 
seeds are largely used as food and the pulp is nutritious. In some parts, a kind of farina 
is prepared from the seeds, but this use is by no means general. 

A. hirsuta Lam. 

East Indies. The fruit is the size of a large orange. The pulpy substance is much 
relished by the natives, being almost as good as the fruit of the jack.^ 

A. incisa Linn. f. breadfruit. 

This most useful tree is nowhere found growing wild but is now extensively cultivated 
in warm regions. It is first described by the writer of Mendana's Voyage to the Marquesas 
Islands, 1595. It has been distributed from the Moluccas, by way of Celebes and New 
Guinea, throughout all the islands of the Pacific Ocean to Tahiti. Breadfnut is also 

' Gronovius Fl. Orient. 106. 1755. 
McMahon, B. Amer. Card. Cat. 511. 1806. 
> Mcintosh, C. Book Card. 2:167. iSSS- 
Johnson, C. P. Useful Pis. Gt. Brit. 152. 1862. 
Balfour, J. H. Man. Bat. 521. 1875. 
Johnson, C. P. Useful Pis. Gt. Brit. 154. 1862. 
'Hartt, C.F. Geog. Braz. 245. 1870. 
Drury, H. Useful Pis. Ind. 51. 1858. 

"68 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

naturalized in the Isle of France, in tropical America ' and bears fruit in Ceylon and Burma.* 
It is more especially an object of care and cultivation in the Marquesas and the Friendly 
and Society Islands. The tree was conveyed to the Isle of France from Luzon in the 
Philippines by Sonnerat. In 1792, from Tahiti and Timor, Capt. Bligh, who was com- 
missioned by the British Government for this purpose, took a store of plants and in 1793 
landed 333 breadfruit trees at St. Vincent and 347 at Port Royal, Jamaica.' In the 
ctiltivated breadfruit, the seeds are almost always abortive, leaving their places empty * 
which shows that its cultivation goes back to a remote antiqiuty. This seedlessness does 
not hold true, however, of all varieties, of which there are many. Chamisso ' describes 
a variety in the Mariana Islands with small fruit contaimng seeds which are frequently 
perfect. Sonnerat foimd in the Philippines a breadfnut, which he considered as wild, 
which bears ripe seeds of a considerable size.' In Tahiti, there are eight varieties without 
seeds and one variety with seeds which is inferior to the others.^ Nine varieties are 
credited by Wilkes ' to the Fiji Islands and twenty to the Samoan.' Captain Cook,'" 
at Tahiti, in 1769, describes the fruit as about the size and shape of a child's head, with 
the surface reticulated not much unlike a truffle, covered with a thin skin and having 
a core about as big as the handle of a small knife. 

The eatable part of breadfruit lies between the skin and the core and is as white as 
snow and somewhat of the consistence of new bread. It must be roasted before it is eaten. 
Its taste is insipid, with a slight sweetness, somewhat resembling that of the crumb of 
wheaten bread mixed with a Jerusalem artichoke. Wilkes " says the best varieties when 
baked or roasted are not unlike a good custard pudding. If the breadfruit is to be pre- 
served, it is scraped from the rind and buried in a pit where it is allowed to ferment, when 
it subsides into a mass somewhat of the consistency of new cheese. These pits when 
opened emit a nauseous, fetid, sour odor, and the color of the contents is a greenish-yellow. 
In this state it is called mandraiuta, or native bread, of which several kinds are distinguished. 
It is said that it will keep several years and is cooked with cocoanut milk, in which state 
it forms an agreeable and nutritious food. This tree affords one of the most generous 
sources of nutriment that the world possesses .According to Foster,!^ twenty-seven bread- 
fruit trees, which would cover an English acre with their shade, are svifiicient for the support 
of from ten to twelve people during the eight months of fruit-bearing. Breadfruit is 
called in Tahiti maiore, in Hawaii aeiore}^ 

Unger, P. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 315. 1859. 

Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 426. 1874. 
Enc.BnV. 5:301. 1844. 8th Ed. 

De Candolle, A. P. Feg. Organ. 2:174. 1840. 
' Darwin, C. Ans. Pis. Domest. 2:256, 1893. 

Forster, J. R. Obs. 179. 1778. Note. 
' Lunan, J. Hort. Jam. 1:11$. 1814. 
Wilkes, C. U. S. Explor. Exped. 3:332. 1845. 
Wilkes, C. U. S. Explor. Exped. 2:121. 1845. 

"Cook Voyage y.207. 1773. 

" Wilkes, C. U. S. Explor. Exped. 3:333. 1845. 

" Peschel, O. Races Man 156. 1876. 

Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 437. 1879. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 69 

A. integrifolia Linn. f. jack. 

East Indies. On account of its excellent fruit, this tree is a special object of ctdti- 
vation on the two Indian peninsulas, in Cochin China and southern China. It has only 
recently been introduced into the islands of the Pacific Ocean, as well as upon the island 
of Mauritiift, the Antilles and the west coast of Africa. It is scarcely to be doubted that 
it occurs here and there growing wild and that perhaps Ceylon and the peninsula of Further 
India may be looked upon as its original native land.^ The jack seems to be the Indian 
fruit described by Pliny, who gives the name of the tree as pala, of the fruit, ariena; and to 
be the chagui of Friar Jordanus,* about 1330, whose " fruit is of such size that one is enough 
for five persons." Firminger ' says the fruit of this tree is perhaps about one of the largest 
in existence and is an ill-shapen, imattractive-looking object. The interior is of a soft, 
fibrous consistency with the edible portions scattered here and there, of about the size 
and color of a small orange. It is considered delicious by those who can manage, to eat 
it, but it possesses the rich, spicy scent and flavor of the melon to such a powerful degree 
as to be qtiite unbearable to persons of a weak stomach, or to those not accustomed to it. 
There are two varieties in India. Lunan * says the thick, gelatinous covering which envel- 
opes the seeds, eaten either raw or fried, is delicious. The roimd seeds, about half an 
inch in diameter, eaten roasted, have a very mealy and agreeable taste. The fruit, says 
Brandis,' is an important article of food in Burma, southern India and Ceylon. The 
tree has a very strong and disagreeable smell. 

A. lakoocha Roxb. 

Malay and East Indies. The iU-shapen fruit, the size of an orange and of an austere 
taste, is sometimes eaten. Firminger ' says also that he has met with those who said 
they liked it, a fact which he could otherwise have hardly credited. Brandis ^ says the 
male flower-heads are pickled. 

Arum Aroideae. 

The several species of arum possess a combination of extremely acrid properties, 
with the presence of a large quantity of farina, which can be separated from the poisonous 
ingredient by heat or water and in some instances by merely drying. The arums form 
the most important plants of the tropics. In a single Polynesian Island, Tahiti, the 
natives have names for 33 arums. Taro, the general name, is grown in vast quantities 
in the Fiji group on the margins of streams under a system of irrigation. When the root 
is ripe, the greater part is cut off from the leaves and the portion which is left attached 
to them is at once replanted. These roots are prepared for use by boUing and are then 
pounded into a kind of flour, which is preserved imtil wanted for use. Large quantities 
of tare are also stored in pits where it becomes solid and is afterwards used by the 

1 Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 315. 1859. 

' Jordanus, Fr. Wonders East Hakl. Soc. Ed. 13. 1863. 

Firminger, T. A. C. Card. Ind. 185. 1874. 

Lunan, J. Hort. Jam. 1:^88. 1814. 
' Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 426. 1874. 

Firminger, T. A. C. Card. Ind. 188. 1874. 
' Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 427. 1874. 

70 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

natives as mandrai. In former times, the common spotted arum fvimished food to the 
English during the periods of scarcity. It seems impossible to determine in all cases to 
which species of arum travelers refer in recording the use of this genera of plants. The 
information given under the heading of the species will show the generality of their use 
and their importance. 

A. dioscoridis Sibth. & Sm. 

East Mediterranean countries. Theophrastus mentions that the roots and leaves 
of this plant, steeped in vinegar, were eaten in ancient Greece. The roots, as Pickering 
remarks,^ are cooked and eaten in the Levant. 

A. italicum Mill. Italian arum. 

Mediterranean countries. This arum is described by Dioscorides, who sa3rs its root 
is eaten either raw or cooked. Westward, the cooked root is further mentioned by 
Dioscorides as mixed with honey by the Balearic islanders and made into cakes.' This 
plant was in cultivation for seven years in Guernsey for the purpose of making arrow-root 
from its corms.' 

A. maculatum Linn, adam-and-eve. bobbins, cuckoo pint. lords-and-ladies. 


Europe. The thick and tuberous root, while fresh, is extremely acrid, but by heat 
its injurious qualities are destroyed, and in the isle of Portland the plant was extensively 
used in the preparation of an arrow-root. According to Sprengel,* its roots are cooked 
and eaten in Albania, and in Slavonia it is made into a kind of bread. The leaves, even 
of this acrid plant, are said by Pallas ^ to be eaten by the Greeks of Crimea. " Dioscorides 
showeth that the leaves also are prescribed to be eaten and that they must be eaten after 
they be dried and boyled." * 

Arundinaria japonica Sieb. & Zucc. Gramineae. cane. 

Northern Japan. When the young shoots appear in early svmimer, they are carefully 
gathered and, under the name of take-no-ko, are used for food as we would employ young 
asparagus; though by no means so tender as the latter, they make a very desirable dish.' 
A. macrosperma Michx. large cane. 

North America. This is the species of cane which forms cane brakes in Virginia, 
Kentucky and southward. Flint,* in his Western States, says: " It produces an abundant 
crop of seed with heads very like those of broom com. The seeds are farinaceous and are 
said to be not much inferior to wheat, for which the Indians and occasionally the first 
settlers substituted it." 

Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 346. 1879. 

Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 314. 1879. 

'Seemann, B. Journ. Bol. 1:2$. 1863. 

* Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. j,\^. 1879. 

' Pallas, P. S. Trav. Russia 2:449. 1803. 

' Gerarde. J. Herb. 835. 1633 or 1636. 

' Penhallow, D. P. Amer. Nat. 16:121. 1882. 

Flint, T. West. Slates 1:80, Si. 1828. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 71 

Asaruin canadense Linn. Aristolochiaceae. snakeroot. wild ginger. 

North America. Barton ' says the dried, piilverized root is commonly used in many 
parts of our country as a substitute for ginger, and Balfour ^ say^ it is used as a spice in 

Asclepias syriaca Linn. Asclepiadeae. milkweed, silkweed. 

North America. Kalm ' says the French in Canada use the tender shoots of milk- 
weed in spring, preparing them like asparagus, and that they also make a sugar of the 
flowers; a very good, brown, palatable sugar. Fremont ^ found the Sioux Indians of the 
upper Platte eating the young pods, boiling them with the meat of the buffalo. Jefferys,^ 
in his Natural History of Canada, says: " What they call here the cotton-tree is a plant 
which sprouts like asparagus to the height of about three feet and is crowned with several 
tufts of flowers; these are shaken early in the morning before the dew is off of them when 
there falls from them with the dew a kind of honey, which is reduced into sugar by boiling; 
the seed is contained in a pod which encloses also a very fine sort of cotton." In 1835, 
Gen. Dearborn * of Massachusetts recommended the use of the young shoots of milkweed 
as asparagus, and Dewey ' says the young plant is thus eaten. In France the plant is 
grown as an ornament. 

A. tuberosa Linn, butterfly weed, pleurisyroot. tuber-root. 

Northeastern America. The tubers are boiled and used by the Indians. The Sioux 
of the upper Platte prepare from the flowers a crude sugar and also eat the young seed-pods. 
Some of the Indians of Canada use the tender shoots as an asparagus.' 

Asimina triloba Dun. Anonaceae. papaw. 

Middle and southern United States. All parts of the tree have a rank smell, and the 
fruit is reUshed by few except negroes.' Vasey says the fruit, about four inches long, 
when ripe has a rich, luscious taste. " The pulp of the fruit," says Flint,'" " resembles 
egg-custard in consistence and appearance. It has the same creamy feeUng in the mouth 
and unites the taste of eggs, cream, sugar and spice. It is a natural custard, too lucious 
for the relish of most people. The fruit is nutritious and a great resource to the savages." 

Asparagus acerosus Roxb. Liliaceae. 

East Indies and Burma. This species was foimd by Mason " to be a passable substitute 
for ovu- garden asparagvis. 

Barton, W. P. C. Med. Bot. 2:89. 1818. 

Balfour, J. H. Man. Bot. 576. 1875. 

' Kalm, P. Trav. No. Amer. 2:202. 1772. 

* Fremont Explor. Exped. 16. 1845. 

' Jefferys, T. Nat. Hist. Amer. 42. 1760. 

Dearborn Me. Farm. Apr. 10, 1835. 

' Dewey, C. Rpt. Herb. Flow. Pis. Mass. 145. 1840, 

Dodge U. S. D.A. Rpt. 405. 1870. 

Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. i:gi. 1831. 
"Flint, E. West. States 1:72. 1828. (Annona triloba) 
" Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 476. 1879. 


A. acutifolius Linn, asparagus. 

Mediterranean regions. The young shoots are eaten in Italy, Spain, Portugal and 
by the Greeks in Sicily.^' * They are thin, bitter and often stringy. 

A. adscendens Roxb. 

Himalayas and Afghanistan. From this plant is made, according to Modeen Sheriff, 
the genuine sufed mush, called in the Deccan shakakul-hindi and used as a substitute for 

A. albus Linn, garden-hedge. 

Western Mediterranean region. The yoting heads are cut from wild plants and 
brought to table in Sicily, but they form but a poor substitute for cultivated asparagiis.* 

A. aphyllus Linn. 

Mediterranean region. The young shoots are collected and eaten in Greece.' 

A. laricinus Burch. 

A shrubby species of South Africa. Dr. Pappe ' says that it produces shoots of 
excellent tenderness and aromatic taste. 

A. officinalis Linn, asparagus. 

Europe, Caucasian regions and Siberia. This plant, so much esteemed in its culti- 
vated state, is a plant of the seashore and river bants of southern Eiirope and the Crimea. 
It is now natiu-alized in many parts of the world. In the southern parts of Russia and 
Poland, the waste steppes are covered with this plant. Unger ' says it is not found either 
wild or ciiltivated in Greece, but Daubeny * says at the present time it is known under 
the name of asparaggia, and Booth ' says it is common. Probably the mythological men- 
tion of the asparagus thickets which concealed Perigyne, beloved of Theseus, the plant, 
in consequence, being protected by law among the lonians inhabiting Caria referred 
to another species. 

Cultivated asparagus seems to have been unknown to the Greeks of the time of 
Theophrastus and Disocorides, and the word asparagos seems to have been used for the 
wild plant of another species. The Romans of the time of Cato, about 200 B. C, knew 
it well, and Cato's directions for culture would answer fairly well for the gardeners of 
today, except that he recommends starting with the seed of the wild plant, and this seems 
good evidence that the wild and the cultivated forms were then of the same type as they 
are today. Columella," in the first century, recommends transplanting the young roots 
from a seed-bed and devotes some space to their after-treatment. He offers choice of 

> Hooker, W. J. Journ. Bot. 1:211. 1834. 
2 Mueller, P. Sel. Pis. 54. 1891. 
' Kckering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 736. 1879. 
* Hooker, W. J. Journ. Bot. 1:211. 1834. 
' Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 165. 1879. 
Mueller,?. Sel. Pis. 55. 1891. 
' Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 358. 1859. 
' Daubeny, C. Trees, Shrubs, Anc. 127. 1865. 
Booth. W.B. Treas. Bot. 1:101. 1870. 
' Columella lib. 9, c. 3. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 73 

activated seed or that from the wild plant, without indicating preference. Pliny,' who 
also wrote in the first century, says that asparagus, of all the plants of the garden, receives 
the most praiseworthy care and also praises the good quality of the kind that grows wild 
in the island of Nesida near the coast of Campania. In his praise of gardens,* he says: 
" Nature has made the asparagus wild, so that any one may gather as found. Behold, 
the highly-manured asparagus may be seen at Ravenna weighing three pounds. ' ' Palladius,' 
an author cf the third century, rather praises the sweetness of the wild form found growing 
among the rocks and recommends transplanting it to such places otherwise worthless 
for agriculture, but he also gives full directions for garden culture with as much care as 
did Cato. Gesner ^ quotes Pomponius, who lived in the second century, as saying that 
there are two kinds, the garden and the wild asparagus, and that the wild asparagus is 
the more pleasant to eat. Suetonius,* about the beginning of the second century, informs 
us how partial the Emperor Augustus was to asparagus, and Erasmus ' also mentions it. 

A. racemosus Willd. racemose asparagus. 

East Indies, African tropics and Australia. In India, the tubers are candied as 
a sweetmeat. This preparation, however, as Dutt states,' has scarcely any other taste 
or flavor besides that of the sugar. Firminger * says the preserve prepared from the 
blanched shoots is very agreeable. 

A. sannentosus Linn. 

East Indies. The long, fleshy, whitish root is used as food by the people of Ceylon 
and, in the candied state, is often brought to India from China.' 

A. verticillatus Linn. 

South Russia. The young shoots, according to Chaubard,'" are eaten in the 

Asperula odorata Linn. Rubiaceae. woodroof. 

Europe and the adjoining portions of Asia. The flowers are sweet-scented. The 
herbage is not fragrant when fresh but, after being gathered for a short time, it gives out 
the perfvune of new hay and retains this property for years. In Germany, woodroof is 
used for imparting a flavor to some of the Rhine wines. In England, it is ctiltivated 
occasionally as a garden herb, being used for flavoring cooling drinks. Its seed is advertised 
in American garden catalogs. Woodroof will thrive in the shade of most trees and grows 
in all kinds of garden soil. 

' Bostock and Riley. Nat. Hist. Pliny 4: 188. 1856. 

' Pliny c. 19. 

' Palladius lib. 3, c. 24; lib. 4, c. 9. 

Script. Rei Rust. 1788, Lexicon, art. Asparagus. 

'Mcintosh, C. Book Card. 2:177. 1855. 


' Dutt, U. C. Mat. Med. Hindus 260. 1877. 

Firminger, T. A. C. Card. Ind. 121. 1874. 
Ainslie, W. Mat. Ind. 2:409. 1826. 

' Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 525. 1879. 

74 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

Asphodeline lutea Reichb. Liliaceae. asphodel. Jacob's rod. king's spear. 

Region of the Mediterranean and the Caucasus. This plant is mentioned as covering 
large tracts of land in Apulia and as being abundant in Sicily. It was fabled to grow 
in the Elysian fields, and hence the ancient Greeks were wont to place asphodel on the 
tombs of their friends. The root is mentioned as an esculent by Pythagoras.' Pliny ^ 
says the roots of asphodel were generally roasted vmder embers and then eaten with salt 
and oil and when mashed with figs were thought a most excellent dish. Phillips,' exer- 
cising some imagination, says: "Asphodel was to the ancient Greeks and Romans what 
the potato now is to us, a bread plant, the value of which cannot be too highly estimated. 
It has long since given way to its successors in favor." 

Aster tripolium Linn.- Compositae. aster. 

Northern Africa, Asia, the Orient and Europe. The somewhat fleshy leaves of this 
aster are occasionally gathered to make a kind of pickle.* 

Astragalus aboriginorum Richards. Leguminosae. astragalus. 

Arctic North America. The roots are eaten by the Cree and Stone Indians of the 
Rocky Mountains.^ 

A. adscendens Boiss. & Haussk. 

Persia. The plant affords an abundance of gum and also a manna.* 

A. boeticus Linn. Swedish coffee. 

Mediterranean region. In certain parts of Germany and Hungary, this plant is 
cultivated for its seeds, which are roasted, ground and used as a substitute for coffee. 
Its culture is the same as that of the common pea or tare. The name applied to the seeds, 
Swedish coffee, would indicate that it is also grown in Scandinavia. 

A. caryocarpus Ker-Gawl. ground plum. 

Mississippi region of North America. The unripe fruits are edible and are eaten 
raw or cooked. 

A. christianus Linn. 

Asia Minor and Syria. In Taxirus, the roots of the great, yellow milk-vetch are 
sought as an article of food.' 

A. creticus Lam. 

Greece. This plant yields tragacanth * 

A. fiorulentus Boiss. & Haussk. 

Persia. The plant yields a manna.' 

Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Ph. lo6. 1879. 

2 Bostock and Riley Nat. Hist. Pliny 4:360. 1856. 

' PhiUips, H. Comp. Kitch. Card. 1:35. 1831. 

* Masters, M. T. Treas. Bot. 3:1173. 1870. 

'Brown, R. Bot. Soc. Edinb. 9:381. 1868. (Phaca aboriginorum) 
' Fluckiger and Hanbury Pharm. 174. 1879. 
' Fraser, J. B. Mesopotamia 2,5^- 1842. 
BaiUon, H. Hist. Pis. 2:378. 1872. 

Fluckiger and Hanbury PAorm. 415. 1879. 


A. gummifer Labill. 

Syria. This is another species suppljang a source of tragacanth.^ 
A. hamosus Linn. 

Mediterranean region to India. The plant is grown particularly on account of the 
singularity of its fruits which, before maturity, resemble certain worms. They are of 
a mediocre taste but are employed in salads chiefly to cause an innocent surprise.^ 
A. kurdicus Boiss. 

Kurdistan and Syria. The plant affords tragacanth.' 
A. leioclados Boiss. 

Persia. Tragacanth is produced by this plant.* 
A. mexicanus A. DC. 

Open plains and prairies from Illinois westward and southward. The unripe fruits 
are edible and are eaten raw or cooked by travelers.' 

Astrocaryum acaule Mart. Palmae. 

Brazil. This is a palm of the Rio Negro. The fniit is edible.* 
A. murumura Mart, murumura. 

A palm of the Brazilian forest. The fruit, according to Kunth, has an agreeable 
flavor and at first a scent resembling musk but afterwards that of a melon. Wallace 
states that the fleshy covering of the fruit is rather juicy and is eatable.' 
A. tucuma Mart. 

Upper Amazon and Rio Negro. The fleshy part of the fruit is esteemed for food 
by the Indians.* The yellowish, fibrous pulp is eaten by the natives.' 

Astronia papetaria Bliune. Melastomaceae. 

A tree of the Moluccas. Its subacid leaves are cooked as a sauce for fish.'" 

Athamanta cervariaefolia DC. Umbelliferae. spignel. 
Tenerifle Islands. The root is said to be eaten." 

A. cretensis Linn, candy carrot. 

Southern Europe. An agreeable liquor is made from the seeds. 

A. matthioli Wulf. 

Southeastern Europe. The plant has an edible root.'^ 

> Treas. Bol. 106. 1870. 

' Vilmorin Veg. Card. 510, 511. 1885. 

' Fluckiger and Hanbury Pharm. 174. 1879. 

< Ibid. 

Gray, A. Man. Bot. 132. 1868. 

Seemann, B. Pop. Hist. Palms 74. 1856. 
' Ibid. 

Seemann, B. Pop. Hist. Palms y^. 1856. 

Bates, H. W. Nat. Amaz. 647. 1879. Humboldt Libr. Set. 
" Syrae, J. T. Treas. Bot. 1:106. 1870. 

"Baillon, H. Hist. Pis. 7:192. 1881. 
" Ibid. 

76 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

Atherosperma moschatum Labill. Monimiaceae. tasmanian sassafras tree. 
Australia. Its aromatic bark has been used as a substitute for tea.' 

Atriplex halimus Liim. Chenopodiaceae. sea orach. 

A plant of the seashores of Europe and the Mediterranean countries and salines as 
far as Siberia. Sea orach is one of the few indigenous plants of Egypt that affords sustenance 
to man. It is mentioned by Antipharues ^ as esculent ; by Dioscorides as cooked and eaten ; 
by Toumefort as eaten in Greece. The men of the Euphrates expedition often used this 
species as a culinary vegetable. 

A. hortensis Linn, butter leaves, mountain spinach, orach. 

Cosmopolitan. Orach has long been used as a kitchen vegetable in Europe. It was 
known to the ancient Greeks under the name of atraphaxis and Dioscorides writes that it 
was eaten boiled. It was known to the Romans under the name of atriplex. Orach was 
introduced into English gardens in 1548 and was long used, as it still is, in many countries 
to correct the acidity and the green color of sorrel. It is grown in three varieties.' 

Orach was known to Turner * in England in 1538, who calls it areche, or red oreche. 
In 1686, Ray ^ mentions the white and red, as mentioned by Gerarde * in 1597. In 1623, 
Bauhin ' mentions the red, the white and the dark green. In 1806, three kinds are named 
by McMahon * as in American gardens. 

Attalea cohune Mart. Palmae. cohune palm. 

Honduras. The tree bears a fruit, about the size of a large egg, growing in clusters 
resembling a bunch of grapes. The kernel tastes somewhat like that of the cocoanut 
but is far more oleaginous and the oil is superior.' 

A. compta Mart. 

Brazil. The seed-vessels are eaten as a deUcacy.'" 

A. excelsa Mart, urucuri palm. 

Amazon region. Bates " says the fruit is similar in size and shape to the date and 
has a pleasantly flavored, juicy pulp. The Indians did not eat it but he did, although 
its wholesomeness was questionable. 

Avena brevis Roth. Gramineae. fly's leg. short oat. 

Europe. The Germans call this species a native plant and say that it grows wild 

' Smith, J. Dom. Bot. 248. 1871. 

' Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 12. 1879. 

'Fraser, J. B. Mesopotamia 35g. 1842. {A. orache) 

* Turner Libellus. 1538. 
^Ra.y Hist. PI. 191. 1686. 

Gerarde, J. Herb. 256. 1597. 

' Bauhin, C. Pmax 119. 1623. 

McMahon, B. Amer. Card. Cal. 321. 1806. 

Temple, R. Journ. Sac. Arts 2:500. No. 81. 
Masters, M. T. Tre'as. Bot. 1:110. 1870. 
" Bate.s, H. W. Nat. Amaz. 719. 1879. Humboldt Libr. Set. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 77 

among grain. It is cultivated in mountainous districts of Europe, as in those of Auvergne 
and Forez, because it ripens quickly, where the country people call it piedo de mouche, 
or fly's leg, because of the appearance of the dark awns.' In some parts of France, on 
accovmt of its excellence for fodder, it is called avoine a fourrage. 

A. fatua Linn, drake, flayer, potato oat. Tartarean oat. wild oat. 

Europe, the Orient and Asia. This is the common wild oat of California. It may 
have been introduced by the Spaniards but it is now spread over the whole country many 
miles from the coast. The grain is gathered by the Indians of California and is used as 
a bread com. In 1852, Professor Buckman ^ sowed a plat of ground with seeds collected 
in 1851 and in 1856 had for the produce poor, but true, samples of what are known 
as the potato and Tartarean oat. In i860, the produce was good white Tartarean and 
potato oats. 

A. nuda Linn, naked oat. peel corn, pillcorn. 

Southern Europe. This is probably an oat produced by cultivation. The Chinese 
are said to cultivate a variety of it with a broad, flat rachis. It was growing in England, 
according to Turner, in 1538. It is now, and has been for some time, among the seeds 
of our seedsmen. 

A. orientalis Schreb. Siberian oat. Tartarean oat. 

Southern Europe and the Orient. Although the name leads to the supposition that 
this oat had its origin in the dry table-lands of Asia, yet we are not aware, says Lindley,' 
that any evidence exists to show that it is so. We only know it as a cultivated plant. 
Phillips* says the Siberian oat reached England in 1777, and Unger' says it was brought 
from the East to Europe at the end of the preceding century. 

A. sativa Linn. ha.ver. oat. 

The native land of the common oat is given as Abyssinia by Pickering.' linger^ 
says the native land is unknown, although the region along the Danube may pass as such. 
The oat is probably a domesticated variety of some wild species and may be A. strigosa 
Schreb., fovmd wild in grain fields throughout Europe. Professor Buckman believed 
A. fatua Linn., to be the original species, as in eight years of cultivation he changed this 
plant into good cultivated varieties. Unger * says the Celts and the Germans, as far 
as can be ascertained, cultivated this oat 2000 years ago, and it seems to have been dis- 
tributed from Europe into the temperate and cold regions of the whole world. It was 
known to the Egyptians, Hebrews, Greeks and Romans. De CandoUe,' however, writes 

' Bon Jard. 655. 1882. 

' Buckman, J. Treas. Bot. i: 11. 1870. 

Morton Cyc. Agr. 1:171. 1869. 

Phillips, H. Comp. Kitch. Card. 2:12,. 1831. 

Unger, F. V. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 302. 1859. 

Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 341. 1879. 
' Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 302. 1859. 

De CandoUe, A. Geog. Bot. 2:939. 1855- 

78 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

that the oat was not cultivated by the Hebrews, the Egyptians, the ancient Greeks or 
the Romans and is now cultivated in Greece only as an object of curiosity.' The oat is 
not cultivated for human food in India.' 

This grain is not mentioned in Scripture and hence would seem to be unknown to 
Egypt or Syria.' The plant is noticed by Virgil* in his Georgics with the implication 
that its culture was known. Pliny ' mentions the plant. It is, hence, qtiite probable 
that the Romans knew the oat principally as a forage crop. Pliny ' says that the Ger- 
mans used oatmeal porridge as food. Dioscorides ^ and Galen * make similar statements, 
but the latter adds that although it is fitter food for beasts than men yet in times of famine 
it is used by the latter. From an investigation of the lacustrine remains of Switzerland, 
Hear ' finds that during the Bronze age oats were known, the oat-grain being somewhat 
smaller than that produced by our existing varieties. Turner i" observes, in 1568, that 
the naked oat grew in Sussex, England. The bearded oat was brought from Barbary 
and was cultivated in Britain about 1640; the brittle oat came from the south of Europe 
in 1796; the Spanish oat was introduced in 1770; the Siberian, in 1777; the Pennsylva- 
nian, in 1785; the fan-leaved, from Switzerland in 1791." In Scotland, the oat has long 
been a bread grain and, about 1850, Peter Lawson '^ gives 40 varieties as cultivated. This 
cereal was sown by Gosnold " on the Elizabeth Islands, Massachusetts, in 1602; is recorded 
as cultivated in Newfoundland" in 1622; was growing at Lynn, Mass.,'^ in 1629-33. It 
was introduced into New Netherland ' prior to 1626 and was cultivated in Virginia '^ 
previous to 1648. The Egyptian, or winter oat, was known in the South in 1800. In 
1880, 36 named kinds were grown in the state of Kansas.'* The oat grows in Norway and 
Sweden as far north as 64 to 65 but is scarcely known in the south of France, Spain or 
Italy, and in tropical countries its culture is not attempted. 

A. strigosa Schreb. bristle-pointed oat. meagre oat. 

Europe. Pickering '' says this plant is of the Tauro-Caspian countries; it was first 

' De Candolle, A. Geog. Bot. 2:939. 1855. 

2 Ibid. 



'Phillips, H. Comp. Kitch. Card. 2:<). 1831. 

Stille, A. Therap. Mat. Med. 1:125. 1874. 

' Ibid. 

' Ibid. 

" Card. Chron. io(,&. 1866. 
Phillips, H. Comp. Kitch.Gard. 2:ii. 1831. 
" Ibid. 

" Lawson, P. Prize Essays Highland Soc. 4:312. 1 851. 
" U. S. Pat. Off. Rpl. 159. 1853. 
" Ibid. 

"Wood, W. New Eng. Prosp. 81. 1634. 
" U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 159. 1853. 
" Ibid. 

" Kansas Bd. Agr. Rpt. 19. 1880. 
"Pickering, C. Chron. Hisl. Pis. 1031. 1879. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 79 

observed in Germany in 1771;' by Retz = in Sweden in 1779; and the same year by Wither- 
ing ' in Britain. Lindley ^ says it is found wild in abundance in grain fields all over Europe. 
The smaUness of the grain renders this oat unfit for cultivation except on poor, mountainous 
places, where nothing better may be had. The Germans, however, have much improved it 

Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. Geraniaceae. bilimbi. blimbing. cucumber tree. 

East Indies and China. The fruit is of the form and size of a gherkin, with a smooth, 
thin, pale green, translucent rind like that of a ripe grape. When ripe, the flesh is as 
soft as butter and has somewhat the flavor of an unripe gooseberry, too acid to be eaten 
except when cooked.^ Brandis ' speaks of it as pickled or preserved in sugar, and Smith ^ 
writes that the flowers are made into conserves. 

A. carambola Linn, blimbing. caramba. carambola. country gooseberry. 

East Indies and China. This plant has been cultivated for its fruit for ages in trop- 
ical and subtropical India. The form of the fruit is oblong, with five prominent angles; 
its skin is thin, green at first and yellowish afterwards; the flesh is soft and exceedingly 
juicy like a plum, with a gratefvil, acid flavor. In Hindustan and Ceylon, the fruit is 
sometimes as big as the two fists. In Stmiatra, there are two sorts which are used chiefly 
in cookery.* In Bengal, there are two varieties, one with acid, the other with sweet fruit,' 
as also in Burma.'" The fruit is used as a pickle by Europeans and the flowers are said 
to be made into a conserve. 

Avicennia officinalis Linn. Verbenaceae. new Zealand mangrove. 

Region of the Caspian. This plant transudes a grnn. which the natives of New Zea- 
land esteem as a food." The kernels are bitter but edible.'^ 

Aydendron firmulum Nees. Laurineae. pichurim bean, toda specie. 

Brazil. The Portugese of the Rio Negro, a branch of the Amazon, gather the aro- 
matic seeds, known in trade by the names of the pichurim bean and toda specie. The 
seed is grated like nutmeg. 

Babiana plicata Ker-Gawl. Irideae. baboon-root. 

South Africa The root is sometimes boiled and eaten by the colonists at the Cape." 

' Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 103 1. 1879. 
' Ibid. 

* Morton Cyc. Agr. 172. 1869. 

' Firminger, T. A. C. Card. Ind. 236. 1874. 

Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 46. 1874. 

' Smith, J. Diet. Econ. Pis. 54. 1882. 

' Lindley, J. Trans. Hort. Soc. Land. 5:115. 1824. 

Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 46. 1874. 

" Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. (x)0. 1879. 

" Nuttall, T. No. Amer. Sylva 2:144. 1865. (^4. resinifera) 

Drury, H. Useful Pis. Ind. 57. 1858. (^. iomenlosa) 

" Thunberg, C. P. Trav. 1:285. 1795- {Gladiolus plici.tu's'\ 

8o sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

Baccaurea dulcis Muell. Euphorhiaceae. 

Malayan Archipelago; cultivated in China.' The fruits of this species are rather 
larger than a cherry, nearly round and of a yellowish color. The pulp is luscious and 
sweet and is greatly eaten in Sumatra, where the tree is called choopah and in Malacca, 
where it goes by the i\ame of rambeh.^ 

B. sapida Muell. 

East Indies and Malay. This plant is cultivated for its agreeable fruits. The 
Hindus call it lutqua? 

B. sp.? 

India. Royle^ says the plant yields the tampui, a fruit ranking in point of taste 
and flavor along with the lausch. 

Bactris gasipaes H. B. & K. Palmae. peach palm. 

Venezuela. On the Amazon, says Bates, ^ this plant does not grow wild but has been 
cultivated from time immemorial by the Indians. The fruit is dry and mealy and may 
be compared in taste to a mixtvire of chestnuts and cheese. Bunches of sterile or seedless 
fruit sometimes occur at Ega and at Para. It is one of the principal articles of food at 
Ega when in season and is boiled and eaten with treacle and salt. Spencer ' compares 
the taste of the mealy pericarp, when cooked, to a mixture of potato and chestnut but 
says it is superior to either. Seemann ^ says in most instances the seed is abortive, the 
whole fridt being a farinaceous mass. Humboldt says every cluster contains from 5 
to 80 fruits, yellow like apples but purpling as they ripen, two or three inches in diameter, 
and generally without a kernel; the farinaceous portion is as yellow as the yolk of an egg, 
slightly saccharine and exceedingly nutritious. He found it cultivated in abundance 
along the upper Orinoco. In Trinidad, the peach palm is said to be very prolific, bearing 
two crops a year, at one season the fruit all seedless and another season bearing seeds. 
The seedless fruits are highly appreciated by natives of all classes.* 

B. major Jacq. prickly palm. 

West Indies. The fruit is the size of an egg with a succulent, purple coat from which 
wine may be made. The nut is large, with an oblong kernel and is sold in the markets 
under the name of cocorotes.^ 

B. maraja Mart, maraja palm. 

Brazil. This palm has a fruit of a pleasant, acid flavor from which a vinous beverage 
is prepared."* 

' Royle, J. F. Illustr. Bol. Himal. i: 136. 1839. 
Smith, A. Treas. Bot. 2:887. 1870. 

Royle, J. F. Illustr. Bot. Himal. i : 136. 1839. 

* Royle, J. F. Illustr. Bot. Himal. i: 138. 1839. 

Bates, H. W. Nai. Amaz. 728. 1879. Humboldt Libr. Set. 
Mueller, F. Sel. Pis. 63. 1891. 
'Seemann, B. Pop. Hist. Palms 209. 1856. 
Prestoe Trinidad Bot. Card. Rpt. 39. 1880. {Guilielma speciosa) 
Titford, W. J. Hort. Bot. Amer. 109. 1812. 
"Seemann, B. Pop^ Hist. Palms 98. 1 85-). 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 8i 

B. minor Jacq. prickly pole, tobago cane. 

Jamaica. The fruit is dark piirple, the size of a cherry and contains an acid juice 
which Jacquin says is made into a sort of wine. The fruit is edible but not pleasant.'' ^ 

Bagassa guiaoensis Aubl. Urticaceae. 

Gviiana. The tree bears an orange-shaped edible fruit.' 

Balanites aegyptica Delile. Simaruheae. zachun-oil tree. 

Northern Africa, Arabia and Palestine. A shrubby, thorny bush of the southern 
border of the Sahara from the Atlantic to Hindustan.'' It is called in equatorial Africa 
m'choonchoo; the edible drupe tastes like an intensely bitter date.^ 

Balsamorhiza hookeri Nutt. Compositae. balsam-root. 

Northwestern America. The thick roots of this species are eaten raw by the Nez 
Perc6 Indians and have, when cooked, a sweet and rather agreeable taste.' 

B. sagittata Nutt. oregon sunflower. 

Northwestern America. The roots are eaten by the Nez Perc^ Indians in Oregon, 
after being cooked on hot stones. They have a sweet and rather agreeable taste.' 
Wilkes * mentions the Orgeon simflower of which the seeds, poimded into a meal called 
mielito, are eaten by the Indians of Puget Sound. 

Bambusa. Gramineae. 

In India, the Bambusa flowers so frequently that in Mysore and Orissa the seeds 
are mixed with honey and eaten like rice.' The farina of the seeds is eaten in China.'" 
In Amboina, in the East Indies, the young bamboo shoots, cut in slices and pickled, are 
used as a pro-vdsion for long voyages and are sold in the markets as a culinary vegetable.'' 
In the Himalayas, the young shoots are eaten as a vegetable, and the seeds of a variety 
called praong in Sikkim are boiled and made into cakes or into beer.'^ Williams " says: 
" In China the tender shoots are cultivated for food and are, when four or five inches 
high, boiled, pickled, and comfited." Fortune '* says: " In China the yoimg shoots are 
cultivated for food and are taken to market in large quantities." 

' Titford, W. J. Hort. Bot. Amer. 112. 1814. (Cocos guineensis) 

' Lunan, J. Hort. Jam. 2:94. 1814. 

Masters, M. T. Treas. Bot. 1:117. 1870- 

Smith, J. ZJoOT. 5o/. 455. 1871. 

' Speke, J. H. Journ. Disc. Source Nile 564. 1864. 

'U. S. D. A. Rpt. 406. 1870. {B.incana) 

' Black, A. A. Treas. Bot. 1:120. 1870. (B. helianthoides) 

Wilkes, C. U. S. Explor. Exped. 4:434. 1845. 

Humboldt, A. Views Nature 3$$. 1850. 

' Williams, S. W. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 475. i860. 
" La Billardi&re Voy. Recherche Perouse 1:395. 1799- 
"Hooker, J. D. Himal. Journ. 1:313. 1854. 
Williams, S. W. U. S. Pal. Off. Rpt. 475. i860. 
"Fortune, R. Resid. Chinese 190. 1857. 

82 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

B. arundlnacea Willd. bamboo. 

East Indies. The seeds of this and other species of Bambusa have often saved the 
lives of thousands in times of scarcity in India, as in Orissa in 1812, in Kanara in 1864 
and in 1866 ' in Malda. The plant bears whitish seed, like rice, and Drury ' says these 
seeds are eaten by the poorer classes. 

B. tulda Roxb. bamboo. 

East Indies and Burma. In Bengal, the tender yoiong shoots are eaten as pickles 
by the natives.' 

Banisteria crotonifolia A. Juss. Malpighiaceae. 
Brazil. The fruit is eaten in Brazil.* 

Baptisia tinctoria R. Br. Leguminosae. horse-fly weed, wild indigo. 

Northeastern America. Barton ' says the young shoots of this plant, which resemble 
asparagus in appearance, have been used in New England as a substitute for asparagus. 

Barbarea arcuata Reichb. Cruciferae. bitter cress. 

Europe and Asia. The plant serves as a bitter cress. 

B. praecox R. Br. American cress, belle isle cress, early winter cress, land 


Europe. This cress is occasionally cultivated for salad in the Middle States under 
the name scurvy grass and is becoming spontaneous farther south. It is grown in gardens 
in England as a cress and is used in winter and spring salads. In Germany, it is generally 
liked. In the Mauritius, it is n regular cultivation and is known as early winter cress. 
In the United States, its seeds are offered in seed catalogs. 

B. vulgaris R. Br. rocket, winter cress, yellow rocket. 

Europe and temperate Asia. This herb of northern climates has been cultivated 
in gardens in England for a long time as an early salad and also in Scotland, where the 
bitter leaves are eaten by some.* In early times, rocket was held in some repute ' but 
is now banished from cultivation yet appears in gardens as a weed. The whole herb, 
says Don,* has a nauseous, bitter taste and is in some degree mucilaginous. In Sweden, 
the leaves are boiled as a kale. In New Zealand, the plant is used by the natives as a 
food under the name, tot. Rocket is included in the list of American garden esculents 
by McMahon,' in 1806. In 1832, Bridgeman says winter cress is used as a salad in spring 
and autumn and fcy some boiled as a spinage. 

' Brandis, D. Forest PI. 566. 1874. 

' Drury, H. Useful Pis. Ind. 61. 1858. 

' Roxburgh, W. ffor/. Seng. 2:193. 1814. 

Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 1:635. 1831. 

' Barton, W. P. C. Med. Bot. 2:61. 1818. 

Johnson, C. P. Useful Pis. Gt. Brit. 31. 1862. 

' Gerarde, J. Herb. 243. 1633 or 1636. 2nd Ed. 

Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 1:159. 1831. 

McMahon, B. Amer. Card. Cat. 581. 1806. (Erysimum barbarea) 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 83 

Barringtonia alba Blume. Myrtaceae. bottle-brush tree. 
Moluccas. The yoimg leaves are eaten raw.' 

B. butonica Forst. 

Islands of the Pacific. This plant has oleaginoiis seeds and fruits which are eaten 
green as vegetables.' 

B. careya F. Muell. 

Australia. The fruit is large, with an adherent calyx and is edible.' 

B. edulis Seem. 

Fiji Islands. The rather insipid fruit is eaten either raw or cooked by the natives.* 

B. excelsa Bltime. 

India, Cochin China and the Moluccas. The fruit is edible and the young leaves 
are eaten cooked and in salad.' 

Basella rubra Linn. Chenopodiaceae. malabar nightshade. 

Tropical regions. This twining, herbaceous plant is cultivated in all parts of India, 
and the succulent stems and leaves are used by the natives as a pot-herb in the way of 
spinach.* In Burma, the species is cultivated and in the Philippines is seemingly wild 
and eaten by the natives.' It is also cultivated in the Mauritius ' and in every part of 
India, ^ where it occurs wild.'" Malabar nightshade was introduced to Europe in 1688 '^ 
and was grown in England in 1691,'^ but these references can hardly apply to the vege- 
table garden. It is, however, recorded in French gardens in 1824 and 1829.'' It is grown 
in France as a vegetable,'* a superior variety having been introduced from China in 1839.'* 
According to Livingstone, it is cultivated as a pot-herb in India.'* It is a spinach plant 
which has somewhat the odor of Ocimum basilicum.^'' The species is cultivated in almost 
every part of India as a spinach, and an infusion of the leaves in used as tea.'' It is 
called Malabar nightshade by Europeans of India." 

Baillon, H. Hist. Pis. 6:350. 1880. 

Baillon, H. Hist. Pis. 6:350. 1880. (B. speciosa) 

' Palmer, E. Journ. Roy. Soc. New So. Wales 17:94. 18 

Seemann, B. Fl. Viti. 82. 1865-73. 

'Baillon, H. Hist. Pis. 6:350. 1880. {B. coccinea) 

Firminger, T. A. C. Card. Ind. 145. 1874. (B. alba) 
'Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 696. 1879. (B. alba) 

Boier Horl. Maurit. 270. 1837. 

Drury, H. Useful Pis. Ind. 66. 1858. (B. alba) 
"Wight, R. Icon. Pis. 896. 1843. 
" Noisette Man. Jard. 559. i860. 
" Martyn Miller's Card. Diet. 1807. 
" Pirolle L'Hort Franc. 1824. 
" Robinson, W. Parks, Card. Paris 503. 1878. 
" Bon Jard. 432. 1882. 

' Drury, H. Useful Pis. Ind. 66. 1858. (B. alba) 
" Mueller, F. Sel. Pis. 66. 1891. 
" Drury, H. Useful Pis. Ind. 66. 1858. (B. alba) 
" Ibid. 

84 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

Bassia butyracea Roxb. Sapotaceae. indian-butter. phoolwa-oil plant. 

East Indies. The pulp of the fruit is eatable. The juice is extracted from the flowers 
and made into sugar by the natives. It is sold in the Calcutta bazaar and has all the 
appearance of date sugar, to which it is equal if not superior in quality.' An oil is 
extracted from the seeds, and the oil cake is eaten * as also is the pure vegetable butter 
which is called chooris and is sold at a cheap rate.' 

B. latifolia Roxb. k?ie. mahoua. yallah-oil plant. 

East Indies. The sucailent flowers fall by night in large qiuntities from the tree, 
are gathered early in the morning, dried in the sun and sold in the bazaars as an important 
article of food. They have a sickish, sweet taste and smell and are eaten raw or cooked. 
The ripe and imripe fruit is also eaten, and from the fruit is expressed an edible oil.'* 

B. longifolia Linn, illupie-oil plant, ilpa. 

East Indies. The flowers are eaten by the natives of Mysore, either dried, roasted, 
or boiled to a jelly.' The oil pressed from the fruits is to the common people of India 
a substitute for ghee and cocoanut oil in their curries.* 

Batis maritima Linn. Batideae. Jamaica samphire, saltwort. 
Jamaica. This low, erect, succulent plant is used as a pickle.^ 

Bauhinia esculenta Burch. Leguminosae. 

South Africa. The root is sweet and nutritious.* 

B. lingua DC. 

Moluccas. This species is used as a vegetable.' 

B. malabarica Roxb. 

East Indies and Biuma. The acid leaves are eaten.^' 

B. purpurea Linn. 

East Indies, Burma and China. The flower-buds are pickled and eaten as a 

B. tomentosa Linn. st. thomas' tree. 

Asia and tropical Africa. The seeds are eaten in the Punjab,^' and the leaves are 
eaten by natives of the Philippines as a substitute for vinegar. 

Drury, H. Useful Pis. Ind. 67. 1858. 

' Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 290. 1874. 

' Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 603. 1879. 

* Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 290. 1874. 

' Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 291. 1874. 

Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 4:35. 1831. 

'Smith, J. Dom.Bot. 237. 1871. 

' Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 328. 1859. 

Unger, P. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 359. 1859. 
" Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 159. 1874. 
" Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 160. 1874. 
" Drury, H. Usefid Pis. Ind. 74. 1873. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 85 

B. vahlii Wigh,t & Am. maloo creeper. 

East Indies. The pods are roasted and the seeds are eaten. Its seeds taste, when 
ripe, like the cashew-nut. 

B. variegata Linn, mountain ebony. 

East liidies, Burma and China. There are two varieties, one with purplish, the 
other with whitish flowers. The leaves and flower-buds are eaten as a vegetable and 
the flower-buds are often pickled in India.' 

Beckmannia erucaefonnis Host. Gramineae. 

Europe, temperate Asia and North America. According to Engelmann,^ the seeds 
are collected for food by the Utah Indians. 

Begonia barbata Wall. Begoniaceae. begonia. 

East Indies and Burma. The leaves, called tengoor, are eaten by the natives as a 
pot-herb.' Hooker * says the stems of many species are eaten in the Himalayas, when 
cooked, being pleasantly acid. The stems are made into a sauce in Sikkim. 

B. cucullata Willd. begonia. 

Brazil. The leaves are used as cooling salads. 

B. malabarica Lam. begonia. 

East Indies. Henfrey * says the plants are eaten as pot-herbs. 

B. picta Stn. begonia. 

Himalayas. The leaves have an acid taste and are used as food. 

Bellis perennis Linn. Compositae. English daisy. 

Etirope and the adjoining portions of Asia. Lightfoot ^ says the taste of the leaves 
is somewhat acid, and, in scarcity of garden-stuff, they have been used in some covmtries 
as a pot-herb 

Bellucia aubletii Naud. Melastomaceae. 

Guiana. A tree of Guiana which has an edible, yellow fruit.'' 

B. brasiliensis Naud. 

Brazil. The fruit is edible.* 

Benincasa cerifera Savi. Cucurbitaceae. wax gourd, white gourd, white pumpkin. 

Asia and African tropics. This annual plant is cultivated in India for its very large, 

handsome, egg-shaped gourd. The gourd is covered with a pale greenish-white, waxen 

'Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 161. 1874. 

' Brewer and Watson Bot. Cal. 2:264. 1880. 

Royle, J. F. lUtistr. Bot. Himal. 1:313. 1839. 

Hooker, J. D. Illustr. Himal. Pis. PI. XIIL 1855. 
Henfrey, A. Bot. 282. 1870. 

Lightfoot, J. Fl. Scot. 1:487. 1789. 

' Syme, J. T. Treas. Bot. 147. 1870. (Blakea quinquenervia) 
Baillon, H. Hist. Pis. 7:34. 1881. 

86 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

bloom. It is consumed by the natives ' in an unripe state in their curries.' This goxird 
is cultivated throughout Asia and its islands and in France as a vegetable.* It is described 
as delicate, quite like the cucumber and preferred by many.* The bloom of the fruit 
forms peetha wax and occurs in sufficient quantity to be collected and made into candles. 
This cucurbit has been lately introduced into European gardens. According to Bret- 
schneider,' it can be identified in a Chinese book of the fifth century and is mentioned 
as cultivated in Chinese writings of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. In 
1503-08, Ludovico di Varthema * describes this gourd in India imder the name como- 
langa. In 1859, Naudin ^ says it is much esteemed in southern Asia, partictilarly in China, 
and that the size of its fruit, its excellent keeping qualities, the excellence of its flesh and 
the ease of its culture shovild long since have brought it into garden culture. He had 
seen two varieties: one, the cylindrical, ten to sixteen inches long and one specimen twenty- 
four inches long by eight to ten inches in diameter, from Algiers; the other, an ovoid fruit, 
shorter, yet large, from China. The long variety was grown at the New York Agricul- 
tural Experiment Station in 1884 from seed from France. The fruit is oblong-cylindrical, 
resembling very closely a watermelon when, imripe but when ripe covered with a heavy 
glaucous bloom. 

This plant is recorded in herbariums as from the Philippine Islands, New Guinea, 
New Caledonia, Fiji Islands, Tahiti, New Holland and southern China and as ctiltivated 
in Japan and in China.' 

This species is the Cumbulant of Rheede Hort. Mai., 8, p. 5, t. 3; the Camolenga of 
Riunphius Amb. 5, 395, t. 143; the Cucurbita Pepo of Loureiro Cochinch. 593. 

Berberis angulosa Wall. Berberideae. barberry. 

India. This is a rare Himalayan species with the largest flowers and fruit of any 
of the thirteen species found on that range. In Sikkim, it is a shrub four or more feet 
in height, growing at an elevation of from 11,000 to 13,000 feet, where it forms a striking 
object in auttmm from the rich golden and red coloring of its foliage. The fruit is edible 
and less acid than that of the common species.' 

B. aquifolium Pursh. mahonia. mountain grape. Oregon grape. 

Western North America. This shrub is not rare in cultivation as an ornamental. 
It has deep blue berries in clusters somewhat resembling the frost grape and the flavor 
is strongly acid. The berries are used as food, and the juice when fermented makes, on 
the addition of sugar, a palatable and wholesome wine. It is said not to have much value 
as a fruit. It is common in Utah and its fruit is eaten, being highly prized for its medicinal 

Firminger, T. A. C. Card. Ind. 126. 1874. 

' MueUer, F. Sel. PL 67. 1891. 

' Robinson, W. Parks, Card. Paris 503. 1878. 

* Bon Jard. 432. 1882. 

Bretschneider, E. Bot. Sin. 59, 78, 83, 85. 1882. 

Jones, J. W. Trav. Varthema 1503-08. Hakl. Soc. Ed. 161. 1863. 

' Naudin Revue Cucurbit Ann. Set. Nat. 4th Ser., t. 12, p. 10. 

De CandoUe, A. & C. Monog. 3:513. 1881. 

Card, and For. 443. 1889. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 87 

properties.' The acid berry is made into confections and eaten as an antiscorbutic, under 
the name mountain grape. 

B. aristata DC. nepal barberry. 

East Indies. The Nepal barberry produces purple fruits covered with a fine bloom, 
which in India are dried in the sim like raisins and used like them at the dessert.^ It is 
native to the moxintains of Hindustan and is called in Arabic aarghees} The plants are 
quite hardy and fruit abundantly in English gardens. Downing cultivated it in America 
but it gave him no fruit.'' In Nepal, the berries are dried by the Hill People and are sent 
down as raisins to the plains.^ 

B. asiatica Roxb. Asiatic barberry. 

Region of Himalayas. According to Lindley, the fruit is round, covered with a 
thick bloom and has the appearance of the finest raisins. The berries are eaten in India.* 
The plants are quite hardy and fruit abundantly in English gardens. 

B. buxifolia Lam. Magellan barberry. 

This evergreen shrub is found native from Chile to the Strait of Magellan. Accord- 
ing to Dr. Philippi, it is the best of the South American species; the berries are quite large, 
black, hardly acid and but slightly astringent. The fruit, says Sweet, ^ is used in Eng- 
land both green and ripe as are gooseberries, for making pies and tarts. In Valdivia and 
Chiloe, provinces of Chile, they are frequently consumed. It has ripened fruit at Edin- 
burgh, and Mr. Cvmningham ' enthusiastically says it is as large as the Hamburg grape 
and equally good to eat. It is also grown in the gardens of the Horticultural Society, 
London, from which cions appear to have been distributed. Under the name Black Sweet 
Magellan, it is noticed as a variety in Downing. It was introduced into England about 

B. canadensis Pursh. American barberry. 

North America; a species found in the Alleghenies of Virginia and southward but 
not in Canada.' The berries are red and of an agreeable acidity.'" 

B. dai^imiii Hook, darwin's barberry. 

Chile and Patagonia. In Devonshire, England, the cottagers preserve the berries 
when ripe, and a party of school children admitted to where there are plants in fruit will 
clear the bushes of every berry as eagerly as if they were black currants." 

> Case Bot. Index 10. 1881. 

Downing, A. J. Fr. Fr. Trees Amer. 244. 1857. 

Pickering, C. Chron. Hist: Pis. 708. 1879. 

* Downing, A. J. Fr. Fr. Trees Amer. 244. 1857. 
'Wight, R. Illustr. Ind. Bot. 1:23. 1840. (B. cristata) 

Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 12. 1874. 

' Sweet, R. Brit. Flow. Card. 1:100. 1831. 
Loudon, J. C. Hort. 580. i860. (B. didcis) 
Gray, A. Man. Bot. $z. 1868. 
" Pursh, F. Fl. Amer. Septent. 1:219. 1814. 
^'^Gard. Chron. 28:21. 1882. 

88 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

B. empetrifolia Lam. fuegian barberry. 

Region of Magellan Strait. The berry is edible.' 

B. glauca DC. 

New Granada. The berry is edible.* 

B. lycium Royle. indian barberry. 

Himalayan region. In China, the fruit is preserved as in Europe, and the young 
shoots and leaves are made use of as a vegetable or for infusion as a tea.' 

B. nepalensis Sprang, mahonia. 

An evergreen of the Himalayas. The fruits are dried as raisins in the sun and sent 
down to the plains ofTndia for sale.^ 

B. nervosa Pursh. Oregon grape. 

Northwestern America; pine forests of Oregon. The fruit resembles in size and taste 
that of B. aquifolium.^ 

B. pinnata Lag. blue barberry. 

Mexico; a beautiful, blue-berried barberry very common in New Mexico. It is 
called by the Mexicans lena amorilla. The berries are very pleasant to the taste, being 
saccharine with a slight acidity.' 

B. sibirica Pall. Siberian barberry. 
Siberia. The berry is edible.' 

B. sinensis Desf. 

China. The berry is edible.' 

B. tomentosa Ruiz & Pav. hairy barberry. 
Chile. The berry is edible.' 

B. trifoliolata Moric. 

Western Texas. The bright red, acid berries are used for tarts and are less acid 
than those of B. vulgaris.^'' 

B. vulgaris Linn, barberry, jaundice berry, piprage. 

Europe and temperate Asia. This barberry is sometimes planted in gardens in 
England for its fruit. It was early introduced into the gardens of New England and 
increased so rapidly that in 1754 the Province of Massachusetts passed an act to prevent 

'Baillon, H. Hist. Pis. 3:68. 1874. Note. 


Smith, F. P. Contrib. Mat. Med. China 37. 1871. 

Royle, J. F. lUustr. Bol. Himal. 1 :64. 1839. 
Case So/. /n<iejc 37. 1881. 

Bigelow. J. M. Pacific R. R. Rpt. 4:7. 1856. 
'Baillon, H. Hist. Pis. y.68. 1874. 


" Torrey, J. Bol. U. S. Mex. Bound. Sun: 31. 1858. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 89 

its spreading.* The berries are preserved in sugar, in syrup, or candied and are esteemed 
by some. They are also occasionally pickled in vinegar, or used for flavoring. There 
are varieties with yellow, white, purple, and black fruits. A celebrated preserve is made 
from a stoneless variety at Rouen, France. The leaves were formerly used to season 
meat in Engfend.^ The berries are imported from Afghanistan into India under the name 
of currant. A black variety was found by Tournefort ' on the bank of the Euphrates, 
the fruit of which is said to be of delicious flavor. 

Bertholletia excelsa Humb. & Bonpl. Myrtaceae. Amazon nut. almonds of the 


Brazil. This is one of the most majestic trees of Guiana, Venezuela and Brazil. 
It furnishes the triangular nuts of commerce everjrwhere used as a food. It was first 
described in 1808.* An oil is expressed from the kernels and the bark is used in caulking 

Besleria violacea Aubl. Gesneraceae. 
Guiana. The purple berry is edible.^ 

Beta vulgaris Linn. Chenopodiaceae. beet, chard. Chilian beet, leaf-beet. 


Europe and north Africa. The beet of the garden is essentially a modern vegetable. 
It is not noted by either Aristotle ' or Theophrastus,^ and, although the root of the chard 
is referred to by Dioscorides and Galen,* yet the context indicates medicinal use. Neither 
Colimiella, Pliny nor Palladius mentions its culture, but Apicius,' in the third century, 
gives recipes for cooking the root of Beta, and Athenaeus,*" in the second or third century, 
quotes Diphilus of Siphnos as saying that the beet-root was grateful to the taste and a 
better food than the cabbage. It is not mentioned by Albertus Magnus " in the thirteenth 
century, but the word bete occurs in English recipes for cooking in 1390. 

Barbarus,^ who died in 1493, speaks of the beet as having a single, long, straight, 
fleshy, sweet root, grateful when eaten, and Ruellius,'' in France, appropriates the same 
description in 1536, as does also Fuchsius " in 1542; the latter figures the root as described 

' Hist. Mass. Hort. Soc. 30. 1880. 
Gerarde, J. Herb. 1326. 1633 or 1636. 
Tournefort Foy. Lctoji/ 2:168. 1718. 
Humboldt, A. Views Nat. IT). 1850. 
' Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 4:652. 1838. 

5ca/iger Aristotle 29. 1566. 

' Theophrastus Hist. PL Bodaeus Ed. 778. 1644. 

Fuchsius Hist. Stirp. 807. 1542. 

Apicius Opson. lib. 3, c. 2, p. 2. 
"> Turre, I>ryo(/> 443. 1685. 

" Albertus Magnus Veg. Jessen Ed. 1867. 
" Dioscorides Ruellius Ed. 124. 1529. 
Ruellius Nat. Stirp. 481. 1536. 
" Fuchsius Hist. Stirp. 807. 1543. 

-90 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

by Barbaras, having several branches and small fibres. In 1558, Matthiolus' says the 
white and black chards are common in Italian gardens but that in Germany they have 
a red beet with a swollen, turnip-like root which is eaten. In 1570, Pena and LobeP 
speak of the same plant but apparently as then rare, and, in 1576, Lobel ' figures this 
beet, and this figiu^e shows the first indication of an improved form, the root portion being 
swollen in excess over the portion by the collar. This beet may be considered the proto- 
type of the long, red varieties. In 1586, Camerarius* figures a shorter and thicker form, 
the prototype of our half-long blood beets. This same type is figtu-ed by Daleschamp,' 
1587, and also a new tj^DC, the Beta Romana, which is said in Lyte's Dodoens, 1586,' to be 
a recent acquisition. It may be considered as the prototype of our turnip or globular 
beets. . ^ 

Another form is the flat-bottomed red, of which the Egyptian and the Bassano of 
Vilmorin, as figured, may be taken as the type. The Bassano was to be found in all the 
markets of Italy in 1841,' and the Egyptian was a new sort about Boston in 1869.* Noth- 
ing is known concerning the history of this type. 

The first appearance of the improved beet is recorded in Germany about 1558 and 
in England about 1576, but the name used, Roman beet, implies introduction from Italy, 
where the half -long type was known in 1584. We may believe Ruellius's reference in 
1536 to be for France. In 1631, this beet was in French gardens tmder the name. Beta 
rubra pastinaca,^ and the cultvire of " betteraves " was described in Le Jardinier Solitaire, 
1612. Gerarde '" mentions the " Romaine beete " but gives no figure. In 1665, in Eng- 
land, only the Red Roman was listed by Lovell," and the Red beet was the only kind 
noticed by Townsend,'^ a seedsman, in 1726, and a second sort, the common Long Red, 
is mentioned in addition by Mawe," 1778, and by Bryant," 1783. In the United States, 
one kind only was in McMahon's '* catalog of 1806 the Red beet, but in 1828 four kinds 
are offered for sale by Thorbum.'* At present, Vilmorin '^ describes seventeen varieties 
and names and partly describes many others. 

' Matthiolus Comment. 249. 1558. 
' Pena and Lobel Advers. 93. 1570. 
' Lobel Obs. 124. 1576. 

Camerarius Epil. 255. 1586. 

Dalechamp Hist. Gen. PI. (Lugd.) 532. 1587. 

Dodoens Herb. 54. 1586. Lyte Ed. 
^ Card. Chron. 183. 1841. 

Trans. Mass. Hort. Soc. 70. 1869. 

Laurembergius Hor<. 191. 1632. 
'"Gerarde, J. Herb. 251. 1597. 
" Lovell Herb. 40. 1665. 
" Townsend Seedsman 22. 1726. 
" Mawe and Abercrombie Univ. Card. Bot. 1778. 
" Bryant Ft. Diet. 26. 1783. 
" McMahon, B. Amer. Card. Col. 580. 1806. 
w Thorbum Cat. 1828. 

I' Vilmorin Les Pis. Potag. 35. 1883. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 91 


Chard was the beta of the ancients and of the Middle Ages. Red chard was noticed 
by Aristotle 1 about 350 B. C. Theophrastus ^ knew two kinds the white, called 
Sicula, and the 'black (or dark green), the most esteemed. Dioscorides' also records 
two kinds. Eudemus, quoted by Athenaeus,* in the second century, names four; the 
sessile, the white, the common and the dark, or swarthy. Among the Romans, chard 
finds frequent mention, as by Colimiella,* Pliny,* Palladius' and Apicius.' In China 
is was noticed in writings of the seventh, eighth, fourteenth, sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries;' in Europe, by all the ancient herbalists. 

Chard has no Sanscrit name. The ancient Greeks called the species teutlion; the 
Romans, beta; the Arabs, selg; the Nabateans, silq.^" Albertus Magnus," in the thir- 
teenth century, uses the word acelga, the present name in Portugal and Spain. 

The wild form is found in the Canary Isles, the whole of the Mediterranean region 
as far as the Caspian, Persia and Babylon, perhaps even in western India, as also about 
the sea-coasts of Britain.*^ It has been sparingly introduced into kitchen-gardens for 
use as a chard." The red, white, and yellow forms are named from quite early times; 
the red by Aristotle, the white and dark green by Theophrastus and Disocorides. In 
1596, Bauhin " describes dark, red, white, yellow, chards with a broad stalk and the sea- 
beet. These forms, while the types can be recognized, yet have changed their appear- 
ance in our cultivated plants, a greater compactness and development being noted as 
arising from the selection and cultivation which has been so generally accorded in recent 
times. Among the varieties Vilmorin describes are the White, Swiss, Silver, Curled Swiss, 

and Chilian. 

Sea Beet. 

The leaves of the sea beet form an excellent chard and in Ireland are collected from 

the wild plant and used for food;'Mn England the plant is sometimes cultivated in 

gardens." This form has been ennobled by careful culture, continued tmtil a mangold 

was obtained." 

Scaliger Aristotle 69. 1566. 

Theophrastus Hist. PI. Bodaeus Ed. 778. 1644. 
Matthiolus Comment. 248. 1558. 
Turre Dryadum 442. 1685. 
Columella lib. 10, c. 251; Hb. 11, c. 3, etc. 

Pliny lib. 19, c. 40. 

' Palladius lib. 3, c. 24. 

Apicius Opson. lib. 3, c. 2, p. 2. 

Bretschneider, E. Bot. Sin. 53, 59, 79, 83. 1882. 
De CandoUe, A. Orig. Pis. Cult. 58. 1885. 

" Albertus Magnus Veg. Jessen Ed. 78. 1867. 

" Morton Cyc. Agr. 1:234. 1869. 

" Targioni-Tozzetti Trans. Hort. Soc. Land. 147. 1854. 

" Bauhin, C. Phytopinax 190. 1596. 

Johnson, C. P. Useful Pis. Gt. Brit. 215. 1862. 

" Morton Cyc. Agr. 1:234. 1869. 

" Agr. Gazette 218. 1879. 


Swiss Chard. 
Swiss chard is deemed by Ray to have been known to Gerarde, 1597, for Gerarde, 
in his Herball, indicates the sportive character of the seed as to color and mentions a height 
which is attained only by this plant. He says of it, " another sort hereof that was brought 
unto me from beyond the seas," and particularly notices the great breadth of the stalk; 
but the color particularly noticed is the red sort. Ray gives as a synonym Beta italica 
Parkinson. Swiss chard is quite variable in the stalks, according to the culture received. 

Silver-Leaf Beet. 
The siiver-leaf beet {Poir^e blonde h carde blanche Vilm. 1883) is a lighter green form 
of Swiss chard, as described by Vilmorin, but with shorter and much broader stalk. It 
seems to be a variety within the changes which can be effected by selection and culture 
and perhaps can be referred to the Chilean type. 

Chilean Beet. 

The Chilean beet is a form usually grown for ornamental purposes. The stalks 
are often very broad and twisted and the colors very clear and distinct, the leaf puckered 
and blistered as in the Curled Swiss. In the Gardeners' Chronicle,^ 1844, it is said that 
" these ornamental plants were introduced to Belgium some ten or twelve years previously." 
It is yellow or red and varies in all the shades of these two colors. In 1651, J. Bauhin' 
speaks of two kinds of chard as novelties: the one, white, with broad ribs; the other, red. 
He also speaks of a yellow form, differing from the kind with a boxwood-yellow root. In 
1655, Lobel ' describes a chard with yellowish stems, varied with red. The forms now 
found are described by their names: Crimson-veined Brazilian, Golden- veined Brazilian, 
Scarlet-ribbed Chilean, Scarlet-veined Brazilian, Yellow-ribbed Chilean and Red-stalked 

The modern chards are the broad-leaved ones and all must be considered as variables 
within a type. This type may be considered as the one referred to by Gerarde in 1597, 
whose " seedes taken from that plant which was altogether of one colour and sowen, doth 
bring foorth plants of many and variable colours." Our present varieties now come true 
to color in most instances but some seeds furnish an experience such as that which Gerarde 


Mangolt was the old German name for chard, or rather for the beet species, but in 
recent times the mangold is a large-growing root of the beet kind used for forage purposes. 
In the selections, size and the perfection of the root above ground have been important 
elements, as well as the desire for novelty, and hence we have a large number of very 
distinct -appearing sorts: the long red, about two-thirds above ground; the olive-shaped, 
or oval; the globe; and the flat-bottomed Yellow d'Obendorf. The colors to be noted 
are red, yellow and white. The size often obtained in single specimens is enormous, 

' Card. Chron. 5gi. 1844. (B. brasiliensis) 
' Bauhin, J. Hist. PL 2:^61. 1651. 
Lobel Stirp. lllustr. 84. 1655. 


a weight of 135 pounds * has been claimed in CaUfomia, and Gasparin in France vouches 
for a root weighing 132 poxinds. 

Very Uttle can be ascertained concerning the history of mangolds. They certainly 
are of modem introduction. Olivier de Serres,^ in France, 1629, describes a red beet 
which was citUivated for cattle-feeding and speaks of it as a recent acquisition from Italy. 
In England, it is said to have arrived from Metz ' in 1786; but there is a book advertised 
of which the following is the title: Culture and Use of the Mangel Wurzel, a Root of Scarcity, 
translated from the French of the Abbe de Commerell, by J. C. Lettson, with colored 
plates, third edition, 1787,* by which it would appear that it was known earlier. McMahon ^ 
records the mangold as in American culture in 1806. Vilmorin describes sixteen kinds 
and mentions many others. 

Sugar Beet. 

The sugar beet is a selected form from the common beet and scarcely deserves a sepa- 
rate classification. Varieties figured by Vilmorin are all of the type of the half-long red, 
and agree in being mostly underground and in being very or quite scaly about the collar. 
The sugar beet has been developed through selection of the roots of high sugar content 
for the seedbearers. The sugar beet industry was bom in France in 181 1, and in 1826 
the product of the crop was 1,500 tons of sugar. The use of the sugar beet could not, 
then, have preceded 181 1; yet in 1824 five varieties, the grosse rouge, petite rouge, rouge 
ronde, jaune and blanche are noted ' and the French Sugar, or Amber, reached American 
gardens before 1828.' A richness of from 16 to 18 per cent of sugar is now claimed for 
Vilmorin's new Improved White Sugar.* 

The discovery of sugar in the beet is credited to MargrafE in 1747, having been 
announced in a memoir read before the Berlin Academy of Sciences. 

A partial synonymy of Beta vulgaris is as follows: 

Red Beets. 

Beta rubra. Lob. 124. 1576; /com. 1:248. 1591; Matth. 371. 1598. 

B. rubra Romana. Dod. 620. 1616. 

Common Long Red. Mawe. 1778. 

Better ave rouge grosse. Vilm. 38. 1883. 

Long Blood. Thorb. 1828, 1886. 


Beta rubra. Cam. Epit. 256. 1586; Lugd. 535. 1587; Pancov. n. 607. 1673. 

Betiola rossa. Dure. 71. 1617. ' 

Betterave rouge naine. Vilm. 37. 1883. 

Pineapple beet. 

U. S. D. A. Rpt. 597. 1866. 

' De CandoUe, A. Ceog. Bot. 2:831. 1885. 

Sinclair, G. Hort. Gram. Woburn. 410. 1824. 

Wesley Nat. Hist. Book Cir. No. 71. 1886. 

'McMahon, B. Amer. Card. Cat. 187. 1806. 

'PiroWeL' Hort. Franc. 1824. 

' Fessenden New Amer. Card. 40. 1828 

Vilmorin Les Pis. Potag. 51. 1883. 



Beta erythorrhizos Dodo. Lugd. 533. 1587. 

Beta rubra radice crassa, alia species. Bauh. J. 2:961. 1651. 

B. rubra . . . russa; Beta-rapa. Chabr. 303. 1677. 

Turnip-pointed red. Mawe. 1778. 

Turnip-rooted red. Bryant 26. 1783. 

Early Blood Turnip. Thorb. 1828, 1886. 

Yellow Beets. 
Beta quarta radice buxea. Caesalp. 1603 from Mill. Diet. 1807. 
Yellow-rooted. Mill. Diet. 1807. ^ 

Betterave jaune grosse. Vilm. 41. 1883. 

Beta rubra, lutea; Beta-rapa. Chabr. 305. 1677. 

Turnip-pointed yellow. Mawe. 1778. 

Yellow Turnip. Thorb. 1828. 

Betterave jaune ronde Sucre. Vihn. 41. 1883. 

Sea Beet. 


Beta syhestris Spontanea marina. Lob. 06s. 125. 1576. 
B. sylvestris maritima. 'Qaxih. Phytopin. igi. 1596. 
Sea Beet. "Ray Hist. 1:204. 1686. 

White Beet. 
Beta alba lactucaeand rumicis folio, etc. Advers. 93. 1570. 
B. alba vel pallescens, quam Cicla officin. Baxih. Pin. 118. 1623. 
White Beet. Ray 204. 1686. 
Beta cicla. Linn. Sp. 322. 1774. 
Common White-Leaved. Mawe. 1778. 
White-leaved. McMahon 187. 1806. 
Spinach-Beet. Loudon, i860. 
P air 6e blonde ou comntfine. Vihn. 421. 1883. 

Swiss Chard. 

Beta alba? 3. Gerarde 251. 1597. 
The Sicilian Broad-Leaved Beet. Ray 205. 1686. 
White Beet. Townsend. 1726. 
Chard, or Great White Swiss Beet. Mawe. 1778. 
Suiiss, or Chard Beet. Mill. Diet. 1807. 
Svuiss Chard, or Silver Beet. Buist. 185 1. 
Silver-Leaf Beet. Burr 292. 1863. 
Poirie d carde blanche. Vihn. 421. 1883. 


Silver-Leaf Beet. 
Poiree blonde d. carde blanche. Vilm. 1883. 

s. Curled Swiss Chard. 


Curled-Leaf Beet. Burr 291. 1863. 
Beck's Seakale Beet. Card. Chron. 1865. 
Poiree a blanche frisee. Vilm. 1883. 

Betula alba Linn. CupuUferae. canoe birch, lady birch, paper birch, white 


Europe, northern Asia and North America. The bark, reduced to powder, is eaten 
by the inhabitants of Kamchatka, beaten up with the ova of the sturgeon,' and the inner 
bark is grotmd into a meal and eaten in Lapland in times of dearth.^ Church ' says saw- 
dust of birchwood is boiled, baked and then mixed with flour to form bread in Sweden 
and Norway. In Alaska, says Dall,^ the soft, new wood is cut fine and mingled with 
tobacco by the economical Indian. From the sap, a wine is made in Derbyshire, England, 
and, in 1814, the Russian soldiers near Hamburg intoxicated themselves with this fer- 
mented sap. The leaves are used in northern Europe as a substitute for tea,^ and the 
Indians of Maine make from the leaves of the American variety a tea which is relished. 
At certain seasons, the sap contains sugar. In Maine, the sap is sometimes collected in 
the spring and made into vinegar. 

B. lenta Linn, black birch, cherry birch, mahogany birch, sweet birch. 
North America. The sap, in Maine, is occasionally converted into vinegar. 

B. nigra Linn, red birch, river birch. 

From Massachusetts to Virginia. The sap contains sugar in the spring, according 
to Henfrey.* 

Billardiera mutabilis Salisb. Pittosporeae. apple-berry. 

Australia. This species is said by Backhouse ' to have pleasant, subacid fruit. 

Bixa orellana Linn. Bixineae. annatto. 

South America. This shrub furnishes in the reddish pulp surrounding the seeds 
the annatto of commerce, imported from South America and used extensively for coloring 
cheese and butter. The culture of this plant is chiefly carried on in Guadeloupe and 
Cayenne, where the product is known as roucou. It is grown also in the Deccan and 

' Royle, J. F. Illustr. Bot. Himal. 1:345. 1839. 

'Johnson, C. P. Useful Pis. Gt. Brit. 241. 1862. 

Church, A. H. Food 71. 1887. 

DaU, W. H. U. S. D. A. Rpt. 176. 1868. 

Johnson, C. P. Useful Pis. Gt. Brit. 241. 1862. 

Henfrey, A. Bot. 356. 1870. 

'Syme, J. T. Treas. Bot. 1:144. 1870. 


Other parts of India and the Eastern Archipelago, in the Pacific Islands, Brazil, Peru, 
and Zanzibar, as Sinunonds ' writes. 

Blepharis edulis Pers. Acanihaceae. 

Persia, Northwestern India, Nubia and tropical Arabia. The leaves are eaten crude.* 

Blighia sapida Kon. Sapindaceae. akee fruit. 

Guinea. This small tree is a native of Guinea and was carried to Jamaica by Captain 
Bligh ' in 1793. It is much esteemed in the West Indies as a fruit. The fruit is fleshy, 
of a red color tinged with yellow, about three inches long by two in width and of a three- 
sided form. When ripe, it splits down the middle of each side, disclosing three shining, 
jet-black seeds, seated upon and partly immersed in a white, spongy substance called the 
aril. This aril is the eatable part. Fruits ripened in the hothouses of England have not 
been pronoxmced very desirable. Unger * says, however, the seeds have a fine flavor 
when cooked and roasted with the fleshy aril. 

Boerhaavia repens Linn. Nyctagineae. hog-weed. 

Cosmopolitan tropics. According to Ainslie,' the leaves are eaten in India, and 
Graham says in the Deccan it is sometimes eaten by the natives as greens. It is a common 
and troublesome weed of India. The young leaves are eaten by the natives as greens 
and made into curries.* 

Bomarea edulis Herb. Amaryllideae. white Jerusalem artichoke. 

Tropical America. The roots are round and succulent. and when boiled are said to 
be a light and delicate food. A farinaceous or mealy substance is also made of them, 
from which cream is made, wholesome and very agreeable to the taste. The roots are 
sold under the name of white Jerusalem artichoke.' 

B. glaucescens Baker. 

Ecimdor. The fruit is sought after by children on account of a sweet, gelatinous 
pulp, resembling that of the pomegranate, in which the seeds are imbedded.* 

B. salsilla Mirb. 

Chile. The tubers are available for human food.' 

Bombax ceiba Linn. Malvaceae, god-tree, silk-cotton tree. 

South America. The leaves and buds, when young and tender, are very mucilaginous, 
like okra, and are boiled as greens by the negroes of Jamaica.'" The fleshy petals of the 

" Simmonds, P. L. Trop. Agr. 387, 388. 1889. 
' Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 425. 1879. 
' Rhind, W. Hist. Veg. King. 367. 1855. 
< Unger, F. V. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 315. 1859. 
' Ainslie, W. Mat. Ind. 2:205. 1826. 
Wight, R. Icon. Ph. 874. 1840-1853. 

'Andrews, C. Bot. Reposit. 10:649. 1797. (Alslroemeria edulis) 
'Hooker, W. J. Bot. Misc. 2:198, 238. 1831. (Alslroemeria dulcis) 
Card. Chron. 17:76. 1882. 
""Lunan, J. Hort. Jam. 1:243. 1814. 


flowers are sometimes prepared as food by the Chinese. ' The tree is called god-tree in 
the West Indies, where it is native. 

B. malabarictim DC. cotton tree. 

East Indies, Malay and China. The calyx of the flower-bud is eaten as a vegetable.^ 

B. septenatum Jacq. 

Tropical America. The plant furnishes a green vegetable.' 

Bongardia rauwolfii C. A. Mey. Berberideae. 

Greece and the Orient. This plant was noticed as early as 1573 by Rauwolf, who 
spoke of it as the true chrysogomum of Dioscorides. The Persians roast or boil the tubers 
and use them as food, while the leaves are eaten as are those of sorrel.^ 

Boottia cord'ata Wall. Hydrocharideae. 

A water plant of Burma. All the green parts are eaten by the Burmese as pot-herbs, 
for which purpose they are collected in great quantity and carried to the market at Ava.^ 

Boquila trifoliata Decne. Berberideae. 

Chile. The berries, about the size of a pea, are eaten in Chile. ^ It is commonly 
called in Chile, baquil-blianca. 

Borago officinalis Linn. Boragineae. borage, cool-tankard, talewort. 

Europe, North Africa and Asia Minor. This plant has been distributed throughout 
the whole of southern and middle Etirope even in the humblest gardens and is now culti- 
vated likewise in India, North America and Chile. Its leaves and flowers were used by 
the ancient Greeks and Romans for cool tankards. The Greeks called it euphrosynon, 
for, when put in a cup of wine, it made those who drank it merry. It has been used in 
England since the days of Parkinson. In Queen Elizabeth's time, both the leaves and 
flowers were eaten in salads. It is at present cultivated for use in cooling drinks and is 
used by some as a- substitute for spinach. The leaves contain so much nitre that when dry 
they bum like match paper.' The leaves also serve as a garnish and are likewise pickled. 
In India, it is cultivated by Europeans for use in country beer to give it a pleasant flavor.' 
Borage is eniimerated by Peter MartjT ^ as among the plants cultivated at Isabela Island 
by the companions of Columbus. It appears in the catalogs of our American seedsmen 
and is mentioned by almost all of the earlier writers of gardening. The flowering parts 
of borage are noted or figiu-ed by nearly all of the ancient herbalists. 

' Williams, S. W. Mid. King. 1:284. 1848. 
' Brandis, D. Forest Ft. 21. 1874. 
' Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 359. 1859. 
< Black, A. A. Treas. Bot. 1:156. 1870. 
'Wallich, N. PL Asiat. i:$2. Tab. 65. 1830. 
Black, A. A. Treas. Bot. 1:157. 1870. 
' Mcintosh, C. Book Card. 2:234. 1855. 
Ainslie, W. Mat. Ind. 2:145. 1826. 
'Eden Hist. Trav. 18. 1577. 


08 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

Borassus flabellifer Linn. Palmae. doub palm, palmyra palm, tala palm, wine 


A common tree in a large part of Africa south of the Sahara and of tropical eastern 
Asia. The fruits, but still more the young seedlings, which are raised on a large scale 
for that purpose, are important as an article of food.' Livingstone ' says the fibrous pulp 
arotmd the large nuts is of a sweet, fruity taste and is eaten. The natives bury the 
nuts imtil the kernels begin to sprout; when dug up and broken, the inside resembles 
coarse potatoes and is prized in times of scarcity as nutritious food. During several 
months of the year, palm wine, or sura, is obtained in large qtoantities and when fresh 
is a pleasant drink, somewhat like champagne, and not at all intoxicating, though, after 
standing a few hoiors, it becomes highly so. Grant ' says on the Upper Nile the doub palm 
is called by the negroes m'voomo, and the boiled roots are eaten in famines by the 

The Palmyra palm is cultivated in India. The pulp of the fruit is eaten raw or roasted, 
and a preserve is made of it in Ceylon. The unripe seeds and particularly the young 
plant two or three months old are an important article of food. But the most valuable 
product of the tree is the sweet sap which runs from the pedimcles, cut before flowering, and 
is collected in bamboo tubes or in earthem pots tied to the cut peduncle. Nearly all of 
the sugar made in Burma and a large proportion of that made in south India is the produce 
of this palm. The sap is also fermented into toddy and distilled.^ Drury * says the fnait 
and fusiform roots are used as food by the poorer classes in the Northern Circars. 
Firminger * says the insipid, gelatinous, pellucid pulp of the fruit is eaten by the natives 
but is not relished by Europeans. A good preserve may, however, be made from it and is 
often used for pickling. 

Borbonia cordata Lirm. Leguminosae. i 

South Africa. At the Cape of Good Hope, in 1772, Thunberg ' found the country 
people making tea of the leaves. 

Boscia senegalensis Lam. Capparideae. 

Africaji tropics. The seeds are eaten by the negroes of the Senegal.' 

Boswellia frereana Birdw. Burseraceae. 

Tropics of Africa. Though growing wild, the trees are carefully watched and even 
sometimes propagated. The resin is used in the East for chewing as is that of the mastic 

> Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 545. 1874. 

Livingstone, D. and C. Exped. Zambesi 112. 1866. (B. aethiopium) 

' Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 125. 1879. (B. aethiopium) 

* Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 544. 1874. 

Drury, H. Useful Pis. Ind. 84. 1858. 

Firminger, T. A. C. Card. Ind. 172. 1874. 

' Thunberg, C. P. Tror. 1:128. 1795. 

Baillon, H. Hist. Pis. 3 : 1 69- 1 874. 

Fluckiger and Hanbury Pharm. 153. 1879. 


B. serrata Roxb. frankincense tree. 

India. In times of famine, the Khnoods and Woodias live on a soup made from 
the fruit of- this tree.^ 

Botrychium virginianum Swartz. Ophioglassaceae. rattlesnake fern. 

This large, succulent fern is boiled and eaten in the Himalayas as well as in New 

Boucerosia incamata N. E. Br. Asclepiadeae. 

South Africa. The Hottentots eat it, says Thunberg,* after peeling off the edges 
and prickles. 

Bouea burmanica Griff. Anacardiaceae. 

Burma. The fruit is eaten, that of one variety being intensely sour, of another insipidly 

Bourreria succulenta Jacq. Boragineae. currant tree. 

West Indies. The berries are the size of a pea, shining, saffron or orange-colored, 
piilpy, sweet, succulent and eatable.^ 

Brabejum stellatifolium Liim. Proteaceae. wild chestnut. 

South Africa. Thunberg ' says the Hottentots eat the fruit of this shrub and that 
it is sometimes used by the coimtry people instead of coffee, the outside rind being taken 
off and the fruit steeped in water to deprive it of its bitterness; it is then boiled, roasted 
and ground like coffee. 

Brachistus solanaceus Benth. & Hook. f. Solanaceae. 

Nicaragua. This perennial merits trial culture on account of its large, edible tubers.^ 

Brachystegia appendiculata Benth. Leguminosae. 
Tropical Africa. The seeds are eaten.' 

Brachystelma sp. ? Asclepiadeae. 

South Africa. This genus furnishes edible roots in South Africa and those of some 
species are esteemed as a preserve by the Dutch inhabitants.^ 

Brahea dulcis Mart. Palmae. 

Peru. This Mexican palm, called palma duke and soyale, has a fruit which is a succulent 
drupe of a yellow color and cherry-size, sweet and edible.' 

' Dmry, H. Useful Pis. Ind. 95. 1873. 

* Thunberg, C. P. Trav. 2:1^0. 1796. {Slapeliaincmnata) 

' Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 112. 1879. (B. oppositifolia) 
*Lunan, J. Hort. Jam. 1:255. 1814. 
' Thunberg, C. P. Trav. 1:129. 1795. 

Mueller, F. Sel. Pis. 521. 1891. (Witheringia solanacea) 
'Britten, J. Treas. Bot. 2:1271. 1876. 

Carruthers, W. Treas. Bot. 1:16^. 1870. 
Seemann, B. Pop. Hist. Palms 126. 1856. 


B. semilata H. Wendl. saw palmetto. 

Southern United States. A fecula was formerly prepared from the pith by the Florida 

Brasenia schreberi J. F. Gmel. Nymphaeaceae. water shield. 

India, Japan, Australia, Tropical Africa and North America. The tuberous root- 
stocks are collected by the California Indians for food.* 

Brassica. Cruciferae. borecole, broccoli. Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauli- 

This genus, in its cultivated species and varieties, assimies protean forms. In the 
cabbage section we have the borecoles and kales, which come nearest to the wild form; 
green and red cabbage with great, single heads; the savoys with their blistered and wrinkled 
leaves; brussels sprouts with nvimerous little heads; broccolis and the cauliflowers with 
their flowers in an aborted condition and borne in a dense corymb; the stalked cabbage 
of Jersey, which sometimes attains a height of i6 feet; the Portuguese couve tronchuda 
with the ribs of its leaves greatly thickened ; and kohl-rabi. All of these vegetables are 
referred by Darwin ^ to B. oleracea Linn. The other cultivated forms of the genus are 
descended, according to the view adopted by some, from two species, B. napus Linn, and 
B. rapa Linn.; but, according to other botanists, from three species; while others again 
strongly suspect that all these forms, both wild and cultivated, ought to be ranked as a 
single species. The genus, as established by Bentham, also includes the mustards. 

B. alba Boiss. white mustard. 

Europe and the adjoining portions of Asia. The cultivated plant appears to have 
been brought from central Asia to China, where the herbage is pickled in winter or used 
in spring as a pot-herb.' In 1542, Fuchsius,^ a German writer, says it is planted everywhere 
in gardens. In 1597, in England, Gerarde^ says it is not common but that he has dis- 
tributed the seed so that he thinks it is reasonably well known. It is mentioned in American 
gardens in 1806. The young leaves, cut close to the ground before the formation of the 
second series or rough leaves appear, form an esteemed salad. 

B. campestris Linn, turnip, rape, rutabaga. 

The turnip, says Unger,' is derived from a species growing wild at the present day 
in Russia and Siberia as well as on the Scandinavian peninsula. From this, in course 

1 Brewer and Watson Bot. Cal. 1:16. 1880. (5. peltata) 

Darwin, C. Ans. Pis. Domest. 1:341, 342. 1893, 

' Smith, F. P. Contrib. Mat. Med. China 197. 1871. 

Fuchsius JiTti/. 5Vi>/>. 537. 1542. {Sinapsis alba) 

'Gerarde, J. Herb. igo. 1597. 

' McMahon, B. Amer. Card. Cal. 582. 1806. 

' Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 327. 1859. 


of cultivation, a race has been produced as B. campestris Linn., and a second as B. rapa 
Linn., our white turnip, with many varieties. The cultivation of this plant, indigenous 
in the region between the Baltic Sea and the Caucasus, was probably first attempted by 
the Celts and Germans when they were driven to make use of nutritious roots. Buckman 
was inclined^o the belief that B. campestris and B. napus are but agrarian forms derived 
from B. oleracea. Nowhere, he asserted, are the first two varieties truly wild but both 
track cultivation throughout Europe, Asia and America. Lindley says this plant, B. 
campestris, has been found apparently wild in Lapland, Spain, the Crimea and Great 
Britain but it is difficvilt to say whether or not it is truly wild. When little changed by 
cultivation, it is the colsa, colza, or colsat, the chou oleifbre of the French, an oil-reed 
plant of great value. This is the colsa of Belgium, the east of France, Germany 
and Switzerland but not of other districts, in which the name is applied to rape. 
linger ' states that this plant, growing wild from the Baltic Sea to the Caucasus, is 
the B. campestris oleifera DC. or B. colza Lam. and that its culture, first starting in 
Belgium, is now extensively carried on in Holstein. De CandoUe ^ supposes the Swedish 
turnip is a variety, analogous to the kohl-rabi among cabbages, but with the root swollen 
instead of the stem. In its original wild condition, it is a flatfish, globular root, with a 
very fine tail, a narrow neck and a hard, deep yellow flesh. Buckman,' by seeding rape 
and common turnips in mixed rows, secured, through hybridization, a small percentage 
of malformed swedes, which were greatly improved by careful cultivation. If Bentham 
was correct in classing B. napus with B. campestris, the result of Buckman's experiment 
does not carry the rutabaga outside of B. campestris for its origin. Don^ classifies the 
rutabaga as B. campestris Linn. var. oleifera, sub. var. rutabaga. 

The turnip is of ancient culture. Columella,^ A. D. 42, says the napus and the rapa 
are both grown for the use of man and beast, especially in France ; the former does not have 
a swollen but a slender root, and the latter is the larger and greener. He also speaks of the 
Mursian gongylis, which may be the round turnip, as being especially fine. The distinction 
between the napus and the rapa was not always held, as Pliny ' uses the word napus 
generically and says that there are five kinds, the Corinthian, Cleonaeum, Liothasium, 
Boeoticum and the Green. The Corinthian, the largest, with an almost bare root, grows 
on the surface and not, as do the rest, vmder the soil. The Liothasiimi, also called Thracium, 
is the hardest. The Boeoticum is sweet, of a notable roundness and not very long as 
is the Cleonaeum. At Rome, the Amitemian is in most esteem, next the Nursian, and 
third our own kind (the green?). In another place, under rapa, he mentions the broad- 
bottom (flat?), the globular, and as the most esteemed, those of Nursia. The napus of 
Amiternum, of a nature quite similar to the rapa, succeeds best in a cool place. He mentions 
that the rapa sometimes attains a weight of forty poimds. This weight has, however, 

Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 327. 1859. 

' De CandoUe, A. P. Trans. Hort. Soc. Land. $-.25. 1824. 
' Buckman, J. Treas. Bot. 1:165. 1870. 
Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 1:241. 1831. 
'Columella lib. 2, c. 10, etc.; 10, c. 421. 

Pliny lib. 19, c. 25; lib. 18, c. 34, 35. 

taa sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

been exceeded in modem times. Matthiolus,> 1558, had heard of turnips that weighed 
a hundred pounds and speaks of having seen long and purple sorts that weighed thirty 
pounds. Amatus Lusitanus," 1524, speaks of turnips weighing fifty and sixty pounds. 
In England, in 1792, Martyn ' says the greatest weight that he is acquainted with is thirty- 
six poimds. In California, about 1850, a turnip is recorded of one hundred pounds weight.* 
In the fifteenth century, Booth * says the turnip had become known to the Flemings 
and formed one of their principal crops. The first turnips that were introduced into 
England, he says, are believed to have come from Holland in 1550. In the time of Henry 
VIII (1509-1547) according to Mcintosh,* turnips were used baked or roasted in the ashes 
and the young shoots were used as a salad and as a spinach. Gerarde ' describes them 
in a number of varieties, but the first notice of their field culture is by Weston in 1645. 
Worlidge, 1668, mentions the turnip fly as an enemy of turnips and Houghton speaks 
of turnips as food for sheep in 1684. In 1686, Ray says they are sown everywhere in 
fields and gardens. In 1681, Worlidge says they are chiefly grown in gardens but are 
also grown to some extent in fields. The turnip was brought to America at a very early 
period. In 1540, Cartier * sowed turnip seed in Canada, during his third voyage. They 
were also cultivated in Virginia in 1609; ^ are mentioned again in 1648; *" and by Jeffer- 
son in 1 78 1. They are said by Francis Higginson " to be in cultivation in Massachusetts 
in 1629 and are again mentioned by William Wood, 1629-33.^^ They were plentiful about 
Philadelphia in 1707. Jared Sparks'' planted them in Connecticut in 1747. In 1775, 
Romans in his Natural History of Florida mentions them. They are also mentioned in 
South Carolina in 1779. In 1779, General Sullivan destroyed the turnips in the Indian 
fields at the present Geneva, New York, in the course of his invasion of the Indian country. 
The common flat turnip was raised as a field crop in Massachusetts and New York as 
early as 181 7. 

Navet, or French Turnip. 

{B. napus esculenta DC.) 

This turnip differs from the Brassica rapa oblonga DC. by its smooth and glaucous 

leaves. It surpasses other turnips by the sweetness of its flavor and furnishes white, yellow 

and black varieties. It is known as the Navet, or French turnip." This was apparently 

Matthiolus Comment. 240. 1558. 

' Dioscorides. Amatus Lusitanus Ed. 247. 1554. 

' Martyn Fl. Rust. 1792. 

< Williams, A. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 4. 1 851. 

Booth, W. B. Treas. Bot. 1:167. 1870. (B. rapa) 

Mcintosh, C. Book Card. 2:183. 1855. 

' Gerarde, J. //eri. 177, 178. 1597. 

' Pinkerton CoW. Voy. 12:667. 1812. 

* True Decl. Va. 1$. 1610. Force Coll. Tracts 3:1844. 
i'Perf. Desc. of Va. 4. Force Coll. Tracts 2:1838. 

" Higginson, Rev. Francis. New Eng. Plant. Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll. 1:118. 1806. 

" Wood, W. New Eng. Prosp. 11. 1634. 1st Ed. 

" Sparks, J. Essays Husb. (ly^y) 17,. 181 1. 

" De CandoUe, A. P. Trans. Hart. Soc. Land. 5:26, 30. 1824. 


the napa of Columella.^ This ttimip was certainly known to the early botanists, yet its 
sjmonymy js difficiilt to be traced from the figures. However, the following are correct: 

Napus. Trag. 730. 1552; Matth. 240. 1664; Pin. 144. 1561; Cam. Epit. 222. 
1586; Dod. 674. 1616; Fischer 1646. 

Bunias sive napus. hoh. Icon. 1:200. 1591. 

Bunias silvestris lobelii. Gar. 181. 1597. 

Napi. Dur. C. 304. 161 7. 

Bunias. Bodaeus 733. 1644. 

Napus dulcis. Blackw. t. 410. 1765. 

Navet petit de Berlin. Vilm. 360. 1883. 

Teltow turnip. Vilm. 580. 1885. 

The navets are mentioned as under cultivation in England by Worlidge,^ 1683; as the 
French turnip by Wheeler,' 1763, and in Miller's Dictionary, 1807. Gasparin^ says the 
navet de Berlin, which often acquires a great size, is much grown in Alsace and in Germany. 
It is grown in China, according to Bretschneider.* This turnip was known in the fifth 

The Common Flat Turnip. 
(B. rapa depressa DC.) 

This turnip has a large root expanding under the origin of the stem into a think, round, 
fleshy tuber, flattened at the top and bottom. It has white, yellow, black, red or purple 
and green varieties. It seems to have been known from ancient times and is described 
and figured by the earlier botanists. The synonymy is as follows: 

A. Flattened both above and below. 

Rapum. Matth. 240. 1554; Cam. Epit. 218. 1586. 
Rapum sive rapa. Pin. 143. 1561. 
Rapa. Dur. C. 386. 1617. 
Navet turnip. Vilm. 583. 1883. 

B. Flattened, but pointed below. 

Orbiculatum seu turbinatum rapum. Lob. /cow. 1:197. '^TQi- 
Rapum. Porta, Phytognom. 120. 1591. 
Rapum vulgare. Dod. 673. 1616. 
Rave d'Auvergne tardive. Vilm. 

C. Globtdar. 

Rapum. Trag. 728. 1552. 
Rapa, La Rave. Toum. 113. 1719. 
Navet jaune d'Hollande. Vilm. 370. 1883. 
Yellow Dutch. Vilm. 588. 1885. 

The Long Turnip. 
{B. rapa oblonga DC.) 
This race of turnip differs from the preceding in having a long or oblong tuber tapering 
to the radicle. It seems an ancient form, perhaps the Cleonaeum of Pliny. 

' Columella lib. 2, c. 10, etc.; 10, c. 421. 


Worlidge, J. Sysi. Hort. 181. 1683. 

* Gasparin Cours Agr. 4:116. 

Bretschneider, E. Bot. Sin. 78. 1882. 

104 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

Vulgare rapum alterum. Trag. 729. 1532. 

Rapum longum. Cam. Epit. 2ig. 1586. 

Rapum tereti, rotunda, oblongaqtie radici. Lob. /com. i: 197. iS9i' 

Rapum oblongius. Dod. 673. 161 6. 

Rapum sativum rotundum et oblongum. Bauh. J. 2:838. 1651. 

Rapa, La Rave. Tourn. 113. 1719. 

Navet de Briollay. Vilm. 372. 1883. 

This account by no means embraces all the tiimips now known, as it deals with form 
only and not with color and habits. In 1828, 13 kinds were in Thorbum's American Seed 
Catalog and in 1887, 33 kinds. In France, 12 kinds were named by Pirolle in 1824 and 
by Petit in 1826. In 1887, Vilmorin's Wholesale Seed-list enumerates 31 kinds. 


Bentham ' classes rape with B. campestris Linn, and others are disposed to include 
it as an agrarian form of B. oleracea Linn. Darwin ^ says B. napus Linn., in which he places 
rape, " given rise to two large groups, namely Swedish turnips (by some believed to be 
of hybrid origin) and colzas, the seeds of which yield oil. " It can be believed quite rationally 
that the Swedish turnip may have originated in its varieties from B. campestris and from 
hybridization with B. napus. To this species, Lindley refers some of the rapes, or coles, 
the navette, navette d'hiver, or rabette of the French, and the repo, ruben or winter reps of 
the Germans, while the summer rapes he refers to B. praecox. Rape is used as an oil 
plant but is inferior to colza. It is also used in a young state as a salad plant. Of this 
species there is also a fleshy-rooted variety, the Tetlow turnip, or navet de Berlin petit of 
the French, the root long and spindle-shaped, somewhat resembling a carrot. Its culture 
in England dates from 1790 but it was well known in 167 1 and is noticed by Caspar Bauhin 
in his Pinax. It is much more delicate in flavor than our common turnip. In France 
and Germany, this Tetlow turnip is extensively cultivated. To what extent our common 
turnips are indebted to the rapes, seems impossible to say, for Metzger, by culture, con- 
verted the biennial, or winter rape, into the annual, or summer rape, varieties which 
Lindley believes to be specifically distinct. The Bon Jardinier ' says, in general, the early 
turnips of round form and growing above ground belong to B. napus and names the Yellow 
Malta, Yellow Finland and Montmaquy of our catalogs. 

Summer rape is referred by Lindley to B. praecox Waldst. & Kit. In the east of 
France, it is called navette d'ete, or navette de mai and by the Germans sommer reps. Some 
botanists refer summer rape to B. campestris Linn, and winter rape to B. napus Linn. 
Rape is also referred to B. rapa Linn. The evidence is unusually clear, says Dar%vin,* 
that rape and the turnip belong to the same species, for the turnip has been observed 
by Koch and Godron to lose its thick roots in uncultivated soil and when rape and turnips 
are sown together they cross to such a degree that scarcely a single plant comes true. 
Summer rape seems to be grown to a far less extent than winter rape. 

' Loudon, J. C. Hort. 627. i860. 

'Darwin, C. Ans. Pis. Domest. 1:344. 1893. 

' Bon Jard. 534, 535. 1882. 

* Darwin, C. Ans. Pis. Domest. 1:344. 1893. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 105 

The rutabaga of the Swedes, the navet de Suede, or chou de Suede, or chou rutabaga, 
or chou navet jaune, of the French was introduced into England somewhere about the end 
of the eighteenth century. In the Maine Farmer of May 15, 1835/ a correspondent, 
John Burstoti, states that the rutabaga, Swedish turnip, or Lapland turnip for by all 
these names was it known was introduced to this country since the commencement 
of the present century. Six or more varieties are named in all seed catalogs and B-urr 2 
describes 11 kinds. 

The rutabagas of our gardens include two forms, one with white flesh, the other with 
yellow. The French call these two classes chou-navets and rutabagas respectively. The 
chou-navet, or Brassica napo-brassica communis DC, has either purple or white roots; 
the rutabaga, or B. napo-brassica Ruta-baga A. P. DC, has a more regular root, round 
or oval, yellow both without and within.' In English nomenclature, while now the two 
forms are called by a common name, yet formerly the first constituted the turnip-rooted 
cabbage. In 1806, the distinction was retained in the United States, McMahon ^ 
describing the turnip-rooted cabbage and the Swedish turnip, or Rutabaga. As a matter 
of convenience we shall describe these two classes separately. 

The first description of the white-rooted form is by Bauhin ' in his Prodromus, 1620, 
and it is named again in his Pinax,^ 1623, and is called napo-brassica. In 1686, Ray ' 
apparently did not know it in England, as he quotes Bauhin's name and description, which 
states that it is ctiltivated in Bohemia and is eaten, but Morison,* in 1669, catalogs it 
among the plants in the royal gardens. In France, it is named by Tournefort,' in 1700, 
Brassica radice napiformi, or chou-navet. In 1.778, this was called in England turnip- 
cabbage with the turnip underground and in the United States, in 1806, turnip-rooted 
cabbage, as noted above. There are three varieties described by Vilmorin " under the 
names chou-navet, chou turnip, and chou de Lapland, one of which is purple at the collar; 
apparently these same varieties are named by Noisette " in 1829. The white and the red- 
collared were named by Pirolle,'^ in 1824. This class, as Don " says in 183 1, is Httle known 
in English gardens, though not uncommon in French horticulture. 

The rutabaga is said by Sinclair, in the account of the system of husbandry in Scot- 
land, to have been introduced into Scotland about 178 1-2, and a quotation in the Gar- 

' Me. Farm. May 15, 1835. 

Burr, F. Field, Card. Veg. 86. 1863. 

De Candolle, A. P. Trans. Hort. Soc. Lond. 5:25. 1824. 

McMahon Amer. Card. Cat. 309. 1806. 
'Bauhin, C. Prodromus 54. 1671. 
Bauhin, C. Pin. 3:1623. 

T Ray Hist. PI. 797. 1686. 

Morison Hort. Reg. Bles. 31. 1669. 

Tournef ort Inst. 219. 1 7 1 9. 

"> Vilmorin Le5 Pis. Polag. 142. 1883. 
" Noisette Man. Jard. 349. 1829. 
'^VkoWe L'Hort. Franc. 1S24. 
Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 1:241. 1831. 

io6 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

deners' Chronicle^ says it was introduced into England in 1790. It is mentioned in 1806 
by McMahon as in American gardens, and in 1817 there is a record of an acre of this crop 
in Illinois.' The vernacular names all indicate an origin in Sweden or northern Eiu"ope. 
It is called Swedish turnip or Roota-baga by McMahon, 1806, by Miller's Dictionary, 
1807, by Cobbett, 1821, and by other authors to the present time. De Candolle, 1821, 
calls it navet jaune, navet de Sudde, chou de Laponie, and chou de Subde; Pirolle, in 1824, 
Ruta-baga or chou navet de Sukde, as does Noisette in 1829. In 182 1 Thorbum calls it 
Ruta-baga, or Russian turnip, and a newspaper writer in 1835 ' calls it Ruta-baga, Swedish 
turnip and Lapland turnip. The foreign names given by Don in 1831 include many of the 
above named and the Italian navone di Laponia. Vilmorin * in his Les Plantes Potageres, 
1883,- describes three. varieties: one with a green collar, one with a purple collar and a 
third which is early. 

B. carinata A. Braun. 

This plant is said by Unger * to be found wild and cultivated in Abyssinia although 
it furnishes a very poor cabbage, not to be compared with ours. 

B. chinensis Linn. Chinese cabbage. 

The pe-tsai of the Chinese is an annual, apparently intermediate between cabbage 
and the turnip but with much thinner leaves than the former. It is of much more rapid 
growth than any of the varieties of the European cabbage, so much so, that when sown 
at midsummer it will ripen seed the same season. Introduced from China in 1837,* it 
has been cultivated and used as greens by a few persons about Paris but it does not appear 
Hkely to become a general favorite.' It is allied to the kales. Its seeds are ground into 
a mustard. 

But little appears to be recorded concerning the varieties of this cabbage of which 
the Pak-choi and the Pe-tsai only have reached European culture. It has, however, been 
long under cultivation in China, as it can be identified in Chinese works on agriculture 
of the fifth, sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.^ Loureiro, 1790,' says it 
is also cultivated in Cochin China and varieties are named with white and yellow flowers. 
The Pak-choi has more resemblance to a chard than to a cabbage, having oblong or oval, 
dark shining-green leaves upon long, very white and swollen stalks. The Pe-tsai, how- 
ever, rather resembles a cos lettuce, forming an elongated head, rather full and compact 
and the leaves are a little wrinkled and undulate at the borders.'" Both varieties have, 
however, a common aspect and are annuals. 

' Card. Chron. 346. 1853. 
2 U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 198. 1854. 
' Me. Farm. May 15, 1835. 
Vilmorin Lei Pis. Potag. 142. 1883. 
Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 353. 1859. 
Bon Jard. 533. 1882. 
' Loudon, J. C. Hort. 627. i860. 
Bretschneider, E. Bot. Sin. 59, 78, 83, 85. 1882. 
' Loureiro Fl. Cochin. 397. 1790. 
' Vilmorin Les Pis. Potag. 407. 1883. 


Considering that the round-headed cabbage is the only sort figured by the herbalists, 
that the pointed-headed early cabbages appeared only at a comparatively recent date, 
and certain resemblances between Pe-tsai and the long-headed cabbages, it. is not an 
impossible suggestion that these cabbage-forms appeared as the effect of cross-fertilization 
with the Clfeiese cabbage. But, until the cabbage family has received more study in its 
varieties, and the results of hybridization are better vmderstood, no certain conclusion 
can be reached. It is, however, certain that occasional rare sports, or variables, from 
the seed of our early, long-headed cabbages show the heavy veining and the limb of the 
leaf extending down the stalk, suggesting strongly the Chinese type. At present, how- 
ever, views as to the origin of various types of cabbage must be considered as largely 

B. cretica Lam. 

Mediterranean regions. The young shoots were formerly used in Greece. ' 

B. jimcea Coss. Chinese mustard, indian mustard. 

The plant is extensively cultivated throughout India, central Africa and generally 
in warm countries. It is largely grown in south Russia and in the steppes northeast of 
the Caspian Sea. In 1871-72, British India exported 1418 tons of seed. The oil is used 
in Russia in the place of olive oil. The powdered seeds furnish a medicinal and culinary 

B. nigra Koch, black mustard. 

This is the mustard of the ancients and is cultivated in Alsace, Bohemia, Italy, 
Holland and England. The plant is found wild in most parts of Europe and has become 
naturalized in the United States. According to the belief of the ancients, it was first 
introduced from Egypt and was made known to mankind by Aesculapius, the god of 
medicine, and Ceres the goddess of seeds. Mustard is mentioned by Pythagoras and 
was employed in medicine by Hippocrates, 480 B. C. Pliny says the plant grew in Italy 
without sowing. The ancients ate the young plants as' a spinach and used the seeds for 
supplying mustard. 

Black mustard is described as a garden plant by Albertus Magnus ' in the thirteenth 
century and is mentioned by the botanists of the sixteenth century. It is, however, more 
grown as a field crop for its seed, from which the mustard of commerce is derived, yet finds 
place also as a salad plant. Two varieties are described, the Black Mustard of Sicily 
and the Large-seeded Black.* This mustard was in American gardens in 1806 or earlier. 
The young plants are now eaten as a salad, the same as are those of B. alba and the seeds 
now furnish the greater portion of our mustard. 

B. oleracea acephala DC. borecole, cole, colewort. kale. 

The chief characteristics of this species of Brassica are that the plants are open, not 
heading like the cabbages, nor producing eatable flowers like the cauliflowers and broccoli. 

Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Of. Rpt. 353. 1859. 
' Fluckiger and Hanbury Pharm. 64. 1879. 

* Albertus Magnus Veg. 568. 1867. Jessen Ed. 

* VUmorin Les Pis. Potag. 356. 1883. 


The species has every appearance of being one of the early removes from the original 
species and is cultivated in many varieties known as kale, greens, sprouts, curlico, with 
also some distinguishing prefixes as Buda kale, German greens. Some are grown as orna- 
mental plants, being variously curled, laciniated and of beautiful colors. In 1661, Ray 
journeyed into Scotland and says of the people that " they use much pottage made of 
coal-wort which they call keal." It is probable that this was the form of cabbage known 
to the ancients. 

The kales represent an extremely variable class of vegetable and have been imder 
cultivation from a most remote period. What the varieties of cabbage were that were 
known to the ancient Greeks it seems impossible to determine in all cases, but we can 
hardly question but that some of them belonged to the kales. Many varieties were known 
to the Romans. Cato,* who lived about 201 B. C, describes the Brassica as: the levis, 
large broad-leaves, large-stalked; the crispa or apiacan; the lenis, small-stalked, tender, 
but rather sharp-tasting. Pliny ,^ in the first century, describes the Cumana, with sessile 
leaf and open head; the Aricinum, not excelled in height, the leaves numerous and thick; 
the Pompeianum, tall, the stalk thin at the base, thickening along the leaves; the hrutiana, 
with very large leaves, thin stalk, sharp savored; the sahellica, admired for its curled 
leaves, whose thickness exceeds that of the stalk, of very sweet savor; the Lacuturres, very 
large headed, innumerable leaves, the head roimd, the leaves fleshy; the Tritianom, often 
a foot in diameter and late in going to seed. The first American mention of coleworts is 
by Sprigley, 1669, for Virginia but this class of the cabbage tribe is probably the one men- 
tioned by Benzoni ' as growing in Hayti in 1565. In 1806, McMahon^ recommends for 
American gardens the green and the brown Aypres and mentions the Red and Thick- 
leaved Curled, the Siberian, the Scotch and especially recommends Jerusalem kale. 

The form of kale known in France as the chevalier seems to have been the longest ' 
known and we may surmise that its names of chou caulier and caulet have reference to the 
period when the word caulis, a stalk, had a generic meaning applying to the cabbage race 
in general. We may hence surmise that this was the common form in ancient times, in 
like manner as coles or coleworts in more modem times imply the cultivation of kales. 
This word coles or caulis is used in the generic sense, for illustration, by Cato, 200 years 
B. C.; by Colimiella the first century A. D. ; by Palladius in the third; by Vegetius in the 
fourth century A. D. ; and Albertus Magnus in the thirteenth. This race of chevaliers 
may be quite reasonably supposed to be the levis of Cato, sometimes called caulodes. 

According to De Candolle, this race of chevaliers has five principal sub-races, of which 
the following is an incomplete synonymy : 


Brassica laevis. Cam. Epit. 248. 1586; Matth. Op. 366. 1598. 

Br. vulgaris saliva. Ger. 244. 1597. 

Cavalier branchu. DeCand. Mem. 9. 182 1. 

' Script. Rei Rust. 1:75. 1787. 

* Pliny lib. 19, c. 41; lib. 20, c. 33. 

' Benzoni Hist. New World Hakl. Soc. Ed. 91. 1857. 

* McMahon, B. Amer. Card. Cal. 308, 309. 1806. 

De Candolle, A. P. Trans. Hort. Soc. Land. 5:7. 1824. 


Thousand-headed. Burr 236. 1863. 

Chou branchu du Poitou. Vilm. 135. 1883. 

Chou mille tetes. Vilm. 1. c. 

11. a. viridis. 
Kol. Roeszl. 87. 1550. 
Brassica. Trag. 720. 1552. 
Brassica alba vulgaris. Baiih. J. 2:829. 1651. 
Chou vert commun. Decand. Mem. 9. 182 1. 
Cow Cabbage. Btur 232. 1863. 
Chou cavalier. Vilm. 134. 1883. 
Brassica vulgaris alba. Chabr. 290. 1677. 

II. b. rubra. 
Brassica primum genus. Fuch. 413. 1542. 
Br. rubra prima species. Dalechamp 523. 1587. 
Br. rubra. Ger. 244. 1597. 

Br. rubra vulgaris. Bauh. J. 2:831. 1651; Chabr. 270. 1877. 
Red cavalier. De Cand. Mem. 9. 182 1. 
Flanders kale. Burr 233. 1863. 
Caulet de Flander. Vilm. 134. 1883. 

Brassica vulgaris sativa. Lob. O65. 122. 1576; Jcow. 1:243. 1591; Dod. 621. 1616. 
Br. alba vulgaris. Dalechamp 520. 1587. 
Brassica. Dur. C. 76. 181 7. 

Chou hfeuilles de Chene. De Cand. Mem. 10. 182 1. 
Buda kale. Vilm. 141. 1885. 

IV. a. 
Brassica secundum genus. Fuch. 414. 1542. 
Br.fimbriata. Lob. O65. 124. 1576; /com. 247. 1591. 
Br. sativa crispa. Ger. 244. 1597. 
Br. crispa. Dod. 622. 1616. 
Br. crispa lacinosa. Bauh. J. 2:832. 1651. 
Chou vert f rise. De Cand. M^wi. 10. 182 1. 
Tall Green Curled. Burr 236. 1863. 
Chou frise vert grand. Vilm. 131. 1883. 

IV. b. 
Brassica crispa, seu apiana. Trag. 721. 1552. 
Br. crispa Tragi. Dalechamp 524. 1587. 
Br. tenuijolia laciniata. Loh. Icon. 1:246. 1591. 
Br. selenoides. Dod. 622. 16 16. 
Br. tenuissima laciniata. Bauh. J. 2:832. 1651. 
Br. selenoides. Ger. 248. 1597- 

Chou plume ou Chou aigrette. De Cand. Mew. 11. 1821. 
Ornamental kales of our gardens. 

Brassica tophosa. Ger. 246. 1547; Bauh. J. 2:830. 1651. 
Br. tophosa Tabernemontano. Chabr. 270. 1677. 
Chou palmier. De Cand. Mew. 11. 182 1; Vilm. 133. 1883. 


These forms occur in many varieties, differing in degree only, and of various colors, 
even variegated. In addition to the above we may mention the proliferous kales, which 
also occur in several varieties. The following synonyms refer to proliferation only, as 
the plants in other respects are not similar: 
Brassica asparagoides Dalechampii. Dalechamp 522. 1587. 
Brassica proUfera. Ger. 245. 1597- 
Brassica proUfera crispa. Ger. 245. 1597. 
Cockscomb kale. Burr 232. 1863. 
Chou frise proUfbre. Vikn. 133. 1883. 

The Dwarf Kales. 

De Candolle does not bring these into his classification as offering true types, and 
in this perhaps he is right. Yet, olericulturally considered, they are quite distinct. There 
are but few varieties. The best marked is the Dwarf Curled, the leaves falling over in 
a gracefxd curve and reaching to the groimd. This kale can be traced through variations 
and varieties to our first class, and hence it has probably been derived in recent times 
through a process of selection, or through the preservation of a natural variation. There 
is an intermediate type between the Dwarf Curled and the Tall Curled forms in the 
intermediate Moss Curled. 

The Portugal Kales. 

Two kales have the extensive rib system and the general aspect of the Portugal 
cabbage. These are the chou brocoli and the chou frise de mosbach of Vilmorin. These 
bear the same relation to Portugal cabbage that common kale bears to the heading 

B. oleracea botaTtis cymosa DC. broccoli. 

The differences between the most highly improved varieties of the broccoli and the 
cauliflower are very slight; in the less changed forms they become great. Hence two 
races can be defined, the sprouting broccolis and the cauliflower broccolis. The growth 
of the broccoli is far more prolonged than that of the cauliflower, and in the European 
countries it bears its heads the year following that in which it is sown. It is this circiun- 
stance that leads us to suspect that the Romans knew the plant and described it under 
the name cyma "Cyma a prima sectione praestat proximo vere." "Ex omnibus brassicae 
generibiis suavissima est cyma," says Pliny.* He also uses the word cyma for the seed 
stalk which rises from the heading cabbage. These excerpts indicate the sprouting broc- 
coli, and the addition of the word cyma then, as exists in Italy now, with the word broccoli 
is used for a secondary meaning, for the tender shoots which at the close of winter are 
emitted by various kinds of' cabbages and turnips preparing to flower.^ 

It is certainly very curious that the early botanists did not describe or figure broccoli. 
The omission is only explainable under the supposition that it was confounded with the 
cauliflower, just a Linnaeus brought the cauliflower and the broccoli into one botanical 
variety. The first notice of broccoli is quoted from Miller's Dictionary, edition of 1724, 

' Pliny lib. 19, c. 41; lib. 20, c. 35. 
' Vilmorin Les Pis. Potag. 151. 1883. 


in which he says it was a stranger in England until within these five years and was called 
"sprout colli -flower," or Italian asparagus.' In 1729, Switzer^ says there are several 
kinds that he has had growing in his garden near London these two years: " that with 
small, whitish-yellow flowers like the cauliflower; others like the common sprouts and 
flowers of a'i:olewort; a third with purple flowers; all of which come mixed together, none 
of them being as yet (at least that I know of) ever sav'd separate." In 1778, Mawe,' 
names the Early Purple, Late Purple, White or Cauliflower-broccoli and the Black. In 
1806, McMahon* mentions the Roman or Purple, the Neapolitan or White, the Green 
and the Black. In 1821, Thorbum^ names the Cape, the White and the Purple, and, 
in 1828, in his seed list, mentions the Early White, Early Purple, the Large Purple Cape 
and the White Cape or Cauliflower-broccoli. 

The first and third kind of Switzer, 1729, are doubtless the heading broccoli, while 
the second is probably the sprouting form. These came from Italy and as the seed came 
mixed, we may assume that varietal distinctions had not as yet become recognized, and 
that hence all the types of the broccoli now grown have originated from Italy. It is 
interesting to note, however, that at the Cirencester Agricultural College, about i860, 
sorts of broccoU were produced, with other variables, from the seed of wild cabbage.* 

Vilmorin says:^ " The sprouting or asparagus broccoli, represents the first form 
exhibited by the new vegetable when it ceased to be the earliest cabbage and was grown 
with an especial view to its shoots; after this, by continued selection and successive 
improvements, varieties were obtained which produced a compact, white head, and some 
of these varieties were still further improved into kinds which are sufficiently early to 
commence and complete their entire growth in the course of the same year; these last 
named kinds are now known as cauliflowers." 

B. oleracea bullata gemmifera DC. Brussels sprouts. 

This vegetable, in this country, grown only in the gardens of amateurs, yet deserving 
more esteem, has for a type-form a cabbage with an elongated stalk, bearing groups of 
leaf-buds in the axils of the leaves. Sometimes occurring as a monstrosity, branches 
instead of heads are developed. Quite frequently an early cabbage, after the true head 
is removed, will develop small cabbages in the leaf-axils, and thus is formed the Brassica 
capitata polycephalos of Dalechamp,^ 1587, which he himself describes as a certain unused 
and rare kind. 

Authors ' have stated that brussels sprouts have been grown from time immemorial 
about Brussels, in Belgium; but, if this be so, it is strange that they escaped the notice of the 

' Martyn Miller Card. Did. 1807. Preface. 
' Switzer Raising Veg. 2. 1729. 

Mawe and Abercrombie Univ. Card. Bot. 1778. 

McMahon, B. Amer. Card. Cal. 310. 1806. 
' Thorburn Cat. 182 1. 

'Agr.Caz. 217. 1879. 

' Vilmorin Les Pis. Potag. 151. 1883. 

Dalechamp Hist. Gen. PL (Lugd.) 521. 1587. 

Booth, W.B. Treas. Bot. 1:167. 1874. 


early botanists, who would have certainly noticed a cominon plant of such striking appear- 
ance and have given a figure. Bauhin,' indeed, 1623, gives the name Brassica ex capitibus 
pluribus conglohata, and adds that some plants bear 50 heads the size of an egg, but his 
reference to Dalechamp would lead us to infer that the plant known to him was of the 
same character as that figiu-ed by Dalechamp above noted. Lobel,^.i6ss, refers to a 
cabbage like a Brassica polycephalos, but, as he had not seen it, he says he will affirm nothing. 
Ray,' 1686, refers to a like cabbage. 

A. P. De Candolle,^ 1821, describes brussels sprouts as commonly cultivated in Bel- 
gium and implies its general use in French gardens, but Booth ^ says it is only since about 
1854 that it has been generally known in England. A correspondent ' of the Gardeners' 
Chronicle, 1850, however, refers to the tall sorts as generally preferred to the dwarf by 
the market gardeners about London. In American gardens, it is mentioned in 1806 ^ and 
this implies its general use in Europe. 

But two classes are known, the tall and the dwarf, and but a few minor variations 
in these classes. The tall is quite distinct in habit and leaf from the dwarf, the former 
having less crowded sprouts and a more open character of plant, with leaves scarcely 
blistered or puckered. As, however, there is considerable variation to be noted in seed- 
lings, furnishing connecting links, the two forms may legitimately be considered as one, 
the difference being no greater than would be explained by the observed power of selection 
and of the influence for modification which might arise from the influence of cabbage 
pollen. This fact of their being of but one type, even if with several variables, would 
seem to indicate a probabiUty that the origin is to be sought for in a sport, and that our 
present forms have been derived from a suddenly observed variable of the Savoy cabbage 
type and, as the lack of early mention and the recent nature of modem mention presup- 
poses, at some time scarcely preceding the last century. 

Allied to this class is the Tree cabbage, or Jersey cabbage, which attains an extreme 
height of 16 feet, bearing a comparatively small, open cabbage on the summit, the Thou- 
sand-headed cabbage, the Poiton cabbage, and the Marrow cabbage, the stems of which 
last are succulent enough to be boiled for food. In 1806, McMahon ' describes brussels 
sprouts, but he does not include them in his list of American garden esculents so they 
were not at that time in very general use. Fessenden,^ 1828, mentions the Thousand- 
headed cabbage but it does not seem to have been known to him personally. Thor- 
bum,'" in his catalog for 1828, offers its seed for sale, but one variety only, and in 1881, 
two varieties. 

Bauhin, C. Pinax 3. 1623. 

Lobel Stirp. Illustr. 82. 1655. 

Ray Hist. PL 794. 1686. 

De Candolle, A. P. Trans. Horl. Soc. Land. $-.15. 1824. 

Booth, W. B. Treas. Bot. 1:167. 1874. 

'Card. Chron. 117. 1850. 

'McMahon, B. Amer. Card. Col. 580. 1806. 

McMahon, B. Amer. Card. Col. 309. 1806. 

Fessenden New Amer. Card. 59. 1828. 
" Thorburn Cat. 1828. 


B. oleracea biillata major DC. savoy cabbage. 

This race of cabbage is distinguished by the blistered surface of its leaves and by the 
formation of a loose or little compacted head. Probably the heading cabbages of the ancient 
Romans belong to this class, as, in their descriptions, there are no indications of a firm 
head, and at & later period this form is named as if distinctly Roman. Thus, Ruellius,* 
1536, describes under the name romanos a loose-heading sort of cabbage but does not 
describe it particularly as a Savoy. This sort probably is the Brassica italica tenerrima 
ghmerosa flore albo figured by J. Bauhin,^ 165 1, its origin, judging from the name, being 
ascribed to Italy; it is also figured by Chabraeus,' 1677, under the same name and 
with the additional names of Chou d'ltalie and Chou de Savoys. In the Adversaria * and 
elsewhere, this kind is' described as tender and as not extending to northern climates. This 
form, so carefully pictured as existing under culture, has doubtless been superseded by 
better varieties. It has been cultivated in English gardens for three centuries.* In 1806, 
McMahon ' mentions three savoys for American gardens. In 1828, Thorbum offers in 
his catalog seeds of five varieties and in 1881 offers seed of but three. 

B. oleracea capita DC. cabbage. 

Few plants exhibit so many forms in its variations from the original type as cabbage. 
No kitchen garden in Europe or America is without it and it is distributed over the greater 
part of Asia and, in fact, over most of the world. The original plant occurs wild at the 
present day on the steep, chalk rocks of the sea province of England, on the coast of 
Denmark and northwestern France and, Lindley says, from Greece to Great Britain in 
nimierous localities. At Dover, England, wild cabbage varies considerably in its foliage 
and general appearance and in its wild state is used as a culinary vegetable and is of 
excellent flavor.' This wild cabbage is undoubtedly the original of ovir cultivated varie- 
ties, as experiments at the garden of the Royal Agricultural College and at Cirencester 
resulted in the production of sorts of broccoli, cabbages and greens from wild plants gath- 
ered from rocks overhanging the sea in Wales.' Lindley groups the leading variations 
as follows: If the race is vigorous, long jointed and has little tendency to turn its leaves 
inwards, it forms what are called open cabbages (the kales) ; if the growth is stunted, the 
joints short and the leaves inclined to turn inwards, it becomes the heart cabbages; if 
both these tendencies give way to a preternatural formation of flowers, the cauliflowers 
are the result. If the stems sweU out into a globular form, we have the turnip-rooted 
cabbages. Other species of Brassica, very nearly allied to B. oleracea Linn., such as 
B. halearica Richl., B. insularis Moris, and B. cretica Lam., belong to the Mediterra- 
nean flora and some botanists suggest that some of these species, likewise introduced 

Ruellius Nat. PL Slirp. 477. 1536. 
Bauhin, J. Hist. PI. 2:827. 1651. 
' Chabraeus Icon. Sciag. 269. 1677. 
Pena and Lobel Advers. 91. 1570. 
Booth, W. B. Treas. Bot. 1:166. 1870. 
McMahon, B. Amer. Card. Cat. 580. 1806. 
''Card. Mag. 8:54. 
' Agr.Caz. 217. 1879. 


into the gardens and established as cultivated plants, may have mixed with each other 
and thus have assisted in giving rise to some of the many races cultivated at the present 

The ancient Greeks held cabbage in high esteem and their fables deduce its origin 
from the father of their gods; for, they inform us that Jupiter, laboring to explain two 
oracles which contradicted each other, perspired and from this divine perspiration the 
colewort sprung.' Dioscorides^ mentions two kinds of coleworts, the cultivated and 
the wild. Theophrastus ' names the curled cole, the swath cole and the wild cole. The 
Egyptians are said to have worshipped cabbage, and the Greeks and Romans ascribed 
to it the happy quality of preserving from drunkenness.^ PUny * mentions it. Cato 
describes one kind as smooth, great, broadleaved, with a big stalk, the second ruffed, 
the third with little stalks, tender and very much biting. Regnier ' says cabbages were 
cultivated by the ancient Celts. 

Cabbage is one of the most generally cultivated of the vegetables of temperate cli- 
mates. It grows in Sweden as far north as 67 to 68. The introduction of cabbage 
into European gardens is usually ascribed to the Romans, but Olivier de Serres ^ says the 
art of making them head was unknown in France in the ninth centvuy. Disraeli ' says 
that Sir Anthony Ashley of Dorsetshire first planted cabbages in England, and a cabbage 
at his feet appears on his monument; before his time they were brought from Holland. 
Cabbage is said to have been scarcely known in Scotland until the time of the Common- 
wealth, 1649, when it was carried there by some of Cromwell's soldiers.'" Cabbage was 
introduced into America at an early period. In 1540, Cartier " in his third voyage to 
Canada, sowed cabbages. Cabbages are mentioned by Benzoni " as growing in Hayti 
in 1556; by Shrigley," in Virginia in 1669; but are not mentioned especially by Jefferson 
in 1 78 1. Romans foimd them in Florida in 1775 and even cultivated by the Choctaw 
Indians. They were seen by NieuhofI in Brazil in 1647. In i779. cabbages are men- 
tioned among the Indian crops about Geneva, New York, destroyed by Gen. Sullivan in 
his expedition of reprisal." In 1806, McMahon " mentions for American gardens seven 
early and six late sorts. In 1828, Thorbum '^ offered 18 varieties in his seed catalog and 

> Phillips, H. Comp. KiUh. Card. 1:92. 1831. 
Gerarde, J. Herb. 311. 1833 on 836. 2nd Ed. 
' Ibid. 

* Soyer, A. Pantroph. 60. 1853. 

' Bostock and Riley Nat. Hist. Pliny 

Cato c. 157, 75. 

' Regnier con. Pm6. Ce. 438. 1818. 
Soyer, A. Pantroph. 6i. 1853. 
' Disraeli Curios. Lit. 2:329. 1859. 
"Booth, W.B. Treas. Bot. 1:166. 1870. 
" Pinkerton Co/Z. Foy. 12:667. 1812. 
Benzoni Hist. New World. Hak. Soc. Ed. 91. 1857. 
" Shrigley True Pel. Va. Md. Force Coll. Tracts 3:5. 1844. 
" Conover, G. S. Early Hist. Geneva 47. 1879. 
McMahon, B. Amer. Card. Cal. 580. 1806. 
' Thorbum Co(. 1821. 


in 1881, 19. In 1869, Gregory tested 60 named varieties in his experimental garden and 
in 187s Landreth tested 51. 

The headed cabbage in its perfection of growth and its multitude of varieties, bears 
every evidence of being of ancient origin. It does not appear, however, to have been 
known to I>t.oscorides, or to Theophrastus or Cato, but a few centuries later the presence 
of cabbage is indicated by Columella ' and Pliny,^ who, of his variety, speaks of the head 
being sometimes a foot in diameter and going to seed the latest of all the sorts known to 
him. The descriptions are, however, obsciore, and we may well believe that if the hard- 
headed varieties now known had been seen in Rome at this time they would have received 
mention. Olivier de Serres^ says: " White cabbages came from the north, and the art 
of making them head was vmknown in the time of Charlemagne." Albertus Magnus,* 
who lived in the twelfth century, seems to refer to a headed cabbage in his Caputium, 
but there is no description. The first unmistakable reference to cabbage ' is by Ruellius, 
1536, who calls them capucos coles, or cabutos and describes the head as globular and often 
very large, even a foot and a half in diameter. Yet the word cabaches and caboches, 
used in England in the fourteenth centurj-, indicates cabbage was then known and was 
distinguished from coles. ^ Ruellius, also, describes a loose-headed form called romanos, 
and this name and description, when we consider the difficulty of heading cabbages in a 
warm climate, would lead us to believe that the Roman varieties were not our present 
solid-heading type but loose-headed and perhaps of the savoy class. 

Our present cabbages are divided by De Candolle ' into five types or races: the flat- 
headed, the round-headed, the egg-shaped, the elliptic and the conical. Within each 
class are many sub-varieties. In Viknorin's Les Plantes Poiagkres, 1883, 57 kinds are 
described, and others are mentioned by name. In the Report of the New York Agricul- 
tural Experiment Station for 1886, 70 varieties are described, excluding synonyms. In 
both cases the savoys are treated as a separate class and are not included. The histories 
of De Candolle's forms are as follows: 

Flat-Headed Cabbage. 

Type, Quintal. The first appearance of this form is in Pancovius Herbarium, 1673, 

No. 612. A Common Flatwinter, probably this form, is mentioned by Wheeler,* 1763; 

the Flat-topped is described by Mawe,' 1778. The varieties that are now esteemed are 

remarkably flat and solid. 

Round Cabbage. 

Type, Early Dutch Drumhead. This appears to be the earliest form, as it is the 

only kind figured in early botanies and was hence presumably the only, or, perhaps, the 

' Columella lib. 10, c. i, p. 138. 

* Pliny lib. 19, c. 41, p. 187. 
'Soyer, A. Pantroph. 61. 1853. 

* Albertus Magnus Veg. lib. 7, c. 90. 1867. Jessen Ed. 
Ruellius Nat. Stirp. 477. 1536. 

The Forme of Cury 1390 in Warner Antiq. Culin. 1791. 

' De Candolle, A. P. Trans. Hort. Soc. Land. 5:7. 1824. 
Wheeler Bot., Card. Diet. 79. 1763. 

Mawe and Abercrombie Univ. Card. Bot. 1778. 

-1 1 6 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

principal sort known during several centuries. The following synonymy is taken from 
drawings only and hence there can be no mistake in regard to the type: 

Brassicae quartum genus. Fuch. 416. 1542. 

Kappiskraut. Roeszl. 87. 1550. 

Caulis capitulatis. Trag. 717. 1552. 

Brassica capitata. Matth. 247. 1558; Pin. 163. 1561; Cam. Epit. 250. 1586. 

Kol oder Kabiskraut. Pict. 90. 1581. 

Brassica alba sessilis glomerata, aut capitata Lactucae habitu. Lobel Icon, i : 243. 1591. 

Brassica capitata albida. Dalechamp 1:521. 1587; Dod. P^wj/'^ 623. 1616. 

Brassica capuccia. Dur. C. 78. 1617. 

Brassica capitata alba. Bod. 777. 1644; Bauh. J. 1:826. 1651; Chabr. 269. 1677. 

The descriptive synonymy includes the losed cabbage, a great roimd cabbage of Lyte's 
Dodoens, 1586; the White Cabbage Cole of Gerarde, 1597; the White Cabbage of Ray, 
1686; the chou pomnte blanc of Toumefort, 1719; the English of Townsend, 1726; {he 
Common White of Wheeler, 1763; the English or Late, of Stevenson, 1765; the Common 
Roimd White of Mawe, 1778. 

Egg-Shaped Cabbage. 

Type, the Sugar-loaf. Vilmorin ' remarks of this variety, the Sugar-loaf, that, 
although a very old variety and well known in every country in Europe, it does not appear 
to be extensively grown anywhere. It is called chou chicon in France ^ and bundee kobee 
in India.' It is mentioned by name by Townsend,* 1726; by Wheeler,' 1763; by Steven- 
son,' 1765; and by Mawe,' 1778. Perhaps the Large-sided cabbage of Worlidge ' and the 
Long-sided cabbage of Quintyne ' belong to this division. 

Elliptic Cabbage. 
Type, Early York. This is first mentioned by Stevenson,*" 1765, and he refers to 
it as a well-known sort. According to Burr, it came originally from Flanders. There 
are now many varieties of this class. 

Conical Cabbage. 

Type, Filderkraut. This race is described by Lamarck," 1783, and, if there is any 
constancy between the name and the variety during long periods, is found in the Battersea, 
named by Townsend in 1726 and by a whole line of succeeding writers. 

It is certainly very singular that but one of these races of cabbage received the 
notice of the older botanists (excepting the one flat-topped given by Chabraeus, 1677), 

' Vilmorin Veg. Card. no. 1885. 
' Vilmorin Veg. Card. 109. 1885. 

Speede Ind. Handb. Card. 112. 1842. 

Townsend Seedsman 26. 1726. 

' Wheeler Bot. Card. Diet. 79. 1765. 

"Stevenson Card. Kal. 26, 119. 1765. 

' Mawe and Abercrombie Univ. Card. Bot. 1778. 

Worlidge, J. Syst. Hort. 202. 1683. 
Quintyne Com^. Card. 189. 1693. Evelyn Ed. 

"Stevenson Card. Kal. 26. 119, 1765. 
"Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 1:22s. 1831. 


as their characteristics are extremely well marked and form extreme contrasts between 
the conical, or pointed, and the spherical-headed. We must, hence, believe that they 
either originated or came into use in a recent period. How they came and whence they 
came, must be decided from a special study, in which the effect of hybridization may 
become a f&iture. From the study of sports that occasionally appear in the garden, the 
suggestion may be offered that at least some of these races have been derived from cross- 
ings with some form of the Chinese cabbage, whereby form has become transferred while 
the other characteristics of the Chinese species have disappeared. On the other hand, 
the savoy class, believed to have origin from the same source as the cabbage, has oval or 
oblong heads, which have been noted by the herbalists. 

It is very remarkable, says Unger, that the European and Asiatic names used for 
different species of cabbage may all be referred to four roots. The names kopf kohl (Ger- 
man), cabus (French), cabbage (English), kappes, kraut, kapost, kaposta, kapsta (Tartar), 
kopee (Beng.), kopi (Hindu), have a manifest relation to the Celto-Slavic root cap or 
kap, which in Celtic means head. Brassica of Pliny is derived from the Celtic, bresic 
cabbage. The Celto-Germanico-Greek root caul may be detected in the word kaol, the 
Grecian kaulion of Theophrastus, the Latin caulis; also in the words caulx, cavolo, coan, 
kohl, kale, kaal (Norwegian), kohl (Swedish), col (Spanish), kelum (Persian); finally, the 
Greco-Germanic root cramb, krambe, passes into krumb, karumb of the Arabians. The 
want of a Sanscrit name shows that the cabbage tribe first found its way at a later period 
to India and China. This tribe is not mentioned as in Japan by Thunberg, 1775. 

B. oleracea capitata rubra DC. red cabbage. 

This is a very distinct and probably a very ancient kind of a peculiar purple color 
and solid heading. It is cultivated in a number of varieties and in 1854 the seed of 
Red Savoy was distributed from the United States Patent Office. One variety is men- 
tioned for American gardens by McMahon,' 1806, and one variety only by Thorbum,^ 
1828 and 1881, but several distinct sorts can now be obtained from seedsmen. Bvirr,* 
1863, describes three reds and one so deeply colored as to be called black. 

The first certain mention of this cabbage is in 1570, in Pena and Lobel's Adversaria,^ 
and figures are given by Gerarde, 1597,^ Matthiolus, 1598,^ Dodonaeus, 1616,' and J. 
Bauhin, 1651.* These figures are all of the spherical-headed type. In 1638,' Ray notices 
the variability in the colors upon which a number of our seedsmen's varieties are founded. 
The oblong or the pointed-headed types which now occur cannot be traced. The solidity 
of the head and the perfectness of the form in this class of cabbage indicate long ctilture 

McMahon, B. Amer. Card. Cal. 580. 1806. 
'ThoThum Cat. 1828. 

Burr, F. Field, Card. Veg. 266, 267. 1863. 
*Pena and Lobel ^d^eri. 91. 1570. 
Gerarde, J. Herb. 246. 1597. 

Matthiolus Opera 367. 1598. 
'Dodonaeus Pempt. 621. 1616. 

Bauhin, J. Hist. PL 2:832. 1651. 

Ra.y Hist. PI. 79$- '686. 

'ii8 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

and a remote origin. In England, they have never attained much standing for general 
use,' and, as in this coimtry, are principally grown for pickling. 


As grown in the United States, coUards, or colewort, are sowings of an early variety 
of cabbage in rows about one foot apart to be cut for use as a spinach when about six or 
eight inches high. Other directions for culture are to sow seeds as for cabbage in June, 
July and August for succession, transplant when one month old in rows a foot apart 
each way, and hoe frequently. The collard plants are kept for sale by seedsmen, rather 
than the cabbage seed under this name. In the Southern States, coUards are extensively 
grown and used for greens and after frost the flavor is esteemed deHcious. 

B. oleracea caulo-rapa commimis DC. kohl-rabi. 

This is a dwarf-growing plant with the stem swelled out so as to resemble a timiip 
above ground. There is no certain identification of this race in ancient writings. The 
bunidia of Pliny ^ seems rather to be the rutabaga, as he says it is between a radish and 
a rape. The gorgylis of Theophrastus ' and Galen ^ seems also to be the rutabaga, for 
Galen says the root contained within the earth is hard unless cooked. In 1554, Matthio- 
lus' speaks of the kohl-rabi as having lately come into Italy. Between 1573 and 1575, 
Rauwolf ^ saw it in the gardens of Tripoli and Aleppo. Lobel,' 1570, Camerarius,* 1586, 
Dalechamp,^ 1587, and other of the older botanists figure or describe it as vmder European 

Kohl-rabi, in the view of some writers, is a cross between cabbage and rape, and many 
of the names applied to it convey this idea. This view is probably a mistaken one, as 
the plant in its sportings under cultiu-e tends to the form of the Marrow cabbage, from 
which it is probably a derivation. In 1884, two kohl-rabi plants were growing in pots in 
the greenhouse at the New York Agricultural Experiment Station; one of these extended 
itself until it became a Marrow cabbage and when planted out in the spring attained its 
growth as a Marrow cabbage. This idea of its origin finds covintenance in the figures of 
the older botanists; thus, Camerarius, 1586, figures a plant as a kohl-rabi which in all 
essential points resembles a Marrow cabbage, tapering from a small stem into a long 
kohl-rabi, with a flat top like the Marrow cabbage. The figures given by Lobel,'" 1591, 
Dodonaeus," i6i6,andBodaeus,2 ^^^^^ ^^en compared with Camerarius' figure, suggest 

Worlidge, J. 531s/. Hort. 203. 1683. 

' Pliny lib. 20, c. 2. 

' Theophrastus lib. 7, c. 4. 

* GsX&n Aliment. 1547. 

' Matthiolus Comment 248. 1554. 
Gronovius /7. Orieni 81. 1755. 
' Pena and Lobel Advers. 92. 1570. 
Camerarius ^t(. 251. 1586. 

Dalechamp Hist. Gen. PL (Lugd.) 522. 1587. 
" Lobel Icon. 246. 1591. 

" Dodonaeus Pempt. 625. 1616. 

" Theophrastus Hist. PI. Bodaeus Ed. 777. 1644. 


the Marrow cabbage. A long, highly improved form, not now under cultiu-e, is figured 
by Gerarde.i 1597, J. Bauliin,^ 1651, and Chabraeus,' 1677, and the modern form is given 
by Gerarde and by Matthiolus,'' 1598. A very unimproved form, out of harmony with 
the other figures, is given by Dalechamp,^ 1587, and Castor Durante,^ 1617. The 
synonymy can be tabulated as below: 

Caulorapum. Cap. Epit. 251. 1586. 


Rapa Br. peregrine, caule rapum gerens. Lob. Icon. 246. 1591. 
Br. caule rapum gerens. Dod. Pempt. 625. i6r6. 
Rapa brassica. Bodaus 777. 1644. 

Caulo rapum longum. Ger. 250. 1597. 
Br. caulorapa. Baiih. J. 2:830. 1651. 
Br. caulorapa sive Rapo caulis. Chabr. 270. 1677. 

Caulorapum rotundum. Ger. 250. 1597. 
Brassica gongylodes. Matth. Opera 367. 1598. 


Brassica raposa. Dalechamp 522. 1587. 
Bradica raposa. Dur. C. 161 7. app. 

Matthiolus, as we have stated, says the plant came into Germany from Italy; Pena 
and Lobel say it came from Greece; Gerarde, that it grows in Italy, Spain and Germany, 
whence he received seeds. This plant was an inmate of the Old Physic Garden in 
Edinburgh before 1683. In 1734, it was first brought into field culture in Ireland; in 
Scotland in 1805; and in England in 1837. In the United States, it was mentioned by 
McMahon,' 1806. Fessenden,' 1828, names two varieties, one the above-ground and 
the other the below-ground turnip-rooted. Darwin ' speaks of the recently formed new 
race, already including nine subvarieties, in which the enlarged part lies beneath the 
ground like a turnip. Two varieties are used in France in ornamental gardening, the 
leaves being cut and frizzled, and the artichoke-leaved variety, is greatly prized for deco- 
ration by confectioners. These excerpts indicate a southern origin, for this vegetable 
and the Marrow cabbage are very sensitive to cold. The more highly improved forms, as 
figured in our synonymy, are in authors of northern or central Europe, while the unim- 
proved forms are given by more southern writers. This indicates that the present kohl- 

' Gerarde, J. Herb. 250. 1597. 
'Bauhin, J. Hut. PI. 2:%iO. 1651. 
Chabraeus Icon. Sciag. 270. 1677. 

Matthiolus Opera 367. 1598. 

' Dalechamp Hist. Gen. PI. (Lugd.) 1587. 

Durante, C. Herb.&pp. 1617. 

' McMahon, B. Amer. Card. Cal. 309. 1806. 

Fessenden New Amer. Card. 59. 1828. 

Darwin, C. Ans. and Pis. Domest. 1:342. 1893. 


rabi received its development in northern countries. The varieties now grown are the 
White and Purple, in early and late forms, the Curled-leaf, or NeapoUtan, and the Arti- 

B. olearacea costata oblonga DC. Portugal cabbage. 

This cabbage is easily recognizable through the great expansion of the midribs and 
veins of the leaf, in some cases forming quite half of the leaf, the midrib losing its 
identity in the multitude of radiating, branching veins. In some plants the petioles are 
winged clear to the base. Nearly all the names applied to this form indicate its distribu- 
tion, at least in late years, from Portugal, whence it reached English gardens about 
1821 ' and American gardens, tmder the name of Portugal Cabbage, about 1850.^ It 
should be remarked, however, that a chou d la grosse cdte was in French gardens in 161 2 * 
and in three varieties in 1824. 

This cabbage varies in a direction parallel to that of the common cabbage, or has 
forms which can be classed with the kales and the heading cabbages of at least two 

The peculiarity of the ribs or veins occasionally appears among the variables from 
the seed of the common cabbage, hence atavism as the result of a cross can be reasonably 
inferred. As to the origin of this form, opinion, at the present stage of studies, must be 
largely speculative but we may reasonably believe that it originated from a different form 
or a different set of hybridizations than did the common cabbage. The synonymy appears 
to be: 

Choux d. la grosse cdte. Jard. Solit. 16 12. 

Chou blond aux grosses cotes. Bosc. Diet. 4, 43. 1789. 

Brassica oleracea aceppala costata. DC. Sysi. 2:584. 1821. 

B. oleracea costata. DC. Trans. Hort. Soc. Land. M. 5:12. 1824. 

Chou aux grosses cotes. Vilm. 1883. 

B, sinapistnun Boiss. charlock, field mustard. 

This is an European plant now occurring as a weed in cultivated fields in America. 
In seasons of scarcity, in the Hebrides, the soft stems and leaves are boiled in milk and 
eaten. It is so employed in Sweden and Ireland. Its seeds form a good substitute for 

Bridelia retusa Spreng. Euphorbiaceae. 

A tree of eastern Asia. The fruit is sweetish and eatable.* 

Brodiaea grandiflora Sm. Liliaceae. californian hyacinth. 

Northwestern America. Its fruit is eaten by the Indians.^ In France, it is grown 
in the flower garden.^ 

De CandoUe, A. P. Trans. Hort. Soc. Land. 5:12. 1821. 

'Buist, R. Fam. Kitch.Gard. 1851. Preface. 

' Jard. Solit. 158. 1612. 

Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 449. 1876. 

' Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 605. 1879. 

Vilmorin Fl. PI. Ter. 174. 1870. 3rd Ed. 


Bromelia Sp. Bromeliaceae. 

In the Malay Archipelago, Wallace ' left two men for a month, by accident, on an 
island near Ceram, who " subsisted on the roots and tender flower-stalks of a species of 
Bromelia, on shell fish and on a few turtle's eggs." 

Brosium alicastnun Sw. Urticaceae. alicastrum snakewood. breadnut. 

American tropics. The fruit, boiled with salt-fish, pork, beef or pickle, has frequently 
been the support of the negro and poorer sorts of white people in times of scarcity and 
has proved a wholesome and not impleasant food.^ 

B. galactodendron D. Don. cow-tree, milk-tree. 

Gtiiana; the palo de vaca, arbol de leche, or cow-tree of Venezuela. Humboldt' says: 
" On the barren flank of a rock grows a tree with coriaceous and dry leaves. Its large, 
woody roots can scarcely penetrate into the stone. For several months of the year not 
a single shower moistens its foliage. Its branches appear dead and dried; but when the 
trunk is pierced there flows from it a sweet and nourishing milk. It is at the rising of 
the sun that this vegetable fountain is most abundant. The negroes and natives are 
then seen hastening from all quarters, furnished with large bowls to receive the milk which 
grows yellow and thickens at its surface. Some empty their bowls under the tree itself, 
others carry the juice home to their children." This tree seems to have been noticed first 
by Laet* in 1633, in the province of Camana. The plant, according to Desvaux, is one 
of the palo de vaca or cow-trees of South America. From incisions in the bark, milky 
sap is procured, which is drunk by the inhabitants as a milk. Its use is accompanied by 
a sensation of astringency in the lips and palate. This cow-tree is grown in Ceylon and 
India, for Brandis ^ says it yields large quantities of thick, gluey milk without any acridity, 
that it is drunk extensively, and that it is very wholesome and nourishing. 

Broussonetia papyrifera Vent. Urticaceae. paper mulberry, tapa-cloth tree. 

A tree of the islands of the Pacific, China and Japan. It is cultivated for the inner 
bark which is used for making a paper as well as textile fabrics.' The fleshy part of the 
compotmd fruit is saccharine and edible.' 

Bruguiera g3minorrhiza Lam. Rhizophoreae. 

Muddy tropical shores from Hindustan to the Samoan Islands. Its fruit, leaves and 
bark are eaten by the natives in the Malayan Archipelago.* 

Bryonia alba Linn. Cucurbitaceae. white bryony. 

West Mediterranean cotmtries. Loudon says the young shoots are edible. 

' Wallace, A. R. Mday Arch. 526. 1869. 
5 Browne U. S. D. A. Rpl. 198. 1870. 
Humboldt, A. Trav. 2:48, 49. 1889. 
< Humboldt, A. Trav. 2:^8. 1889. 
Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 427. 1876. 
Mueller, P. Sel. Pis. 78. 1891. 
'Hanbury, D. Set. Papers 231. 1876. 
Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. ^oo. 1879. 


B. dioica Jacq. red bryony, wild hop. 

Europe and adjoining Asia. Loudon says the young shoots of red bryony are edible. 
Masters ' says that the plant has a fetid odor and possesses acrid, emetic and pungent 

Buchanania lancifolia Roxb. Anacardiaceae. cheerojee-oil plant. 

East Indies and Burma. The tender, unripe fruit is eaten by the natives in their 

B. latifolia Roxb. 

Tropical India and Burma. The fruit, says Brandis,* has a pleasant, sweetish, sub- 
acid flavor and is an important article of food of the hill tribes of central India. The 
kernel of the seed tastes somewhat like the pistachio nut and is used largely in native sweet- 
meats. Drury * says these kernels are a general substitute for almonds among the natives 
and are much esteemed in confectionery or are roasted and eaten with milk. 

Bumelia lanuginosa Pers. Sapotaceae. false buckthorn. 

North America. This is a low bush of southern United States which, according* to 
Nuttall,^ bears an edible fruit as large as a small date. 

B. reclinata Vent, western buckthorn. 

Southwestern United States. In California, Torrey ' says the fruit is sweet and 
edible and nearly three-quarters of an inch long. 

Bunias erucago Linn. Cruciferae. 

Mediterranean coimtries. In Italy, Unger ' says this species serves rs a salad for 
the poor. 

B. orientalis Linn, hill mustard. Turkish rocket. 

Eastern Europe and Asia Minor. This plant is called dikaia retka on the Lower 
Volga. Its stems are eaten raw. This rocket was cultivated in 1739 by Philip Miller 
in the Botanic Garden of Chelsea and was first introduced into field ciolture in England, 
as a forage plant, by Arthiir Yovmg. The young leaves are recommended by Vilmorin ' 
either as a salad or boiled. 

Bupleurum falcatum Linn. Umbelliferae. hare's ear. 

Europe, Orient, Northern Asia and Himalayan region. The leaves are used for food 
in China ' and Japan." 

' Masters, M. T. Treas. Bot. 1:176. 1870 
Drury, H. Useful Ph. Ind. 89. 1858. 
'Brandis, D. Forest PI. 127. 1874, 
* Drury, H. Useful Pis. Ind. 89. 1858. 

Nuttall, T. No. Amer. Sylva 2:106. 1865. {B. macrocarpa) 
' Torrey, J. Bot. U. S., Mex. Bound. Surv. 2:iog. 1859. 
'Unger, P. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 354. 1859. 
' Vilmorin Lj P/i. Po/og. 54. 1883. 
Bretschneider, E. Bot. Sin. 51. 1882. 
"Georgeson Amer. Card. 13:7. 1892. Fig. p, 9. 


B. octoradiatum Biinge. 

Northern China. In China, the tender shoots of this apparently foreign plant are 
edible. 1 

B. rotxindifolium Linn, thorough wax. 

Europe, Caucasus region and Persia. " Hippocrates hath commended it in meats 
for salads and potherbs." * 

Burasaia madagascariensis DC. Menispermaceac. 
Madagascar. This plant has edible fruit.' 

Bursera gummifera Linn. Burseraceae. American gum tree, indian birch. 

American tropics. An infusion of the leaves is occasionally used as a domestic sub- 
stitute for tea.* 

B. icicariba Baill. 

Brazil. The tree is said to have edible, aromatic fruit. It yields the elemi of 

B. javanica Baill. 

Java. This plant is the tingulong of the Javanese, who eat the leaves and fruit.' 

Butomus umbellatus Linn. AUsmaceae. flowering rush, grassy rush, water 


Europe and adjoining Asia. Unger '' says, in Norway, the rhizomes serve as material 
for a bread. Johns ' says, in the north of Asia, the root is roasted and eaten. Lindley ' 
says the rhizomes are acrid and bitter, as well as the seeds but are eaten among the savages. 
In France, it is grown in flower gardens as an aquatic.'" 

Butyrospermum parkii Kotschy. Sapotaceae. butter tree, shea tree. 

Tropical west Africa. Shea, or galam, butter is obtained from the kernel of the fruit 
and serves the natives as a substitute for butter. This butter is highly commended by 
Park." The tree is called meepampa in equatorial Africa.'^ 

Buxus sempervirens Linn. Euphorbiaceae. box. 

Europe, Orient and temperate Asia. In France and some other parts of the 

1 Smith, F. P. Contrib. Mat. Med. China 45. 1871. 
Gerarde, J. Herb. 608. 1633 or 1636. and Ed. 
Baillon, H. Hist. Pis. 3:70. 1874. 

Sargent U. S. Census 9:32. 1884. 
"BaiUon, H. Hist. Pis. 5:297. 1878. 


' Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 308. 1859. 
'Johns, C. A. Treas. Bot. iii&i. 1870. 

Lindley, J. Veg. King. 208. 1846. 

" Vilmorin Fl. PL Ter. 185. 1870. 3rd Ed. 

" Don, G. Hist. Dich. Pis. 4:36. 1838. 

" Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 426. 1879. (Bassia parkii) 


continent, the leaves of the box have been used as a substitute for hops in beer, but 
Johnson ' says they cannot be wholesome and would probably prove very injurious. 

Bjrrsonima crassifolia H. B. & K. Malpighiaceae. 

A small tree of New Granada and Panama. The small, acid berries are eaten.* 

B. spicata Rich, shoemaker's tree. 

Tropical America. The yellow, acid berries are good eating but astringent.' 

Cadaba farinosa Forsk. Capparideae. 

A shrub of tropical Africa and Arabia. Spinach is made from the leaves.* 

Caesalpinia pulcherrima Sw. Leguminosae. peacock flower, pride of Barbados. 

Cosmopolitan tropics. The green seeds are eaten raw and have the taste of peas.* 

Cajanus indicus Spreng. Leguminosae. angola pea. catjang. congo pea. dahl. 
grandue. no-eye pea. pigeon pea. toor. urhur. 
East Indies. The pigeon pea is a perennial shrub, though treated generally as an 
annual when in cultivation. It is now naturalized in the West Indies, in tropical America 
and in Africa. The variety Bicolor grows from three to six feet high and is called the 
Congo pea in Jamaica. The variety Flavus grows from five to ten feet high and is called 
in Jamaica no-eye pea, pigeon pea and Angola pea.* Dr. MacFayden ^ says there are few 
tropical plants so valuable. Lunan ' says the pea when young and properly cooked is 
very little inferior as a green vegetable to English peas and when old is an excellent ingredient 
in soups. Berlanger ' says at Martinique there are several varieties greatly used, and that 
the seeds both fresh and dried are delicious. In Egypt, on the richest soil, says Mueller,'" 
4000 pounds of peas have been produced to the acre, and the plant lasts for three years, 
growing 15 feet tall. This variety is said by Pickering " to be native of equatorial Africa. 
In India, the seeds of the two varieties are much esteemed, ranking, with the natives, third 
amongst their leguminous seeds. '^ Elliott " says the pulse when split is in great and general 
esteem and forms the most generally used article of diet among all classes in India. At 
Zanzibar, the seeds are a principal article of diet. It is both cultivated and wild all over 
India as well as in all parts of tropical Africa. It certainly is one of the oldest cultivated 

' Johnson, C. P. Useful Ph. Gr. Brit. 228. 1862. 

' Smith, A. Treas. Bot. 1:185. 1870. {B. cumingiana) 


* Speke, J. H. Journ. Disc. Source NUe 561. 1864. 
' Proc. Amer. Acad. Art. Sci. 425. 1886. 

Smith, A. Treas. Bot. \:i&<). 1870. 
' Macfayden Jam. 1:296. 1837. 

' Lunan, J. Hort. Jam. 2:64. 1814. 

Berlanger Trcms. N. Y. Agr. Soc. 568. 1858. 
">MueUer, F. Sel.Pls.&2. 1891. 

" Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. ^Z- 1879. (C. flavus) 
" Drury, H. Useful Pis. Ind. 95, 1858. 
"Elliott, W. Bol. Soc. Edinb. 7:294. 1863. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 125 

plants in the world, a fact attested by its presence in ancient tombs. Schweinfurth states 
that it is foiind in Egyptian tombs of the twelfth dynasty (2200-2400 B. C.) ' 

Cakile maritima Scop. Cruciferae. sea rocket. 

Europe, Korthem Africa and North America. Kakn ^ says the sea rocket furnishes 
a root in Canada which is pounded, mixed with flour and eaten, when there is a scarcity 
of bread. 

Caladium bicolor Vent. Aroideae. 

South America. The corms are eaten roasted or boiled.' The leaves are eaten, boiled 
as a vegetable, in the West Indies.* 

Calamus rotang Linn. Palmae. rattan cane. 

East Indies. Thtinberg * saw the fruit of the rattan exposed for sale in Batavia. 
When ripe this fruit is roundish, as large as a hazelnut and is covered with small, shining 
scales, laid like shingles, one upon the other. The natives generally suck out the subacid 
pulp which surrounds the kernel by way of quenching their thirst. Sometimes the fruit 
is pickled with salt and eaten at tea-time. This palm furnishes rattan canes. 

Calathea allouia Lindl. Scitantineae. 

Guiana. This species is cultivated in the West Indies and, according to Lindley,' 
furnishes one of the arrowroots of commerce. 

Calendula officinalis Linn. Compositae. goldins golds, pot marigold. 

Southern Europe. This marigold was cultivated in England prior to 1573. The 
petals of the flowers are occasionally 'used in broths and soups in Britain and Holland 
and are also used for coloring butter.' In 1806, it was included in McMahon's ' Hst of 
aromatic, pot and sweet herbs of American gardens. There are a number of ornamental 
varieties, and the species is to be found in many of our country gardens. The plant is 
described in nearly all of the early herbals and is mentioned by Albertus Magnus in the 
thirteenth century. 

Calla palustris Linn. Aroideae. water arum, water dragon. 

Europe, Northern Asia and North America. The rootstocks of this plant yield eatable 
starch, prepared by drying and grinding them and then heating the powder until the acrid 
properties are dissipated.' 

^Nature 19:315. 1884. 

'Kalm, P. Trav. TVo. ^mer. 2:345. 1772. {Bunias cakile) 

Henfrey, A. Bo/. 371. 1870. 

* Masters, M. T. Treas. Bot. i:igo. 1870. {C. sagittaefoUum) 
Thunberg, C. P. Trav. 2:277. 1796. 

Lindley, J. Veg. King. 169. 1846. (Maranta allouia) 
' Loudon, J. C. Enc. Pis. 741. 1855. 

'McMahon, B. Amer. Card. Cal. 583. 1806. 
Masters, M. T. Treas. Bot. 1:194. 1870. 

126 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

CalUcarpa lanata Linn. Verbenaceae. 

East Indies. The bark has a peculiar, subaromatic and slightly bitter taste and is 
chewed by the Cinghalese when they cannot obtain betel leaves.' 

Calligonum pallasia L'Herit. Polygonaceae. 

Caspian region, Russia and Siberia. The roots when pounded are said to furnish 
a mucilaginous, edible substance resembling gtmi tragacanth.* 

C. polygonoides Linn. 

Armenia, Persia and northwestern India. The abortive flowers, which fall in great 
numbers, are, in the south Pimjab and sometimes in Sind, swept up, made into bread, 
or cooked with ghee and eaten.' s 

Callirhoe involucrata A. Gray. Malvaceae, poppy mallow. 

Northwestern America. The large, tapering root of this plant is said to be edible.* 
It is an inmate of the flower garden in France.' 

C. pedata A. Gray, pimple mallow. 

Northwestern America. The roots of this species resemble those of a parsnip and 
are used as food by the Indians of Nebraska and Idaho. In France it is grown in flower 

Calluna vulgaris Salisb. Ericaceae, heath. 

Europe and North America. The Celtic tribes had a method of preparing an intoxi- 
cating drink from a decoction of heath. This beverage, mixed with wild honey, was their 
common drink at feasts.^ In the Hebrides, says Johnson,' a kind of beer is formed by 
fermenting a mixttire of two parts of heath tops and one of malt. The Picts had a 
mode of preparing beer or wine from the flowers of the heath. 

Calochortus elegans Pursh. Liliaceae. star tulip. 

Pacific northwest of America. The root of this plant is eaten by the Indians.'" 


Western United States. This plant has a small, bulbous root about the size of a walnut, 
very palatable and nutritious and much used by the Indian tribes of Utah as an article 
of food." The Mormons during their first years in Utah consimied the root in large 

Ainslie, V7. Mat. Ind. 2:180. 1826. 

Syme, J. T. Treas. Bot. 2:937. 1870. (Pterocouus aphyllus) 
Brandis, D. Forest. Fl. $72. 1874. 
<Stansbury, H. Rpl. Gt. Salt Lake 384. 1853. 
Vilmorin Fl. PL Ter. 199. 1870. 3rd Ed. 
U.S.D.A. Rpt. 406. 1870. 
.' Vilmorin F;. /*/. Ter. 199. 1870. 3rd Ed. 
'Hog)?, W. Journ. Agr. 6:^$. 1836. 

Johnson, C. P. Useful Pis. Gt. Brit. 167. 1862. (Erica vulgaris) 
" Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 582. 1879. 
" Stansbury, H. Rpt. Salt iMhe 160, 208, 397. 1853. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 127 

Calophyllum inophyllum Linn. Guttiferae. Alexandrian laurel, poonay-oil plant. 
Old world tropics. The fruit when ripe is red and sweet and is eaten by the natives. 
An oil is expressed from it and is used in lamps.' 

Calotropis gigantea Ait. Asclepiadeae. bow-string hemp. 

East India. According to Twemlow,^ an intoxicating liquor called bar is obtained 
from the plant by the Hill People about Mahableshwur. According to Royle,^ it yields 
a kind of manna. 

Caltha palustris Linn. Ranunculaceae. cowslip, marsh marigold, meadow bright. 
Of northern climates. This well-known plant, says Gray/ is used as a potherb in 
spring when coming into flower, under the name of cowslip. In the Southern States, the 
flower-buds are pickled for use as a substitute for capers.* 

Calycanthus fioridus Linn. Calycanthaceae. Carolina allspice. 

North America. The aromatic bark is said to be used as a substitute for cinnamon.' 

Calyptranthes aromatica St. Hil. Myrtaceae. 

South Brazil. Mueller^ says the flower-buds can be used as cloves; the berries, as 

C. obscura DC. 

Brazil. The fruit is sold in Rio Janeiro as an aromatic and astringent. 

C. paniculata Ruiz & Pav. 

Peru. The fruit is used as a substitute for cloves. 

C. schiediana Berg. 

Mexico. In Mexico, the fruit is used as cloves. 

Calystegia sepiimi R. Br. Convolvulaceae. bindweed. 

Temperate climates. It has edible stalks ' which are eaten by the Hindus." The 
roots are said to be boiled and eaten by the Chinese, who manage, says Smith,'" to cook" 
and digest almost every root or tuber in spite of the warnings of botanists and chemists. 

C. soldanella R. Br. sea bindweed. 

Temperate climates. The tender stalks of the sea bindweed are pickled." The 

'Drury, H. Useful Pis. Ind. 1858. {C. spurium) 

Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 596. 1879. (Asclepias gigantea) 

Gray, A. Man. Bot. 404. 1908. 

Porcher, F. P. Res. So. Fields, Forests 17. 1869. 
Black, A. A. Treas. Bot. 1:203. 1870. 
'MueUer, F. Sel. Pis. 85. 1891. 

Royle, J. F. Illustr. Bot. Himal. 1 :3o8. 1839. 
Ainslie, W. Mat. Ind. 2:220. 1826. 

"> Smith, F. P. Contrib. Mat. Med. China 47. 1871, 
'Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 4:297. 1838. 

128 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

young shoots, says Johnson,' were gathered formerly by the people on the southern coasts 
of England and pickled as a substitute for samphire. 

Camassia esculenta Lindl. Liliaceae. common camass. kamosh. quamash. 

Northwestern America. The root forms the greater part of the vegetable food of the 
Indians on the northwest coast of America and Vancouver Island and is called kamosh 
or quamash. This bvilbous root is said to be of delicious flavor and highly nutritious, 
but Lewis ^ says it causes bowel complaints if eaten in quantity. This plant covers many 
plains and is dug by the women and stored for eating, roasted or boiled. The bulbs, when 
boiled in water, yield a very good molasses, which is much prized and is used on festival 
occasions by various tribes of Indians. In France, it is an inmate of the flower garden.' 

Camelina sativa Crantz. Cruciferae. false flax, gold-of-pleasure. oil-seed plant. 


Europe and temperate Asia. This plant occurs in northeastern America as a noxious 
weed in flax fields, having been introduced from Europe. It was regularly cviltivated in 
the mediaeval ages in Germany and Russia * and is now ctdtivated in Flanders. The 
stem yields a fiber, but the stalks seem to be used only in broom making. The seeds 
yield an oil which is used for ciilinary and other purposes.* In 1854, the seeds of this plant 
were distributed from the United States Patent Office. It was called in Britain gold-of- 
pleasure even in the time of Gerarde. The seeds are sometimes imported into England 
Tmder the name dodder seed, but they have no relation to the true dodder which is a far 
different plant. 

Camellia sasanqua Thunb. Ternstroemiaceae. tea-oil plant. 

Japan and China. This plant was introduced from China to England in 181 1. It 
yields a nut from which an oil is expressed in China, equal, it is said, to olive oil. In Japan 
the dried leaves are mixed with tea to give it a grateful odor.* 

C. thea Link. tea. 

China. This is the species to which the cultivated varieties of tea are all referred. 
In its various forms it is now found in China and Japan, in the mountains that separate 
China from the Burmese territories, especially in upper Assam, in Nepal, in the islands 
of Bourbon, Java, St. Helena and Madeira, in Brazil and experimentally in the United 
States. The first mention of tea seems to have been by Giovanni Pietro Maffei in his 
Historiae Indicae, 1589, from which it appears that it was then called by the Chinese ckia. 
Giovanni Botero in his Delia Cause della grandezza. . . .della citta, 1589, says the Chinese 
have an herb from which they extract a delicate juice, which they use instead of wine. 
In 1615, an Englishman in Japan, in the employment of the East India Company, 

'Johnson, C. P. Useful Pis. Gt.Brit. 181. ' 1862. {Convolvulus soldanella) 
'Pursh, F. Fi. Amer. Seplent. 1:226, 227. 1814. {Phalangium bulbosum) 
Vilmorin W. P/. Ter. 204. 1870. 3rd Ed. 
* Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 353. 1879. 
' Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 1:214. 1831. 
Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 1:579. 1 83 1. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 129 

sent to a brother ofBcial at Macao for a " pot of the best chaw," and this is supposed to be 
the eariiest known mention by an EngUshman. Adam Olearius ' describes the use of tea 
in Persia in 1633, and says his book being published in 1647 " this herb is now so 
well known in most parts of Eiirope, where many persons of quality use it with good success." 
In 1638, Maiwielslo ^ visited Japan and about this time wrote of the tsia or tea of Japan. 

Prior to 1657, tea was occasionally sold in England at prices ranging from $30 to 
$50 a pound. In 1661, Mr. Pepys, secretary of the British Admiralty, speaks of " tea 
(a China drink) of which I had never drank before," and in 1664, the Dutch India Company 
presented two poiinds and two oimces to the King of England as a rare and valuable offering 
and in 1667 this company imported 100 pounds. In 1725, there were imported into Eng- 
land 370,323 pounds; in 1775, the quantity had increased to 5,648,188 pounds. In 1863, 
upwards of 136,000,000 pounds were imported of which 85,206,779 pounds were entered 
for home constmiption. In 1863, the United States received 29,761,037 potmds-and 
72,077,951 pounds in 1880. 

In 18 10, the first tea plants were carried to Rio Janeiro, together with several hundred 
Chinese experienced in its culture. The government trials do not seem to have resulted 
favorably but later, the business being taken up by individuals, its culture seems to be 
meeting with success and the tea of Brazil, called by its Chinese name of cha, enters quite 
largely into domestic consumption. In 1848, Junius Smith,^ of South Carolina, imported 
a ntmiber of shrubs and planted them at Greenville. At about the same time some 32,000 
plants were imported from China and distributed through the agency of the Patent Office. 
In 1878, the Department of Agriculture distributed 69,000 plants. In Louisiana, in 1870, 
a plantation of tea shrubs, three to four hundred in number, is said to have existed. 

Campanula edulis Forsk. Campanulaceae. bellflower. 

Arabia. The root is thick, sapid and is eaten by children.^ 

C. persicifolia Liim. peach bells. 

Europe and north Asia. This plant has been used as food in England but has long 
since fallen into disuse.' In France it is called cloche and is grown as a flowering plant.' 

C. rapunculoides Linn, creeping bellflower. 

Europe and temperate Asia. This plant may be substituted in cultivation for rampion. ^ 
It has long since fallen into disuse.' 

C. rapunculus Linn, rampion. 

Europe, Orient, north Africa and northern Asia. This biennial plant was formerly 
much cultivated in gardens for its roots as well as its leaves. Loudon says the latter are 
excellent, eaten raw as a salad or boiled as a spinach, and the root, which has the flavor 

I Enc. Brit. 1:88. i860. 8th Ed. 

Enc. Brit. 21:89. i860. 8th Ed. 

U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 7. 1859. 

Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 3:753. 1834. 
'Johnson, C. P. Useful Pis. Ct. Brit. 162. 1862. 

Vilmorin Fl. PI. Ter. 217. 1870. 3rd Ed. 
'Johns, C. A. Treas. Bot. 1:208. 1874. 
Johnson, C. P. Useful Pis. Gt. Brit. 162. 1862. 


I30 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

of walnuts, is also eaten raw like a radish or mixed with salads, either raw or boiled and 
cold. It is much cultivated in France and Italy, says Johns.' 

Rampion is recorded in gardens by Pena and Lobel,* 157. and is figured by Tragus,' 
1552, Lobel,* 1576, as well as by other writers of this period, as an improved root. In 1726, 
Townsend' says it is to be found in only few English gardens; and Bryant,' 1783, says 
it is much cultivated in France but in England is now little regarded. It is recorded in 
American gardens in 1806, 1819 and 1821. As late as 1877, an English writer says rampion 
is a desirable addition to winter salads.' 

Campomanesia aromatica Griseb. Myrtaceae. guava strawberry. 

Guiana and Cayenne. At Martinique, where this shrub is cultivated, it is called 
gaiava strawberry, JDecause the flavor of its delicate pulp reminds one of the Pine straw- 
berry.* The fruit is edible.' 

C. lineatifolia Ruiz & Pav. 

Peru. This species furnishes edible fruit.*" 

Canarina campanulata Linn. Campanulaceae. 

Canary Islands. The fleshy capsule, roots and young shoots are said to be edible." 

Canarium album Raeusch. Burseraceae. canarium 

A tree native of China and Cochin China, Anam and the Philippines. The fruit is 
pickled and used as olives.'^ 

C. commime Linn. Chinese olive, java almond, wild almond. 

Moluccas. This fine-looking tree is cultivated for the sake of its fruit which, in taste, 
is something like an almond. An oil is expressed from the seed which in Java is used in 
lamps and when fresh is mixed with food. Bread is also made from its nuts in the island 
of Celebes. In Ceylon, the nut is called wild almond by Europeans and is eaten. 
C. edule Hook. f. 

Tropical Africa. This is the safu of the island of St. Thomas in the Gulf of Guinea, 
where its fruit is much esteemed. In taste, the fruit is bitter and astringent; it is usually 

C. pimela Kon. 

Cochin China, China and Java. The black fruit is sometimes pickled, i* 

'Johns, C. A. Treas. Bot. 1:208. 1874. 

' Pena and Lobel ^dtieri. 91. 1570. 

Tragus 5ir/). 725. 1552. 

Lobel Obs. 178. 1576. 

' Townsend Seedsman 23. 1726. 

Bryant Fl. Diet. 27. 1783. 

' Hobday, E. Cottage Card. 1 13. 1877. 

' Berlanger r/ai. N. Y. Agr. Soc. 677. 1864. {Psidium aromaticum) 

' Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 349. 1859. (Psidium aromaticum) 

" Syme, J. T. Treas. Bot. 1:212. 1870. 
"Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 2:8s. 18^2. 
" Ibid. 


C. sylvestre Gaertn. 

Amboina. The plant bears nuts with edible kernels.^ 

Canavalia ensiformis DC. Leguminosae. horse bean, overlook, sword bean. 

Tropicjkl Africa. This climbing plant is commonly cultivated about Bombay. The 
half-grown pods are eaten.^ It is cultivated in the Peninsula for its esculent pods; ' in 
Biorma to a small extent, where its young pods are eaten; * and also in the Philippines.* 
The plant is common in woods in the East Indies, tropical Africa, Mexico, Brazil and the 
West Indies. It is called overlook by the negroes of Jamaica.' Elliott ' says it is found 
only in a cultivated state and is probably the domesticated form of C. virosa. Firminger * 
says it is a native vegetable of India, the pod large, flat, sword-shaped, fully nine inches 
long, and more than an inch and a quarter wide. Though rather coarse-looking, yet 
when sliced and boiled, is exceedingly tender and little, if any, inferior to the Frenclj bean. 
Roxbvu"gh ' describes three varieties: flowers and seeds red; flowers white and seeds red; 
flowers and large seed white. This last variety is considered the best and is used on the 
tables of Europeans as well as by the natives of Sylhet where it is indigenous. Drury 1* 
says it is a common plant in hedges and thickets and in cultivation. It is called in India 
tnukhun 5eeK." 

Canella alba Mvirr. Canellaceae. wild cinnamon. 

West Indies. The bark is employed by the negroes as a condiment and has some 
reputation as an antiscorbutic.^^ 

Canna achiras Gill. Scitamineae. canna. 

South Africa. This plant is said to furnish tubers used as food in Peru and Chile. 1* 
It is one of the species cultivated in the West Indies for the manufacture of the arrowroot 
known as tous les mois according to Balfour." 

C. coccinea Mill, indian shot. 

East Indies. This plant is said by Mueller >* and Balfoiu- to yield the tous les mois 
of the West Indies. 

'Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 2:85. 1832. 

* Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 686. 1879. 

* Ibid. 

* Ibid. 

Smith, A. Treas. Bot. 1:212. 1870. {C. gladiata) 
Elliott, W. Bol. Soc. Edinb. 7:296. 1863. (C. gladiata) 
Firminger, T. A. C. Card. Ind. 148. 1874. 

Drury, H. Useful Pis. Ind. 105. 1858. 

" Firminger, T. A. C. Card. Ind. 148. 1874. 

"U. S. Disp. 198. 1865. 

" Lindley, J. Med. Econ. Bot. 50. 1849. 

" Balfour, J. H. Bot. Man. boy. 1875. 

"MueUer, F. Set. Pis.?,?,. 1891. 


C. edulis Ker-Gawl. 

American tropics. This plant is cviltivated in the islands of St. Christopher, Trinidad 
and probably elsewhere. The tubers are said to be quite large and when rasped to a pulp 
furnish, by washing and straining, one of the classes of arrowroot known as tons les mois.^' * 
It is one of the hardiest of arrowroot plants. It is the adeira ' or achiras * of Peru. 

C. glauca Linn. 

Mexico and West Indies. This is one of the West Indian arrowroot cannas.^ 

Cannabis sativa Linn. Urticaceae. fimble. callow grass, hemp. 

Caspian, central Asia and northwestern Himalayas. Hemp is spontaneous in the 
north of India and in Siberia. It has also been foimd wild in the Caucasus and in the 
north of China. Its native country is probably the region of the Caspian. Hemp was 
cultivated by the Celts. ^ The Scythians, according to Herodotus,' cultivated it. The 
Hebrews and the ancient Egyptians did not know it, for no mention is made of it in the 
sacred books and it does not appear in the envelopes of the mummies. Its culture is ancient 
throughout the southern provinces of India as a textile plant and for the stimulating proper- 
ties of the leaves, flowers and seeds.' Dioscorides ^ alludes to the strength of the ropes 
made from its fibre and the use of the seeds in medicine. Galen refers to it medicinally. 
It was known in China as early as A. D. 220.^" It was introduced into the United States 
before 1639, as Wm. Wood " mentions it. 

Hempseed was served fried for dessert by the ancients. ^^ In Russia, Poland and neigh- 
boring countries, the peasants are extremely fond of parched hempseed and it is eaten even 
by the nobility. The oil expressed from the seed is much used as food during the time 
of the fasts in the Volga region. ^^ The plant is cultivated by the Hottentots for the purpose 
of smoking and it is used in like manner by the negroes of Brazil." In the East, hemp 
is grown largely for the sake of the churras, or resin, which possesses intoxicating properties. 
The Arabs smoke the sun-dried leaf mixed with tobacco in huge pipes, '^ while the Africans 
smoke the hemp alone. For fibre purposes and for seed, the plant is largely grown in 
Russia and North America. 

Mueller, F. Sel. Ph. 8S. 1891. 

Balfour, J. H. Bot. Man. 607. 1875. 

Mueller, F. Sel. Ph. 88. 1891. 

* Pickering, C. Chron. Hht. Ph. 717. 1879. 
'Mueller, F. Sel. Ph. 88. 1891. 

De CandoUe, A. Gwg. Bo/. 2:835. i855- 
' Ibid. 

8 Ibid. 

' Targioni-Tozzetti Journ. Hort. Soc. Lend. 9: 149. 1855. 
"Stille, A. Therap. Mat. Med. 1:956. 1874. 
" Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Ph. 77. 1879. 
Soyer, A. Pantroph. 48. 1853. 
" Loudon, J. C. Enc. Agr. 107. 1866. 
"Stille, A. Therap. Mat. Med. 1:957. 1874. 
" Masters, M. T. Treas. Bot. 1:214. '^-o. 


Capparis aphylla Roth. Capparideae. caper, kureel. 

Northern Africa, Arabia and East Indies. In India, the bud of this plant is eaten 
as a potherb, and the fruit is largely consumed by the natives, both green and ripe ^ and 
is formed into a pickle.^ In Sind, the flower-buds are used as a pickle, and the unripe 
fruit is cooked and eaten. Both the ripe and unripe fruit, prepared into a bitter-tasting 
pickle, is exported into Hindustan.' Its fruit, before ripening, is cooked and eaten by the 
Banians of Arabia.'' The African species is described by Barth ^ as forming one of the 
characteristic featiores in the vegetation of Africa from the desert to the Niger, the dried 
berries constituting an important article of food, while the roots when burned yield no 
small quantity of salt. 

C. horrida Linn. f. caper. 

Tropical Asia and Malays. In the southern Punjab and Sind, the fruit is pickled. 

C. spinosa Linn, caper. 

Mediterranean regions. East Indies and Orient. This species furnishes buds which 
are substituted for the capers of commerce.' It is used as a caper.'' The preserved buds 
have received wide distribution as a vegetable. The caper was known to the ancient 
Greeks, and the renowned Phryne, at the first period of her residence in Athens, was a 
dealer in capers.* The Greeks of the Crimea, according to Pallas,^ eat the sprouts, 
which resemble those of asparagus, as well as the bud, shoot, and, in short, every eatable 
part of the shrub. Wilkinson '" states that the fruit of the Egyptian caper, or lussef, 
is very large, like a small cucvimber, about two and a half inches long and is eaten by the 
Arabs. According to Ruellius," Aristotle and Theophrastus describe the plant as not 
cultivated in gardens, but in his time, 1536, it was in the gardens of France. In Sind 
and the Punjab, the fruit is pickled and eaten. It is now cultivated in the south of Europe 
for the flower -buds, which furnish the capers of commerce. About 1755, capers were 
imported into South Carolina by Henry Laurens.'^ They were raised successfully for two 
years in Louisiana, before 1854, but the plants afterwards perished by frost." 

C. tomentosa Lam. kowangee. 

This is the kowangee of tropical Africa. In famines at Madi, spinach is made from 
its leaves." 

' Drury, H. Useful Pis. Ind. 3. 1873. 
' Royle, J. F. Illuslr. Bot. Himal. 1:73. 1839. 
> Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 14. 1874. 
< Forskal Fl. Aeg. Arab. 82. 1775. 

' Masters, M. T. Treai. Bo/. 1:217. 1870. (C. sodada) 
Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 140. 1879. 
' Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 359. 1859. 

' Pallas, P. S. Trav. Russia 2:449. 1803. 
' Wilkinson, J. G. Anc. Egypt. 2:2^. 1854. 
" Ruellius Nat. Stirp. 561. 1536 
" Hist. Mass. Horl. Soc. 29. 1880. 
" Bry, H. M. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 225. 1854. 
" Speke, J. H. Journ. Disc. Source Nile 562. 1864. 


Capraria biflora Linn. Scrophularineae. goat-weed. Jamaica tea. smart weed. 


Tropical America. Lunan * says the leaves not only resemble those of tea but 
make an equally agreeable decoction. Titford ' says an infusion of them is a very good 

Capsella bursa-pastoris Medic. Cruciferae. mother's heart, shepherd's purse. 

Temperate regions. One of the commonest of weeds, this plant has accompanied 
Europeans in all their navigations and estabhshed itself wherever they have settled to 
till the soil. Johns ' says it was formerly used as a potherb. Johnson * says, as improved 
by cultivation, " it is used in America as a green vegetable, being largely raised about 
Philadelphia for sale in the markets." DarUngton,* the botanist, who lived near Phil- 
adelphia, calls it " a worthless little intruder from Europe," and we are disposed to believe 
that the statement of its culture is one of the errors which are copied from book to book- 
In China, it is collected by the poor and largely eaten as food.' 

Capsicum. Solanaceae. 

Tropical America. Ancient Sanscrit or Chinese names for the genus are not known. 
The first mention that is on record is by Peter Martyr ' in his epistle dated Sept. 1493, 
when he says Columbus brought home with him " pepper more pungent than that from 
Caucasus." In his Decades of the Ocean he says: " There are innumerable Kyndes of 
Ages, the varietie whereof, is known by theyr leaves and flowers. One kind of these, 
is called guanagtmx, this is white both within and without. Another named guaraguei 
is of violet colour without and white within. Squi are whyte within and without. 
Tunna is altogether of violet colours. Hobos is yelowe both of skynne and inner substance. 
There is an other named atibunicix, the skynne of this is of violet coloiu-e and the sub- 
stance white. Aniguamar hath his skynne also of violet coloure and is white within. 
Guaccaracca hath a white skynne and the substance of violet coloiu". There are many 
other, which are not yet brought to us." This variability indicates an antiquity of 

Veytia * says the Ohnecs raised chilis before the time of the Toltecs. Sahagun ^ 
mentions capsium more frequently than any other herb among the edible dishes of 
the Aztecs. Acosta '" says it is the principal sauce and the only spice of the Indians. 
Bancroft " says it was eaten by the Nahuathan natives both green and dry, whole and 

' Lunan, J. Horl. Jam. 2:217. 1814. 

Titford, W. J. Hort. Bot. Amer. yg. 181 1. 

'Johns, C. A. Treoi. Bo;. 1:218. 1870. 

* Johnson, C. P. Useful Ph. Gt. Brit. 49. 1862. 
' DarUngton, W. Weeds, Useful Pis. 50. i860. 

Smith, F. P. Contrib. Mat. Med. China 196. 1871. 
' Irving, W. Columbus y. ^25. 1849. 

Bancroft, H. H. Native Races 2:2,^:!,. 1882. Note. 

Bancroft, H. H. Native Races 2:175. 1882. 
> Bancroft, H. H. Native Races 2:355. 1882. 
" Ibid. 



ground. Garcilasso de la Vega ' speaks of it as an ancient vegetable in Peru, and one 
variety was especially valued by royalty. The earliest reference to this genus seems to 
be by Chanca,^ physician to the fleet of Columbus, in his second voyage, and occurs in 
a letter written in 1494 to the Chapter of Seville. Capsicum and its uses are more 
particularly described by Oviedo,' who reached tropical America from Spain in 15 14. 

Hans Stade,* about 1550, mentions the capsicum of the continent of America as being 
of two kinds: " The one yellow, the other red, both, however, grow in like manner. When 
green it is as large as the haws that grow on hawthorns. It is a small shrub, about half 
a fathom high and has small leaves; it is fiill of peppers which bum the mouth." Lignon 
in his History of the Barbadoes, 1647 to 1653, describes two sorts in Barbados: " The one 
so like a child's corall, as not to be discerned at the distance of two paces, a crimson and 
scarlet mixt; the fruit about three inches long and shines more than the best poUisht 
corall. The other, of the same coloiir and glistening as much but shaped like a large 
button of a cloak; both of one and the same quality; both violently strong and growing 
on a little shrub no bigger than a gooseberry bush." Long^ says there are about 15 
varieties of capsicum in Jamaica, which are found in most parts of the island. Those 
which are most commonly noticed are the Bell, Goat, Bonnett, Bird, Olive, Hen, Barbary, 
Finger and Cherry. Of these the Bell is esteemed most proper for pickling. Wafer,' 
1699, speaking of the Isthmus, says: " They have two sorts of pepper, the one called 
Bell-pepper, the other Bird-pepper, each sort growing on a weed or shrubby bush about 
a yard high. The Bird-pepper has the smaller leaf and is most esteemed by the Indians." 

Garcilasso de la Vega ' in his Royal Commentaries, 1609, says the most common pepper 
in Peru is thick, somewhat long, and without a point. This is called rocot uchu, or thick 
pepper, to distingioish it from the next kind. They eat it green and before it assumes 
its ripe color, which is red. There are others yellow and others brown, though in Spain 
only the red kind has been seen. There is another kind the length of a geme, a little more 
or less, and the thickness of the little finger. These were considered a nobler kind and 
were reserved for the use of the royal family. Another kind of pepper is small and round, 
exactly like a cherry with its stalk. They call it chinchi uchu and it bears far more than 
the others. It is grown in small quantities and for that reason is the more highly esteemed. 
Molina ' says many species of the pimento, called by the Indians thapi, " are cultivated 
in Chili, among others the annual pimento which is there perennial, the berry pimento, 
and the pimento with a subligenous stalk." Capsicums were eaten in large quantities 
by the ancient inhabitants of tropical America, and the natives of Guiana now eat the 
fruit in such abundance as would not be credited by an European unless he were to see 
it. In Sonora and New Mexico, at the present time, they are imiversally grown, and 

' Vega Hoy. Comment. Hak. Soc. Ed. 2:365. 1871. 
' Fliickiger and Hanbury Pharm. 406. 1879. 

* Captiv. Hans Stade. Hakl. Soc. Ed. 166. 1874. 
' Long Hist. Jam. 3 : 72 1 . 1 774. 

Wafer Voy. Isthmus Amer. 100. 1699. 

'Vega Roy. Comment. Hakl. Soc. Ed. 2:365. 1871. 

Molina Hist. Chili i :95. 1808. 

.136 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

the pods while green are eaten with various substances, under the name of chille verde, 
while the dishes prepared with the red pods are called chille color om} 

Capsicum was brought to Spain by Columbus^ in 1493. It is mentioned in England 
in 1548 and was seen by Clusius* in Moravia in 1585. Clusius asserts that the plant 
was brought to India by the Portuguese. Gerarde * says these plants are brought from 
foreign countries, as Guinea, India and those parts, into Spain and Italy, whence we have 
received seed for ojir English gardens. There are many peppers, some of which it is more 
convenient to describe as species 

C. annuum Linn, cayenne pepper, chillies, guinea pepper, pimento, red pepper. 
Tropical regions. Booth ' says this species was introduced into Europe by the 
Spaniards and that it was cultivated in England in 1548. The fruits are variable, some 
being yellow, others red and. others black. The pods, according to Loudon,' are long 
or short, round or cherry-shaped. In lower Hungary, the variety now very largely cul- 
tivated for commercial purposes, has a spherical, scarlet fruit. It is cultivated in India,' 
in America, and, indeed, almost everywhere in warm coiuitries. 

C. baccatum Linn, bird pepper, birds-eye pepper. 

Tropical regions. Booth * says this species is indigenous to both the East and West 
Indies and has been grown in England since 1731. The pods are erect, roundish, egg- 
shaped, very pungent. It was probably early introduced into India as shown by the 
belief that it is native. It is used like other red peppers by the Mexicans who call it 

C. cerasiforme Mill, cherry pepper. 

Tropics. Its stem is 12 to 15 inches high; fniit erect, of a deep, rich, glossy scarlet 
when ripe; of intense piquancy. A variety occurs with larger, more conical and pendent 
pods, and there is also a variety with yellow fruit.'" 

C. frutescens Linn. age. chili pepper, goat pepper, spur pepper. 

Tropical America. This plant is considered by some botanists as a native of India, 
as it has constantly been found in a wild state in the Eastern Islands, but Rimiphius " 
argues its American origin from its being so constantly called Chile. It is the aji or uchu 
seen by Cieza de Leon '^ in 1532-50, during his travels in Peru and even now is a favorite 
condiment with the Peruvian Indians. This pepper is cultivated in every part of India, 

> U. S. D. A. Rpt. 425. 1870. 
Irving, W. Co/wm. 1:238. 1848. 
Fluckiger and Hanbiiry Pharm. 406. 1879. 

* Gerarde, J. Herb. 365. 1633 or 1636. 2nd Ed. 
'Booth, W.B. Treas. Bot. 1:219. 1870. 

Loudon, J. C. Hort. 607. i860. 

' Firminger, T. A. C. Card. Ind. 153. 1874. 
Booth, W. B. Treas. Bot. 1:219. 1870. 

Torrey, J. Bot. U. S. Mex. Bound. Sitrv. 152. 1859. (C. microphyllum) 
"Burr, F. Field, Card. Veg. 621. 1863. 
" Ainslie, W. Mat. Ind. 1 : 306. 1 826. 
" Markham, C. R. Trav. Cieza de Leon 1532-50. Hakl. Soc. Ed. 232. 1864. Note. 


in two varieties, the red and the yellow,^ and in Cochin China.^ In Ceylon there are three 
varieties, a red, a yellow and a black.' It has been in English gardens since 1656. Its 
long, obtuse pods are very pungent and in their green and ripe state are used for pickling, 
for making Chile vinegar; the ripe berries are used for making cayenne pepper. Burr' 
describes the fruit as quite small, cone-shaped, coral-red when ripe, and intensely acrid 
but says it will not succeed in open culture in the north. 

C. minimum Roxb. cayenne pepper. 

Phihppine Islands. This is said to be the cayenne pepper of India.^' " Wight ' says 
this pepper is eaten by the natives of India but is not preferred. It grows also on the 
coast of Guinea and is recognized as a source of capsicum by the British Pharmacopoeia.' 
It is intensely pungent. 

C. tetragonum Mill, bonnet pepper, lunan pepper, paprika. Turkish pepper. 

Tropical regions. This species is said by Booth ' to be the bonnet pepper of Jamaica. 
The fruits are very fleshy and have a depressed form like a Scotch bonnet. In lower 
Hungary, under the name paprika, the cultivation gives employment to some 2500 families. 
The fruit is red, some three and a half to five inches long, and three-quarters of an inch 
to an inch in diameter. 

McMahon, 1806,*' says capsicums are in much estimation for culinary purposes and 
mentions the Large Heart-shaped as the best. He names also the Cherry, Bell and Long 
Podded. In 1826, Thorbum" offers in his catalog five varieties, the Long or Cayenne, 
the Tomato-shaped or Squash, the Bell or Ox-heart, the Cherry and the Bird or West 
Indian. In 1881 he offers ten varieties. 

Groups of Capsicum. 
In the varieties under present cultivation, we have distinct characters in the calyx 
of several of the groups and in the fruit being pendulous or erect. It is worthy of note 
that the pendulous varieties have a pendulous bloom as well as fruit, and the erect varieties 
have erect bloom. Some heavy fruits are erect, while some light fruits are pendulous. 
Another distinct character is the flavor of the fruit, as for instance all the sweet peppers 
have a like calyx, and a like color. While again there may seem at first to be considerable 
variability in the fruits even on the same plant, yet a more careful examination shows 
that this variability is more apparent than real and comes from a suppression or distor- 
tion of growth, all really being of a similar type. 

' Ainslie, W. Mat. Ind. 1:^06. 1826. 

' Ibid. 

' Moon Indig. Exol. Pis. Ceylon 1824. 

* Burr, F. Field, Card. Veg. 619. 1863. 

' Drury, H. Useful Pis. Ind. iii. 1873. 

Fluckiger and Hanbury Pharm. 406. 1879. 

' Firminger, T. A. C. Card. Ind. 153. 1874. {C. fastigiatum) 

'U. S. Disp. 207. 1865. {C. fasUgatum) 

' Booth, W. B. Treas. Bot. 1:219. 1870. 
"> McMahon, B. Amer. Card. Cal. 31^. 1806. 
" Thorbum Cat. 1828. 

138 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

This history of the botany of the groups can best be seen by the synonymy, which 
is founded upon figures given with the descriptions. 


The Calyx Embracing The Fruit. 

(a) Fruits pendulous. 

This form seems to have been the first introduced and presents fruits of extreme 
pungency and is undoubtedly that described as brought to Evu-ope by Coliunbus. It 
presents varieties with straight and recurved fruit and the fruit when ripe is often much 
contorted and wrinkled. 

Capsicum longum. DC. from Fingerhuth. 

Siliquastrum terttum. Langer Indianischer pfefler. Fuch. 733. 1542. 

Siliquastrum minus. Fuch. 1. c. 732. 

Indianischer pfeffer. Saliquastrum. Roeszl. 214. 1550. 

Indianischer pfeffer. Trag. 928. 1552. 

Piper indicum. Cam. 07. 347. 1586. 

Capsicum oblongius Dodonaei. Dalechamp 632. 1587. 

Piper indicum minus recurvis siliquis. Hort. Eyst. 1613,1713. 

Piper iffdicum maximum longum. Hort. Eyst. 1613,1713. 

Capsicum recurvis siliquis. Dod. 716. 161 6. 

Piper Calecuticum, sive Capsicum oblongius. Bauh. J. 2:943. 1650. 

Siliquastrum, Ind. pfeffer. Pancov. n. 296. 1673. 

Piper Capsicum. Chabr. 297. 1677. 

Piment de Cayenne. Vilm. 151. 1885. 

Long Red Cayenne. Ferry. 

Mexican Indian, four varieties, one of the exact variety of Fuch. 1542. 

Siliquastrum ma jus. Fuch. 732. 1542. 

Long Yellow Cayenne. Hend. 

Capsicum longum luteum. Fingerhuth. 

(b) Fruits erect. 

Capsicum annuum acuminatum. Fingerhuth. 

Piper ind. minimum erectum. Hort. Eyst. 1613,1713. 

Piper ind. medium longum erectum. Hort. Eyst. 1613,1713. 

Piper longum minus siliquis recurvis. Jonston Dendrog. 56. 1662. 

Pigment du Chili. Vilm. 410. 1883. 

Chili pepper. Vilm. 151. 1885. 

Red Cluster. Vilm. 

Yellow Chili. Hend. 

Calyx Pateriform, not Covering the Flattened Base of the Fruit. 

(a) Fruits long, tapering, pendent. 
Piper indicum sive siliquastrum. Pin. 12. 1561. 
Capsicum actuarii. Lob. O65. 172, 1576; /cow. 1:316. 1591. 
Capsicum majus. Dalechamp 632. 1587. 
Capsicum longioribus siliquis. Ger. 292. 1597. 
Piper indicum. Matth. Op. 434. 1598. 
Capsicum oblongiqribus siliquis. Dod. 716. 1616. 
Pepe d'India. Dtu". C. 344. 1617. 


Figures 13 and 14. Piso De Ind. 226. 1658. 

Guinea pepper or garden coral. Pomet 125. 1748. 

Piper indicum bicolor. Blackw. Herb. n. 129, f. 2. 1754. 

Piment rouge long. Vilm. 409. 1883. 

Long Red capsicum or Guinea. Vilm. 150. 1885. 

(b) Fruits short, rounding, pendent. 
Siliquastrum quartutn. Fuch. 734. 1542. 
Siliquasirum cordatum. Cam. Epit. 348. 1586. 
Fig. 2 and 6. Piso 225. 1658. 
Piper cordatum. Jonston Dendrog. 56. 1662. 
Capsicum cordiforme. Mill. Fingerhuth. 
Oxheart. Thorb. 
New Oxheart. Thorb. 

Calyx Funnel-form, not Embracing Base of Fruit. 

(a) Fruit pendent, long. 

Piper indicum medium . Hort . Eyst . 1613, 1713. 

Piper siliquis flavis. Hort. Eyst. 1613,1713. 

Piper indicum aureum latum. Hort. Eyst. 1613,1713. 

Fig. in Hernandez. Nova Hisp. i7,-j. 1651. 

Piper indicum longioribus siliquis rubi. Sweert. t. 35, f. 3. 1654. 

Piper vulgatissime. Jonston t. 56. 1662. 

Piper ohlongum recurvis siliquis. Jonston t. 56. 1662. 

Capsicum fructu conico albicante, per maturitaken minato. Dill, t." 60. 1774. 

Piment jaune long. Vilm. 409. 1883. 

Long Yellow Capsicum. Vilm. 151. 1885. 

(b) Fruits pendent, round. 
Siliquastrum rotundum. Cam. Epit. 348. 1586. 
Piper rotundum majus surrectum. Jonston t. 56. 1662. 
Figure 5. Piso 225. 1658. 

Cherry Red, of some seedsmen. 

(c) Fruits erect, round. 

Piper minimum siliquis rotundis. Hort. Eyst. 1613,1713. 

Capsicum cersasiforme. Fingerhuth. 

Piment cerise. Vilm. 411. -1883. 

Cherry Pepper. Burr 621. 1863; Vilm. 152. 1885. 

Calyx Funnel-form, as Large as Base; Fruit More or Less Irregularly Swollen, 

NOT Pointed, Pendent. 

Capsicum luteum. Lam. Fingeiliuth. t. 8. 

Prince of Wales, of some seedsmen (yellow). 

(Perhaps) Capsicum latum Dodanaei. Dalechamp 632. 1587. 

Capsicum latis siliquis. Dod. 717. 1616. 

Capsicum siliquis latiore and rotundiore. Bauh. J. 2:943. 1651. 

Piper capsicum siliqui laliori et rotundiore. Chabr. 297. 1677. 



Calyx Set in Concavity of Fruit. 
This character perhaps results only from the swollen condition of the fruit as pro- 
duced by selection and culture. As, however, it appears constant in our seedsmen's varie- 
ties, it may answer our purpose here. 

(a) Fruit very much flattened. 

Piper indicum rotundum maximum. Hort. Eyst. 1613, 1713. 

Solanum mordeus, etc., Bonnet Pepper. Pluk. Phyt. t. 227, p. i. 1691. 

Capsicum tetragonum. Fingerhuth t. 10. 

Piment tomato. Vilm. 413. 1886. 

Red Tomato capsicum or American bonnet. Vilm. 154. 1885. 

(b) Fruit, squarish, angular, very much swollen, large. 

This group includes the Bell, Sweet Mountain, Monstrous, and Spanish Mammoth of 
Vilmorin; the Giant Emperor, Golden Dawn, etc. of American seedsmen. The varieties 
of this class seem referable to Capsicum annuum rugulosum Fing., C. grossum pomiforme 
Fing. and C. angulosum Fing. but these have not yet been su.Ticiently studied. 

Group V embraces the sweet peppers and none other. A sweet kind is noted by 
Acosta,' 1604, and it is perhaps the rocot uchu of Peru, as mentioned by Garcilasso de la 
Vega.2 Sweet peppers are also referred to by Piso,* 1648. 

Occasionally Capsicum baccatum Linn, is grown, but the species is too southern for 
general use in the North. Its synonymy follows: 

Capsicum, Piper indicum brevioribus siliquis. Lob. Ofo. 172. 1576; /com. 1:317. 1591. 

Capsicum brasilianum. Dalechamp 633. 1587; Pancov. n. 297. 1673. 

Capsicum minimis siliquis. Ger. 292. 1597; Dod. 717. 1616. 

Fig. 8. Piso De Ind. 225. 1658. 

Peperis capsicivarietas, siliqua parva, etc. Chabr. 297. 1677. 

Capsicum baccatum Linn. Fingerhuth t. 4. 

Small Red Cayenne. Briggs Seed Cat. 1874. 

Caragana ambigua Stocks. Leguminosae. 

Baluchistan. The flowers are eaten by the Brahmans in Baluchistan, where it is 
called shinalak.* 

C. arborescens Lam. Siberian pea tree. 

Siberia. The seeds are of cuUnary value but are used particularly for feeding 

Cardamine amara Linn. Cruciferae. bitter cress. 

Europe and northern Asia. Lightfoot ^ says the young leaves are acrid and bitter 

' Acosta Nat. Mor. Hist. Ind. 266. 1604. Grimestone Ed. 
'Vega Roy. Comment. Hakl. Soc. Ed. 2:365. 1871. 
' Piso Hist. Rerum Nat. Bras. 108. 1648. 

* Brandis, D. Forest Ft. 134. 1876. 
Mueller, P. Set. Pis. go. 1891. 

Lightfcwt, J. Fl. Scot. 1:350. 1789. 


but do not taste amiss in salads. Johnson * says the leaves are often employed by cotmtry 
people in salads, their caste, although pungent and bitter, is not unpleasant. 

C. diphylla Wood, pepper-root. 

North America. The long, crisp rootstocks taste like water cress.* Pursh says they 
are of a pungent, mustard-like taste and are used by the natives as mustard. 

C. glacialis DC. scurvy grass. 

Capt. Cook found this scurvy plant in plenty about the Strait of Magellan in damp 
places and used it as an antiscorbutic. 

C. hirsuta Linn, hairy cress, lamb's cress, scurvy grass. 

Temperate and subtropical regions. Ross ' calls this the scurvy grass of Tierra del 
Fuego; it is edible. Lightfoot * says the yotmg leaves, in Scotland, make a good salad, and 
Johns* says the leaves and flowers form an agreeable salad. In the United States, 
Elliott * and Dewey ' both say the common bitter cress is used as a salad. 

C. nasturtioides Bert. 

Chile. The plant is eaten as a cress.* 

C. pratensis Linn, cuckoo flower, lady's smock. Mayflower, meadow cress. 

Temperate zone. This is an insignificant and nearly worthless salad plant, native 
to the whole of Europe, northern Asia and Arctic America, extending to Vermont and 
Wisconsin. It has a piquant savor and is used as water cress. It is recorded as culti- 
vated in the vegetable garden in France by Noisette,^ 1829, and by Vilmorin,'" 1883, yet, 
as Decaisne and Naudin " remark, but rarely. There is no record of its cultivation in 
England, but in America it is described by Burr ^" in four varieties, differing in the flowers, 
and as having become naturalized to a limited extent, a fact which implies a certain culti- 
vation. Its seed is not offered in our catalogs. 

C. rotundifolia Michx. round-leaved cuckoo flowers, water-cress. 

Northern America. The leaves, says Gray,'* " have just the taste of the English 

C. sarmentosa Forst. f. 

Islands of the Pacific. This plant is eaten as a cress in New Caledonia." 

Johnson, C. P. Useful Pis. Gt. Brit. 29. 1862. 
Gray, A. Man. Bot. 65. 1868. {Dentaria diphylla) 

* Ross Voy. Antarct. Reg. 2:300. 1847. 
< Lightfoot, J. Fl. Scot. i:3A9- 1789- 

Johns, C. A. Treas. Bot. 1:221. 1 870. 

Elliott, S. Bot. So. Car., Ga. 2:144. 1824. {. pennsylvanicum) 
' Dewey, C. Rpt. Herb. Flow. Pis. Mass. 36. 1840. (C. pensylvanica) 
Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 356. 1859. 

Noisette Man. Jard. 356. 1829. 

" Vilmorin Li Pi5. Potog. 198. 1883. 

" Decaisne and Naudin Man. Jard. 4:227. 1866. 

"Burr, F. Field, Card. Veg. 2,44- 1863. 

"Gray, A. Man. Bot. (A. 1868. 

"Seemann, B. Fl. Viti. 5. 1865-73. 


Cardiopteris lobata Wall. Olacineae. 

East Indies. It has oleraceous leaves, edible but almost insipid.' 

Cardiospennum halicacabum Linn. Sapindaceae. balloon vine, heart pea. winter 


Tropics. This climbing vine, ornamental on account of its inflated pods, is said 
by Pickering ' to be native of subtropical North America and by Black ' to occur in all 
tropical countries. In Burma, according to Mason,* it is grown in great quantities as 
a vegetable. In the Moluccas, as Drury * states, the leaves are cooked. In equatorial 
Africa, it is common and the leaves are made into spinach by the natives as Grant * 
observed. ^ 

Careya arborea Roxb. Myrtaceae. slow-match tree. 
East India. The fruit is eaten.' 

Carica citriformis Jacq. f. Passifloreae. 

African Tropics. This plant bears a fruit the size of an orange, eatable but insipid.* 

C. microcarpa Jacq. 

South America. The plant bears fruit the size of a cherry.' 

C. papaya Linn, melon tree, papaya, papaw. 

American tropics. The papaw tree is indigenous in Brazil, Surinam and the West 
Indies and from these places has been taken to the Congo. Its transfer to the East Indies 
may have occurred soon after the discovery of America, for, as early as 1626, seeds were 
brought from the East Indies to Nepal. Its further distribution to China, Japan and the 
islands of the Pacific Ocean took place only in the last century.^" Linschoten " says, it 
came from the East Indies to the Philippines and was taken thence to Goa. In east 
Florida, it grows well. Of the fruit, Wm. S. Allen of Florida, writes that it is often 
as large as a melon, yet the best varieties for eating those having the best flavor are 
no larger than a very large pear. The fruit is used extensively in south Florida and Cuba 
for making tough meat tender. The toughest meat is made tender by putting a few of 
the leaves or the green fruit of the pawpaw tree into the pot with the meat and boiling. 
In a few minutes, the meat will cleave from the bones and be as tender as one could wish. 

Dr. Morris read before the Maryland Academy of Science a paper by Mr. Lugger in 

iBaillon, H. Hist. Pis. 5:207. 1878. {C. rumphii) 
Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 567. 1879. 
' Black, A. A. Treas. Bot. 1:222. 1870. 
* Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 567. 1879. 
'Drury, H. Useful Pis. Ind. 112. 1873. 
Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. z^y. 1879. 
'Lindley, J. 7eg. Xiwg. 755. 1846. 
Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 3:44. 1834. 
Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 3:45. 1834. 
" Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 331. 1859. 
" Nuttall, T. No. Amer. Sylva 2:115, "fi- 1865. 


which the fruit is said to attain a weight of 15 pounds, is melon-shaped, and marked as 
melons are with longitudinally-colored stripes. The fruit may be sliced and pickled. 
The ripe fruit is eaten with sugar or salt and pepper. The seeds are egg-shaped, strong- 
flavored and used as a spice. The leaves have the property of making meat wrapped 
up in them, fender. Brandis ' also says, meat becomes tender by washing it with water 
impregnated with the rnilky juice, or by suspending the joint under the tree. Williams ^ 
says, the Chinese are acquainted with this property and make use of it sometimes to soften 
the flesh of ancient hens and cocks by hanging the newly-killed birds in the tree, or by 
feeding them upon the fruit beforehand. The Chinese also eat the leaves. Hemdon ' 
says, on the mountains of Peru, the fruit is of the size of a common muskmelon, with a 
green skin and yellow pulp, which is eaten and is very sweet and of a delicate flavor. 
Hartt * says the maniao, a species of Carica in Brazil, furnishes a large and savory fruit 
full of seeds. Brandis* calls the ripe fruit in India sweet and pleasant, and says the 
tuiripe fruit is eaten as a vegetable and preserved. Wilkes * says, it is prized by the 
natives of Fiji, and Gray ' says the fruit is a favorite esculent of the Sandwich Islanders. 
The tree bears in a year or 18 months from seed and is cultivated in tropical climates. 

C. posopora Linn. 

Peru and Chile. This species bears yellow, pear-shaped, edible fruit.' 

Carissa grandiflora, A. DC. Apocynaceae. amatungula. caraunda. natal plum. 

South Africa. The flavor is subacid and agreeable and the fruit is much prized in 
Natal for preserving.' 

Carlina acanthifolia All. Compositae. acanthus-leaved thistle. 

Mediterranean region. The receptacle of the flowers may be used like that of an 

C. vulgaris Linn, carline thistle. 

Europe and northern Asia. The receptacles of the flowers are used like an artichoke. 

Carlotea fonnosissimum Arruda. Family unknown. 

Pernambuco. The tuberous root, abounding with soft and nutritive fecula, has 
afforded assistance to the people in parts of Brazil, in times of drought.'" 

C. speciosa Arruda. 

Pernambuco. The tuberous roots have found use in Brazil. 

' Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 245. 1874. 

' Williams, S. W. Mid. King. 1:28^. 1848. 

' Hemdon, W. L., and Gibbon, L. Explor. Vail. Amaz. 1:87. 1854. 

Uartt Ceog. Braz. 217. 1870. 
Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 2^5. 1876. 

Wilkes, C. U. S. Explor. Exped. 3:33^. 1845. 
'Gray, A. Bot. U. 5. Explor. Exped. 640. 1854. 

Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 3:44. 1834. 

Jackson, J. R. Treas. Bot. 2:1263. 1876. (Arduina grandiflora) 
"Koster Trav. Braz. 2:368. 181 7. 


Carpodinus acida Sabine. Apocynaceae. 

A climbing shrub of Sierra Leone. The fruit has a sharp, acid taste, with some little 
bitterness, which prevents its being agreeable; it is, however, much liked by the natives.' 

C. dulcis Sabine, sweet pishamin. 

Sierra Leone. The fruit is yellow externally, in size and appearance resembling a 
lime. When broken or cut it yields a quantity of sweet, milky juice. The pulp, in which 
many large seeds are found, is also agreeable and sweet.' 

Carthamus tinctorius Linn. Compositae. false saffron, safflower. 

Old World; extensively cultivated in India, China and other parts of Asia; also in 
Egypt, southern Europe and in South America. Under the name of safflower, the 
flowers are used largely for dyeing. Phillips ' says the flowers are used in Spain and in 
the Levant to color foods. The oil from the seeds in India is used for lamps and for culi- 
nary purposes, says Drury.^ In South America, as well as in Jamaica, as Ainslie * writes, 
the flowers are much used for coloring broths and ragouts. They were so used in England 
in the time of Parkinson.* In American seed catalogs, the seed is offered under the name 
of saffron but the true saffron is the product of a crocus. 

Canun bulbocastanum Koch. Umbelliferae. pignut. 

Europe and Asia. The tuberous roots serve as a culinary vegetable and the frviit 
as a condiment.' Lightfoot * says the roots are bulbous and taste like a chestnut; in some 
p^rts of England they are boiled in broth and served at the table.* Pallas says the roots 
are eaten by the Tartars. 

C. capense Sond. 

South Africa. The. edible, aromatic root is called feukel-wortel. 

C. carvi Linn, caraway, kummel. 

Europe, Orient and northern Asia. This biennial plant is described by Dioscorides 
and mentioned by Galen. Pliny states that it derives its name from its native coimtry, 
Caria, and that it is used chiefly in the culinary art. Caraway is now cultivated largely 
for its seed in England, particularly in Essex, in Iceland where it is apparently wild," 
in Morocco and elsewhere. The seeds are exported from Finland, Russia, Germany, 
Prussia, North Holland and Morocco." The seeds are used in confectionery and distil- 
lation. In England, the seed is used by cottagers to mix with their bread, and caraway- 

Sabine, J. Trans. Hort. Soc. Land. 5:456. 1824. 

Sabine, J. Trans. Hort. Soc. Lond. 5:455. 1824. 

Phillips, H. Camp. Kitch. Card. 2:202. 1831. 

Drury, H. Useful Ph. Ind. 116. 1873. 
'Ainslie, W. Mat. Ind. 2: 36^. 1826. 

Parkinson ^ar. Terr. 329. 1904. (Reprint of 1629.) 
' Mueller, F. Sel. Pis. g^. 1891. 

' Lightfoot, J. Fl. Scot. 1:156. 1789. {Bunium bulbocastanum) 
' Pallas, P. S. Trav. Russia 2:189. 1803. (Bunium bulbocastanum) 

" Babington Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 11:310. 1871. 

" Fluckiger and Hanbury Pharm. 273. 1879. 


seed bread may often be found in restaurants in the United States. In Schleswig- 
Holstein and Holland, they are added to a skim-milk cheese called Kummel cheese. The 
roots are edible and were considered by Parkinson ' to be superior to parsnips and are 
still eaten in northern Europe. The young leaves form a good salad and the larger ones 
may be boilecf and eaten as a spinach.^ Lightfoot ' says the young leaves are good in 
soups and the roots are by some esteemed a delicate food. It was cultivated in American 
gardens in 1806 and is still to be found. 

The seeds of caraway were found by O. Heer ^ in the debris of the lake habitations 
of Switzerland, which establishes the antiquity of the plant in Europe. This fact renders 
it more probable that the Careum of Pliny * is this plant, as also its use by Apicius ' would 
indicate. It is mentioned as cultivated in Morocco by Edrisi in the twelfth century. 
In the Arab writings, quoted by Ibn Baytar, a Mauro-Spaniard of the thirteenth century, 
it is likewise named; and Fleuckiger and Hanbury think the use of this spice commenced 
at about this period. Caraway is not noticed by St. Isidore, Archbishop of Seville in 
the seventh century, although he notices dill, coriander, anise, and parsley; nor is it named 
by St. Hildegard in Germany in the twelfth century. But, on the other hand, two German 
medicine books of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries use the word cumich, which is still 
the popular name in southern Germany. In the same period the seeds appear to have 
been used by the Welsh physicians of Myddvai, and caraway was certainly in use in Eng- 
land at the close of the fourteenth century and is named in Turner's Ltbellus, 1538, as 
also in The Forme of Cury, 1390. 

C. coptictun Benth. & Hook. f. 

Europe, north Africa and northern Asia. This small plant is very much cultivated 
during the cold season in Bengal, where it is called ajowan, ajonan or javanee. The seeds 
have an aromatic smell and warm pungent taste and are used in India for culinary pur- 
poses as spices with betel nuts and paw leaves and as a carminative medicine.' The 
seeds are said to have the flavor of thyme. 

C. ferulaefolium Boiss. 

Mediterranean region. This plant is a perennial herb with small, edible tubers. 
Its whitish and bitterish roots are said by Dioscorides to be eaten both raw and cooked. 
In Cyprus, these roots are still cooked and eaten. 

C. gairdneri A. Gray, edible-rooted caraway. 

Western North America The root is a prominent article of food among the Cali- 
fornia Indians.' The Nez Perc6 Indians collect the tuberous roots and boil them like 

'Parkinson Par. Terr. 515. 1904. (Reprint of 1629.) 
Johnson, C. P. Useful Pis. Gt. Brit. ii;,. 1862. 
'Lightfoot,;. Fl. Scot. i:i6g. 1789. 

Card. Chron. 1068. 1866. 
Pliny lib. 19, c. 49. 

Apicius lib. I, c. 30; 2, c. 4; 8, c. 2. 

' Dutt, U. C. Mat. Med. Hindus 173. 1877. 
Mueller, F. Sel. Pis. 93. 1891. 

Brewer and Watson Bot. Cal. 1 1259. 1880. 


potatoes. They are the size of a man's finger, of a very agreeable taste, with a cream- 
like flavor.* 

C. kelloggil A. Gray. 

California. The root is used by the Indians of California as a food.* 

C. petroselinum Benth. & Hook. f. parsley. 

Old World. Parsley is cultivated everywhere in gardens, for use as a seasoning and 
as a garnish. Eaten with any dish strongly seasoned with onions, it takes off the smell 
of onion and prevents the after taste. It excels other herbs for communicating flavor to 
soups and stews. Among the Greeks and Romans, parsley formed part of the festive 
garlands, and Pliny states that in his time there was not a salad or a sauce presented at 
table without it. The ancients supposed that its grateful smell absorbed the inebriating 
fumes of wine and by that means prevented intoxication. Parsley seems to be the apium 
of the ancient Romans, the selinon of Theophrastus,' who, 322 B. C, describes two varie- 
ties; one with crowded, dense leaves, the other with more open and broader leafage. 
Colimiella,^ 42 A. D., speaks of the broad-leaved and curled sorts and gives directions for 
the culture of each; and Pliny,* 79 A. D., mentions the cultivated form as having varieties 
with a thick leaf and a crisp leaf, evidently copying from Theophrastus. He adds, how- 
ever, apparently from his own observation, that apium is in general esteem, for the sprays 
find use in large quantities in broths and give a peculiar palatability to condimental foods. 
In Achaea, it is used, so he says, for the victor's crown in the Nemean games. 

A little later, Galen,* 164 A. D., praises parsley as among the commonest of foods, 
sweet and grateful to the stomach, and says that some eat it with smyrnium mixed with 
the leaves of lettuce. Palladius,' about 210 A. D., mentions the method of procuring the 
curled form from the common and says that old seed germinates more freely than fresh 
seed. (This is a peculiarity of parsley seed at present and is directly the opposite to that 
of celery seed.) Apicius,* 230 A. D., a writer on cookery, makes use of the apium viride 
and of the seed. In the thirteenth century, Albertus Magnus ' speaks of apium and 
petroselinum as being kitchen-garden plants; he speaks of each as being an herb the first 
year, a vegetable the second year of growth. He says apium has broader and larger leaves 
than petroselinum and that petroselinum has leaves like the cicuta; and that the petrose- 
linum is more of a medicine than a food. 

Booth'" states that parsley was introduced into England in 1548 from Sardinia. In 
addition to its general use, in Cornwall where it is much esteemed, it is largely used in 

^U. S. D. A. Rpt. 407. 1870. (Endosmia gairdneri) 
Brewer and Watson Bot. Cat. 1:259. 1880. 
' Theophrastus lib. 7, c. 4. 
Columella lib. 11, c. 3. 
' Pliny lib. 19, c. 37, c. 46; lib. 2C, c. 44. 
Galen Aliment, lib. 2, 154. 1547. 
' Palladius lib. 5, c. 3. 
' Apicius Opson. 1709. 
' Albertus Magnus Veg. Jessen Ed. 1867. 
"> Booth. W. B. Treas. Bot. 1:79. 1870. 


parsley pies. The plant is now naturalized in some parts of England and Scotland. 
Parsley is mentioned as seen on the coast of Massachusetts by Verazzano,' about 1524, 
but this is undoubtedly an error. Two kinds, the common and curled, are mentioned 
for our gardens by McMahon," 1806. Fessenden,' 1828, names three sorts, and Thor- 
biun,* 1 88 1, itux sorts. 

At the present time we have five forms; the common or plain-leaved, the celery- 
leaved or Neapolitan, the curled, the fern-leaved and the Hambiarg, or tvimip-rooted. 

Plain-Leaved Parsley. 
The plain-leaved form is not now much grown, having been superseded by the more 
ornamental, curled forms. In 1552, Tragus ' says there is no Idtchen-garden in Germany 
without it and it is used by the rich as well as the poor. Matthiolus,* 1558 and -1570, 
says it is one of the most common plants of the garden. In 1778, Mawe ' says it is the 
sort most commonly grown in English gardens but many prefer the curled kinds; in 1834, 
Don * says it is seldom cultivated. It was in American gardens in 1806. 

Apium hortense. Matth. 362. 1558; 512. 1570; 562. 1598; Pin. 333. 1561; 
Dalechamp 700. 1587; Lob. Icon. 706. 1591; Ger. 861. 1597; Dod. 694. 1616. 

Garden parsley. Lyte Dod. 696. 1586. 

Common parsley. Ray 448. 1686; McMahon 127. 1806. 

Plane parsley. Mawe 1778. 

Common plain-leaved. Don 3:279. 1834. 

Plain parsley. Biur. 433. 1863. 

Persil commun. Vilm. 403. 1883. 

The Celery-Leaved or Neapolitan. 

The Celery-leaved, or Neapolitan, is scarcely known outside of Naples. It differs 
from common parsley in the large size of its leaves and leaf-stalks and it may be blanched 
as a celery.' It was introduced into France by Vilmorin in 1823. ^^ Pliny mentions pars- 
leys with thick stalks and says the stalks of some are white. This may be the Apium 
hortense maximum of Bauhin," 1596, as the description applies well. He says it is now 
grown in gardens and was first called English Apium. He does not mention it in his Pinax, 
1623, under the same name, but under that of latifolium. Linnaeus'^ considers this to 
be Ligusticum peregrinum. 

' Tytler Prog. Disc. No. Coast Amer. 36. 1833. 

- McMahon, B. Amer. Card. Cat. 127. 1806. 

' Fessenden New Amer. Card. 222. 1828. 

*Thorbum Cat. 1881. 

Tragus Stirp. 459. 1552. 

Matthiolus Comment. 362. 1558; 512. 1570. 

' Mawe and Abercrombie Univ. Card. Bot. 1778. (Apium petroselinum) 

Don, G. Hisf. Dich. Pis. 3:279. 1834. 

Vilmorin Les Pis. Potag. 404. 1883. 

^oViroWe L'Hort. Franc. 1823; Bon Jard. 254. 1824-25. 

" Bauhin, C. Phytopinax 268. 1596. 

" Linnaeus 5^. P^ 1680. 2nd Ed. 


Persil celeri ou de Naples. L'Hort. Franc. 1824. 
Naples or Celery-leaved. Burr 434. 1863. 
Persil grand de Naples. Vilm. 404. 1883. 


Curled Parsley. 
Of these, there are many varieties, differing but in degree, such as the Curied, Extra 
Curled, Moss Curled and Triple Curled. Pena and Lobel,' 1570, mention this form and 
say it is very elegant and rare, brought from the mountains the past year and grown in 
gardens, the leaves curled on the borders, very graceful and tremulous, with minute incis- 
ions. In the synonymy, many of the figures do not exhibit the curled aspect which the 
name and description indicate; hence, we make two divisions, the curled and the very 
curled. The curled was in American gardens preceding 1806. 

(a) The curled. 

Apium crispum sine multifidum. Ger. 861. 1597. cum ic. 
Apium crispum. Matth. Op. 562. 1598. cum ic. 

(b) Very curled. 

Apium crispatum. Advers. 315. 1570; Dalechamp 700. 1587. 

Apium. Cam. Epit. 526. 1586. 

Petroselinum vulgo, crispum. Bauh. J. 3:pt. 2, 97. 1651. 

Curled. Townsend33. 1726; Mawe 1778; McMahon 127. 1806. Thorb. i^TaZ. 1821. 

Apium crispum. Mill. Diet. 1731, from Mill. Diet. 1807. 

Apium petroselinum. Bryant 24. 1783. 

Curled or Double. Fessenden 222. 1828; Bridgeman 1832. 

Persil frisS. L'Hort. Franc. 1824; Vilm. 404. 1883. 

Dwarf curled. Fessenden 222. 1828; Burr 432. 1863. 

Curled leaved. Don 3:279. 1834. 

Fern-Leaved Parsley. 

The Fern-leaved has leaves which are not curled but are divided into a very great 
number of small, thread-like segments and is of a very dark green color. It is included 
in American seed catalogs of 1878. This form seems, however, to be described by Bauhin 
in his edition of Matthiolus, 1598, as a kind with leaves of the coriander, but -nnth very 
many extending from one branch, lacinate and the stem-leaves unlike the coriander 

because long and narrow. 

Hamburg or Turnip-Rooted. 
Hamburg parsley is grown for its roots, which are used as are parsnips. It seems 
to have been used in Germany in 1542,^ or earlier, but its use was indicated as of Holland 
origin even then in the name used, Dutch parsley. It did not reach England until long 
after. In 1726, Townsend,' a seedsman, had heard that " the people in Holland boil 
the roots of it and eat it as a good dish." Miller ^ is said to have introduced it in 1727 

' Pena and Lobel Advers. 315. 1570. 
' Fuchsius Hist. Stirp. 573. 1542. 
Townsend Seedsman 33. 1726. 
* Martyn Miller Card. Diet. 1807. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 149 

and to have grown it himself for some years before it became appreciatea. In 1778,' it is 
said to be called Hamburg parsley and to be in esteem. In 1783, Bryant mentions its 
frequent occurrence in the London markets. It was in American gardens in 1806. 

OreOselinum. Fuch. 573. 1542. 

PetrosePkium. Trag. 459. 1552. 

Apium. Cam. Epit. 526. 1586. 

Apium hortense Fuchsii. Bauh. J. 3:pt. 2, 97. 1651. 

Apium latifolium. Mill. Diet. 1737. 

Dutch parsley. Card. Kal. 127. 1765. 

Hamburg parsley. Mawe 1778. 

Broad-leaved. Mawe 1778. 

Hamburg or large rooted. McMahon 1806; Burr 433. 1863. 

Large rooted. Thorb. Kal. 1821. 

Persil tub&reux. L'Hort. Franc. 1824. 

Persil a grosse racine. Vilm. 405. 1883. 

A persil panache (plumed parsley) is mentioned by Pirolle, in L'Hort. Fran^ais, 1824. 

C. segentum Benth. & Hook. f. 

Europe. This is an aromatic, annual herb available for culinary purposes.^ 

C. sylvestre Baill. 

East Indies. This plant is used as a carminative by the natives.' 

Carya alba Nutt. Jugla^tdeae. shagbark hickory, shellbark hickory. 

North America. In 1773, at an Indian village in the South, Bartram* noticed a 
cultivated plantation of the shellbark hickory, the trees thriving and bearing better than 
those left to nature. Emerson * says this tree ought to be cultivated for its nuts which 
differ exceedingly in different soils and situations and often on individual trees growing 
in immediate proximity. In 1775, Romans ^ speaks of the Florida Indians using hickory 
nuts in plenty and making a milky liquor of them, which they called milk of nuts. He 
says: " This milk they are very fond of and eat it with sweet potatoes in it." The 
hickory nut now not only furnishes food to a large number of the Indians of the far West 
but is an important article in our markets and is even exported to Britain. 

C. microcarpa Nutt. small-fruited hickory. 

Eastern North America. The nuts are edible but not prized. 

C. olivaeformis Nutt. pecan. 

A slender tree of eastern North America from Illinois southward. The delicious 
pecan is well known in our markets and is exported to Europe. It was eaten by the Indians 
and called by them pecaunes. and an oil expressed from it was used by the natives of 

' Mawe and Abercrombie Univ. Card. Bot. 1778. 

MueUer, F. Set. Ph. 94. 1891. 

Royle, J. P. ' Illustr. Bot. Himal. 1:229. i839. 

* Hist. Mass. Hort. Soc. 28. 1880. 

'Emerson, G. B. Trees, Shrubs Mass. 1:217. 1875. 

Romans Nat. Hist. Fla. 1:68. 1775. 


Louisiana to season their food.* Its use at or near Madrid on the Mississippi by the 
Indians is mentioned in the Portuguese Relation * of De Soto's expedition. The pecan 
is now extensively cultivated in the Southern States for its fruit. 

C. porcina Nutt. broom hickory, pignut. 

North America. The pignut is a large tree of Eastern United States. The nuts 
are variable in form, hard and tough, the kernel sweetish or bitterish but occasionally 
eaten by children. 

C. sulcata Nutt. big shellbark. king nut. 

Pennsylvania to Illinois and Kentucky. The nuts of this tree are eaten by the 
Indians and are considered of fine quality. This is one of the species recommended for 
culture by the American Pomological Society. 

C. tomentosa Nutt. mocker nut. square nut. white-heart hickory. 

Eastern North America. This hickory bears a nut with a very thick and hard shell. 
The kernel is sweet and in some varieties is as large as in the shellbark, but the difficulty 
of extracting it makes it far less valuable. A variety is fotmd with prominent angles, 
called square nut.' 

Caryocar amygdaliferum Cav. Ternstroemiaceae. caryocar. 

A high tree in Ecuador. The kernel of the nut is edible and has the taste of almonds.* 
This is the almendron of Mariquita. " The nuts are fine." ' 

C. amygdalifonne Ruiz & Pav. 

Peru. The tree bears nuts that taste like almonds.' 

C. brasiliense St. Hil. piquia-oil plant. 

Brazil. This species bears an oily, mucilaginous fruit, containing a sort of chestnut 
eaten in times of famine.' This is perhaps the Acantacaryx pinguis Arruda, a large tree 
that produces most abvmdantly a fruit the size of an orange, of which the pulp is oily, 
feculous and nourishing. It is the delight of the inhabitants of Ceara and Piauhy and 
is called piqui.^ 

C. but3rrosum Willd. 

Guiana. This plant is culfvated for its nuts in Cayenne. These are esculent and 
taste somewhat like a Brazil nut.' It is called pekea by the natives of Guiana. It ftu'- 
nishes a timber valuable for shipbuilding.'" 

1 Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Ph. y^c). 1879. 
De Soto Disc, Conq. Fla. Hakl. Soc. Ed. 9:94. 184 1. 
Emerson, G. B. Trees, Shrubs Mass. 1:222. 1875. 
<Don, G. Hisl. Dichl. Pis. 1:65^. 1831. 
' Humboldt, A. Trar. 2:368. 1889. 
Don, G. Hist. DicU. Pis. 1:654. 1831. 
'Burton, R. F. Explor. Braz. 1:76. 1869. 
'Koster, H. Trar. 5ro2. 2:364. 1817. 
Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 1:654. 1831. 
"Smith, A. Treas. Bol. 1:229. 1870. 


C. glabnun Pers. 

Guiana. It furnishes edible nuts.' It is sometimes cultivated, and the trees are 
much used in shipbuilding and for other purposes. The natives make much use of 
the nuts. 

C. nuciferum Linn, butternut. 

A lofty tree of British Guiana which produces the souari or butternut of the English 
markets. These nuts are shaped something like a kidney flattened upon two sides and have 
an exceedingly hard, woody shell of a rich, reddish-brown color, covered all over with 
round wart-like protuberances, which encloses a large, white kernel of a pleasant, nutty 
taste yielding a bland oil by pressure.^ 

C. tomentosum Willd. butternut. 

Guiana. The plant bears a sweet and edible nut.* 

Caryota obtusa GrifE. Palmae. 

A very large palm of the Mishmi Mountains in India. The central part of the trunk 
is used by the natives as food.* 

C. urens Linn, jaggery palm, toddy palm, wine palm. 

Malabar, Bengal, Assam and various other parts of India. The center of the stem 
is generally soft, the cells being filled with sago-like farina, which is made into bread and 
eaten as gruel. But the main value of this palm consists in the abundance of sweet sap 
which is obtained from the cut spadix and which is either fermented or boiled down into 
syrup and sugar.' 

Casearia esculenta Roxb. Samydaceae. 

Tropical Asia. The leaves are eaten by the natives.' 

Casimiroa edulis La Llave. Rutaceae. Mexican apple, white sapota. 

Mexico. This tree grows wild and is cultivated in the states of Sinaloa, Durango 
and elsewhere in Mexico and is known by the name of zapote bianco. The fruit is about 
an inch in diameter, pale yellow in color and is most palatable when near decay. It has 
a very rich, subacid taste, and the native Califomians are very fond of it.' Masters* 
says its fruit has an agreeable taste but induces sleep and is unwholesome and that the 
seeds are poisonous. 

Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 1:654. 1 831. 
Smith, A. Treas. Bot. 1:229. 1870. 
' Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 1:654. 1831. 
Griffith, W. Palms Brit. Ind. 170. 1850. 
'Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 550. 1876. 
Black, A. A. Treas. Bot. 1:231. 1870. 
' Cal. Slate Bd. Hort. Rpt. 80. 1880. 
'Masters, M. T. Treas. Bot. 1:232. 1870. 


Cassia auriculata Linn. Leguminosae. cassia. 

East Indies. In some parts of the country, a spirituous liquor is prepared by adding 
the bruised bark to a solution of molasses and allowing the mixture to ferment.' 

C. fistula Linn. 

Tropical Asia. This handsome tree has been introduced into the West Indies and 
northern Africa, whence its pods are imported for use in medicine. In Mysore, stalks 
of it are put in the gro\md and worshipped. It is classed by Unger ' as among the little- 
used vegetable foods, the pulp apparently being eaten. This pulp about the seeds is, 
however, a strong purgative. 

C. occidentalis Linn, stinking weed. 

Cosmopolitan tropics. Rafinesque ' says the pods of this plant are long, with many 
seeds, which the coimtrymen use instead of coffee. It is found in tropical and subtropical 
America * and in both Indies.^ It has been carried to the Philippines, and its seeds, while 
tender, are eaten by boys.' Naturalized in the Mauritius, the natives use the roasted 
seeds as a substitute for coffee. Livingstone found the seeds used as coffee in interior 

C. sophera Linn, cacay. 

Old World tropics. This plant is said by Unger ' to be used as a vegetable in 

Cassytha cuscutifonnis (?) Laurineae. dodder-laurel. 

The white drupes of this north Australian species are edible. The plants are semi- 
parasitical and are often called dodder-laurel.* 

C. filiformis Linn. 

Cosmopolitan tropics. The plant is put as a seasoning into buttermilk and is much 
used for this piirpose by the Brahmans in southern India.' In Yemen, its berries are eaten 
by boys.i" 

Castanea dentata Borkh. CupuUferae. American chestnut. 

Southward from Maine as far as Florida and westward as far as Michigan but not 
in the prairie regions. Chestnuts were mixed with pottage by the Indians of New England 
and they now appear in season in all our markets and are sold roasted on the streets of our 
cities. The American variety bears smaller and sweeter nuts than the European. 

' Drury, H. Useful Pis. Ind. 120. 1873. 
' Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 333. 1859. 

Rafinesque, C. S. Fl. La. 100. 1817. (C.ciliata) 
Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 752. 1879. 

Masters, M. T. Treas. Bot. 1:232. 1870. 
Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 752. 1879. 
' Unger, F. V. S. Pal. Off. Rpt. 359. 1859. 
Black, A. A. Treas. Bot. 1:234. i27o- 

Drury, H. Useful Pis. Ind. 123. 1873. 

" Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 729. 1879. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 153 

C. ptunila Mill, chinquapin. 

Southern United States. Pursh ' says the nuts are sweet and delicious; Vasey,^ that 
they are not comparable to those of C. dentata but are eaten by children. 

C. sativa Mill. European chestnut. 

Europe, Japan and North America. The native country of the chestnut is given by 
Targioni-Tozzetti ' as the south of Europe from Spain to Caucasus; Pickering* says, 
eastern Asia. Other writers say it was first introduced into Europe from Sardis in Asia 
Minor; it is called Sardinian balanos by Dioscorides and Dios balanos by Theophrastus. 
It is evident from the writings of Virgil that chestnuts were abundant in Italy in his time. 
There are now many varieties cultivated. Chestnuts which bear nuts of a very large size 
are grown in Madeira. In places, chestnuts form the usual food of the common people, 
as in the Apennine mountains of Italy, in Savoy and the south of France. They are used 
not only boiled and roasted but also in puddings, cakes and bread. Chestnuts afford a 
great part of the food of the peasants in the mountains of Madeira.^ In Sicily, chestnuts 
afford the poorer class of people their principal food in some parts of the isle; bread and 
puddings are made of the flour.' In Tuscany, they are ground into flour and chiefly used 
in the form of porridge or pudding. In the coffee-houses of Lucca, Pesda and Pistoja, 
pates, muffins, tarts and other articles are made of chestnuts and are considered delicious.' 
In Morea, chestnuts now form the principal food of the people for the whole year.' 
Xenophon states that the children of the Persian nobility were fattened on chestnuts. In 
the valleys inhabited by the Waldenses, in the Cevennes and in a great part of Spain, 
the chestnut furnishes nutriment for the common people. Charlemagne commended the 
propagation of chestnuts to his people.' In modern Europe, only the fruits of cultivated 
varieties are considered suitable for food.'" This species is enumerated by Thunberg '' as 
among the edible plants of Japan. 

Castanospermum australe A. Cunn. & Eraser. Leguminosae. moreton bay chestnut. 
Australia. Eraser '^ says the fruit is eaten by the natives on all occasions and when 
roasted has the flavor of a Spanish chestnut. Europeans, from necessity, have subsisted 
on the fruit for two days, the raw fruit griping but the roasted being innoxious. 

Catesbaea spinosa Linn. Rubiaceae. 

A shrub of the West Indies. The fruit is yellow, pulpy and of an agreeable taste." 

'Pursh, P. PL Amer. Septent. 2:625. 1814. 
^Vasey U.S. D. A. Rpt. 175. 1875. 
Thompson, R. Treas. Bot. 1:235. 1870. 
* Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 77. 1879. (C. vesca) 
' Phillips, H. Comp. Orch. 86. 1831. 
Hooker, W. J. Land. Journ. Bot. 1:144. i834- 
' Loudon, J. C. Enc. Agr. 53. 1866. 
Loudon, J. C. Enc. Agr. 122. 1866. 
' Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 313. 1859. (C. vesca) 
1 Emerson, G. B. Trees, Shrubs Mass. i:iSg. 1875. {C. vesca) 
" Thunberg, C. P. Fl. Jap. 195. 1784. {Fagus castanea) 
"Hooker, W.J. Bot. Misc. 1:2^3. 1830. 
" Masters, M. T. Treas. Bot. 1:239. 1870. 

154 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

Catha edulis Forsk. Celastrineae. Arabian tea. kat. 

A shrub of tropical Africa. The leaves are used by the Arabs in the preparation of 
a beverage possessing properties analogous to those of tea and coffee. Large quantities 
of twigs with the leaves attached are annually brought to Aden from the interior. The 
shrub is called by the natives cafta.^ Prior to the introduction of coffee, says Pickering,' 
the use of kat was estabhshed in Yemen by Ali Schadheli ben Omar. Various virtues 
are attributed to the leaves which are eaten with avidity by the Arabs. 

Caucalis anthriscus Huds. Umbelliferae. hedge parsley. 

Europe. Wilkinson ' says this is the anthriscum of Pliny, now called in Arabic gezzer 
e'shaytan, and that it is esculent. 

C. daucoides Linn, bastard parsley, bud parsley, hen's foot. 

Europe and temperate Asia. Gerarde * calls this plant bastard parsley and hen's 
foot. It is the sesslis of the Egyptians. It was called a potherb by Dioscorides and Pliny, 
and Galen says it is pickled for salads in winter. 

Caulanthus crassicaulis S. Wats. Cruciferae. wild cabbage. 

Western regions of America. It is sometimes used as a food, says Rothrock,^ when 
a better substitute cannot be fovmd. 

Cavendishia sp. ? Vacciniaceae. 

Frigid regions of the Andes of Peru. This is a tall, evergreen shrub with pink, edible 
berries the size of a cherry.* 

Ceanothus americanus Linn. Rhamneae. mountain sweet, new jersey tea. wild 
North America. The leaves were used as a substitute for tea during the American 

Cecropia peltata Linn. Urticaceae. indian snakewood. trumpet tree. 
American tropics. The yoimg buds are eaten as a potherb.* 

Cedrela odorata Linn. Meliaceae. barbadoes cedar, cigar-box wood. 

South America. Smith * says, in China the leaves of this tree are eaten in the spring 
when quite tender. 

'Smith, A. Treas. Bot. 1:239. 1870. 

Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 811. 1879. {Celastrus edulis) 

Wilkinson, J. G. Anc. Egypt. 2:33. 1854. 

* Gerarde, J. Herb. 1023. 1633 or 1636. and Ed. 

Rothrock, J. T. U. S. Geog. Surv. Bot. 6:41. 1878. 

Mueller, F. Sel. Pis. \<)8. 1891. {Vacciniumalatum) 

'Gray, A. Man. Bot. 115. 5th Ed. 

Smith, A. Treas. Bot. 1:2^. 1870. 

Smith, F. P. Contrib. Mat. Med. China 56. 1871. 


Cedronella cana Hook. Lahiatae. hoary balm of gilead. 

Mexico. This pretty and very fragrant plant is useful for putting in a claret cup.' 

Cedrus libani Barrel. Coniferae. cedar of Lebanon. 

Asia Minor, Syria, Afghanistan, Himalayan region and Algeria. A kind of manna 
was anciently collected from this tree.* 

Celastrus macrocarpus Ruiz & Pav. Celastrineae. staff tree. 

Peru. It has savory, alimentary buds. The seeds yield an edible oil.' 

C. scandens Linn, bitter sweet, staff vine, waxwork. 

Northern North America. The Chippewa Indians use the tender branches. The 
plant has a thick bark which is sweetish and palatable when boiled.* 

Celosia argentea Linn. Amarantaceae. 

Cosmopolitan tropics. In China, this plant is a troublesome weed in flax- fields 
but is gathered and consumed as a vegetable.' In France, it is grown in flower gardens.' 
C. trigyna Linn. 

Tropical Africa. According to Grant,' this plant is eaten as a potherb. 

Celtis australis Linn. Urticaceae. celtis. European nettle, honeyberry. lote 
Europe, temperate Asia and East Indies. The European nettle is a native of Barbary 
and is grown as a shade tree in the south of France and Italy. Dr. Hogg* considers it 
to be the lote tree of the ancients, " lotos to dendron " of Dioscorides and Theophrastus; 
Sibthorp and Stackhouse are of the same opinion. The fruit is about the size of a small 
cherry, yellow, dark brown or black. The modem Greeks are very fond of the fruits; 
they are also eaten in Spain. They are called in Greece honeyberries and are insipidly 
sweet. In India, Brandis* says a large, blackish or purple kind is called roku on the 
Sutlej; a smaller yellow or orange kind choku. 

C. occidentalis Linn, hackberry. nettle tree, sugarberry. 

Southern and Western United States. This celtis is a fine forest tree. The fruits 
are sweet and edible.'" 

C, tala Gill. 

Mexico. This is the cranjero or cranxero of the Mexicans. The berries of this shrub 
are of the size of small peas, oval, orange-yellow and somewhat edible though astringent." 

>Gard. CAron. 17:559. 1882. 
Geoflfrey Mat. Med. 2:584. 1741. 

BaiUon, H. Hist. Pis. 6:26. 1880. 
*U. S. D. A. Rpi. ^22. 1870. 

Smith, F. P. Contrib. Mat. Med. China 57. 1871. 

Vilmorin Fl. PI. Ter. 237. 3rd Ed. 

' Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 465. 1879. 

Hooker, W. J. Land. Journ. Bot. 1:203. 1834. 

Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 428. 1874. 
Gray, A. Man. Bot. 443. 1868. 

u Torrey, J. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 253. 1857. 

156 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

Centaurea calcitrapa Linn. Compositae. caltrops, star thistle. 

Europe, north Africa and temperate Asia. The young stems and leaves, according 
to Forskal,' are eaten raw in Egypt. 

C. chamaerhaponticuin Ball. 

Mediterranean coasts. In Algeria, according to Desfontaenes,' the root is edible 
and not unpleasant to the taste. 

C. pygmaea Benth. & Hook. f. 

Mediterranean covmtries. The roots have an agreeable flavor and are eaten by the 
Arabs in some parts of Africa.' 

Centranthus macrosiphon Boiss. Valerianeae. long-spurred valerian. 

Spain. Valerian is an annual cultivated in gardens for its handsome, rose-colored 
flowers and is used as a salad in some countries, notably in France. It appears to combine 
all that belongs to com salad, with a peculiar slight bitterness which imparts to it a more 
distinct and agreeable flavor. 

C. ruber DC. fox's brush, red valerian. 

Red Valerian is said to be eaten as a salad in southern Italy.* 

Centrosema macrocarpum Benth. Leguminosae. 

British Guiana. The beans are eaten by the Indians, according to Schomburgk.* 
The leaves, according to A. A. Black, are also eaten. 

Cephalotaxus drupacea Sieb. & Zucc. Coniferae. plum-fruited yew. 

Japan. The female plant bears a stone-fruit closely resembling a plum in structure. 
The flesh is thick, juicy and remarkably sweet, with a faint suggestion of the pine in its 

Ceratonia siliqua Linn. Leguminosae. algaroba bean, carob tree, locust bean. 
ST. John's bread. 
This tree is indigenous in Spain and Algeria, the eastern part of the Mediterranean 
region, in Syria; ^ and is found in Malta, the Balearic Islands, in southern Italy, in Turkey, 
Greece and Grecian Islands, in Asia Minor, Palestine and the north of Africa.* It was 
found by Denham ' and Clapperton 1 in the Kingdom of Bomu, in the center of Africa. 
The pods being filled with a saccharine pulp, are eaten both green and dry and were a 

Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 140. 1879. 

' Black, A. A. Treas. Bol. 2:970. 1870. {Rhaponlicum acaule) 

Hooker and Ball Marocco, Gt. Atlas 292. 1878. {Cynara acaidis) 

Thompson, W. Treas. Bot. 1:247. 1870. 
'Hooker, W.J. Journ. Bot. 2:$(f. 1840. 

Brooks, W. P. Trans. Mass. Hort. Soc. 52. 1890. 
'Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 166. 1874. 

'Hooker, W.J. Journ. Bot. l'.ll\. 1834. 



favorite food with the ancients; there are specimens preserved in the museum at Naples 
which were exhumed from a house in Pompeii. The Egyptians extracted from the husk 
of the pod a sort of honey, with which they preserved fruits; in Sicily, a spirit and a sirup 
are prepared from them; ^ in the island of Diu or Standia, the luscious pulp contained 
in the pod is'caten by the poor and children and is also made into a sherbet. These pods 
are imported into the Pimjab as food for man, horses, pigs and cattle ^ and are imported 
into England occasionally as a cattle food.' In 1854, seeds of this tree were distributed 
from the United States Patent Office.* 

Ceratostema grandiflorum Ruiz & Pav. Vacciniaceae. 

Peruvian Andes. This tall, evergreen shrub produces berries of a pleasant, acidulous 

Cercis canadensis Linn. Leguminosae. judas tree, redbud. 

North America. The French Canadians use the flowers in salads and pickles.' 
C. siliquastrum Linn, judas tree, love tree. 

Mediterranean coimtries. The pods are gathered and used with other raw vegetables 
by the Greeks and Turks in salads, to which they give an agreeable odor and taste.' The 
flowers are also made into fritters with batter and the flower-buds are pickled in vinegar.' 

Cereus caespitosus Engelm. & A. Gray. Cacteae. 

Texas. The fruit, rarely an inch long, is edible, and the fleshy part of the stem is 
also eaten by the inhabitants of New Mexico.' The fruit is of a purplish color and very 
good, resembling a gooseberry. The Mexicans eat the fleshy part of the stem as a vege- 
table, first carefully freeing it of spines."" 
C. dasyacanthus Engelm. 

Southwestern North America. The fruit is one to one and one-half inches in diameter, 
green or greenish-purple, and when fully ripe is delicious to eat, much like a gooseberry.'^ 

C. dubius Engehn. 

Southwestern North America. The ripe fruit, one to one and one-half inches long, 
green or rarely purplish-, is insipid or pleasantly acid.'^ 

C. engelmanni Parry. 

Southwestern North America. This plant bears a deliciously palatable fruit.'' 

' Hooker, W. J. Journ. Bot. 1:113. 1834. 
Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 166. 1874. 
'Church, A. H. Foods 124. 1887. 
* U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 27. 1854. 

'Mueller, F. Sel. Pis. ^gg. 1891. {Vaccinium grandiflorum) 
' Browne, D. J. Trees Amer. 222. 1846. 
'Walsh, R. Trans. Horl. Sac. Lond. 6:34. 1826. 
Johns, C. A. Treas. Bot. 1:256. 1870. 
Fendler, A., and Gray, A. PI. Fendl. 50. 1849. 
'"Smith, A. Treas. Bo<. 1:439. 1870. (Echinocereus pectinatus) 
" Fendler, A., and Gray, A. PI. Fendl. 50. 1849. 
" Parry Bot. U. S. Mex. Bound. 21. 1854. 


C. enneacanthus Engelm. 

Southwestern North America. The berry is pleasant to eat.* 

C. fendleri Engelm. 

New Mexico. The purplish-green fruit is edible.'' 

C. giganteus Engelm. 

Texas. This cactus yields a fruit sweet and delicious. The Indians collect it in 
large quantities and make a sirup or conserve from the juice, which serves them as a luxtiry 
as well as for sustenance. The Mexicans call the tree suwarrow; the Indians, harsee. The 
sirup manufactured from the juice is called sistor.^ Engelmann says the crimson-colored 
pulp is sweet, rather insipid and of the consistency of a fresh fig. Hodge,* in Arizona, 
calls the fruit delicious, having the combined flavor of the peach, strawberry and fig. 

C. greggii Engelm. 

Texas. The plant has a bright scarlet, fleshy, edible berry.* 

C. polyacanthus Engelm. 

Texas. It bears a berry of a pleasant taste.' 

C. quisco C. Gay 

Chile. The sweetish, mucilaginous fruits are available for desserts.' 

C. thurberi Engelm. 

New Mexico. This plant grows in the Papago Indian country on the borders of 
Arizona and Sonora and attains a height of 18 to 20 feet and a diameter of four to six inches 
and bears two crops of fruit a year. The fruit is, according to Engelmann, three inches 
through, like a large orange, of delicious taste, the crimson pulp being dotted with numerous, 
black seeds. The seeds, after passing through the digestive canal, are collected, according 
to Baegert and Clavigero,' and pounded into a meal used in forming a food. Venegas,' 
in his History of California, describes the fruit as growing to the boughs, the pulp resembling 
that of a fig only more soft and luscious. In some, it is white; in some red; and in others 
yellow but always of an exquisite taste; some again are wholly sweet, others of a grateful 
acid. This cactus is called pithaya by the Mexicans and affords a staple sustenance for 
the Papago Indians. 

Ceropegia bulbosa Roxb. Asclepiadeae. 

East Indies. Roxburgh '" says, " men eat every part." 

' Fendler, A., and Gray, A. PL Fettdl. 50. 1849. 
' Ibid. 
, Bigdow Pacific R. R. Rpt. 4: 13. 1856. 

* Hodge, H.C. Ariz. 243. 1877. 

'Fendler, A., and Gray, A. PL Fendl. 50. 1849. 

* Ibid. 

'Mueller,?. SeL Pis. 106. 1891. 

* Smithsonian Inst. Rpt. 365. 1863. 
'Venegas ffij<. Ca/. 1:42. 1759. 

"' Roxburgh, W. Pis. Coram. Coast 1:11, t. 7. 1795. 


C. tuberosa Roxb. 

East Indies. Every part is esctilent; the roots are eaten raw.' 

Cervantesia tomentosa Rtiiz & Pav. Santalaceae. 
Peru. Its seeds are edible.^ 

Cetraria islandica Linn. Lichenes. Iceland moss. 

Iceland moss is found in the northern regions of both continents and on elevated 
mountains farther south. It serves as food to the people of Iceland and Lapland; the 
bitterness is first extracted with water, after which the plant is pounded up into meal for 
bread or boiled with milk.' 

Chaerophyllum bulbosum Linn. Umbelliferas. parsnip chervil, turnip-rooted 


Etirope and Asia Minor. In Bavaria, this vegetable is found growing wild but is 
said to have been first introduced from Siberia. Burnett " alludes to it as deleterious, 
but Haller ^ affirms that the Kalmucks eat the roots with their fish and commend them 
as a nutritive and agreeable food. Booth * says it is a native of France and, although 
known to British gardeners since its introduction in 1726, it is only within the last few 
years that attention has been directed to its culture as an esculent vegetable. In size 
and shape, the root attains the dimensions of a small Dutch carrot. It is outwardly of 
a grey color, but when cut the flesh is white, mealy and by no means unpleasant to the 
taste. F. Webster," consul at Munich, Bavaria, in 1864, sent some seed to this coimtry 
and says: " The great value of this vegetable, as an acquisition to an American gardener, 
is not only its deliciousness to the epicure but the earliness of its maturity, fully supplying 
the place of potatoes." The seed is now offered in our seed catalogs. The wild plant 
is described by Camerarius,* 1588 and by Clusius,' 1601, and is also named by Bauhin.^" 
1623. As a cultivated plant, it seems to have been first noted about 1855, when the root 
is described as seldom so large as a hazelnut, while in 186 1 it had attained the size and shape 
of the French round carrot. '^ This chervil appeared in American seed catalogs in 1884, 
or earlier, and was described by Burr'^ for American gardens in 1863. It was known 
in England in 1726 but was not tmder culture.'' 

Roxburgh, W. Pis. Coram. Coast 1:12, t. 9. 1795. 
MueUer, F. Sd. Pis. 107. 1891. 

U. S. Disp. 24+. 1865. 

* Burnett U. S. D. A. Rpt. 500. 1864. 
' HaUer U. S. D. A. Rpt. 500. 1864. 

Booth, W. B. Treas. Bat. 1:74. 1870. 
^U. S. D.A. Rpt. 500. 1864. 

* CAvneraxius Hort. Med. 1588. 
' Clusius Hist. 2:200. 1601. 

"Bauhin, C. Pinax 161. 1623. 
" Card. Chron. 887, 906. 1861. 
"Burr, F. Field, Card. Veg. 31. 1863. 
" Booth, W. B. Treas. Bat. 1:74. 1870. 

- i6o sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

C. tuberosum Royle. 

In the Himalaj'as, the tuberous roots are eaten and are called sham.*^ 

Chamaedorea elegans Mart. Palmae. 

South America. The young, unexpanded flower-spikes are used as a vegetable. 
C. tepejilote Liebm. 

Mexico. The flowers, when still enclosed in the spathes, are highly esteemed as 
a culinary vegetable.^ 

Chamaerops humilis Linn. Palmae. dwarf fan-palm, palmetto. 

West Mediterranean countries. The young shoots or suckers from the bottom of 
the plant, called cajaglioni, are eaten by the Italians. In Barbary, the lower part of the 
young stems and the roots are eaten by the Moors.' 

Chelidonium sinense DC. Papaveraceae. 

China. The leaves were eaten as a food in China in the fourteenth century.* 

Chenopodium album Linn. Chenopodiaceae. lamb's quarter, pigweed, white goose- 
Temperate and tropical regions. Remnants of this plant have been found in the early 
lake villages of Switzerland. In the Hebrides, it was observed by Lightfoot ' to be boiled 
and eaten as greens. In the United States, it is used as a spinach. The young, tender 
plants are collected by the Navajoes, the Pueblo Indians of New Mexico, all the tribes 
of Arizona, the Diggers of California and the Utahs, and boiled as a spinach or are eaten 
raw. The seeds are gathered by many tribes, ground into a flour and made into a bread 
or mush.* 

C. ambrosioides Linn. Mexican tea. 

Temperate and tropical regions. This herb is called in Mexican epazolt. The plant 
is cooked and eaten by the natives. It was called at Verona, in 1745, the allemand because 
drunk in infusion by the Germans. It seems to be indigenous to tropical America. 

C. auricomimi Lindl. Australian spinach. 

Australia. This plant is a native of the interior of Australia and has lately come 
into use in England as a substitute for spinach, according to J. Smith.' Mueller * calls 
this spinach palatable and nutritious. 

C. bonus-henricus Linn, all good, fat hen. good-king-henry. goosefoot. mercury. 

WILD spinach. 

Europe, now sparingly naturalized around dwellings in the United States. Under 

' Royle, J. F. Illustr. Bot. Himal. 1:231. 1839. 
'Seemann, B. Pop. Hist. Palms 139. 1856. 
Andrews Bot. Reposit. 9: PI. 599. 1797. 
Bretschneider, E. Bot. Sin. 51. 1882. 
Lightfoot,;. Fl. Scot. 1: 149. 1789. 
U. S. D. A. Rpt.419. 1870. 
'Smith, J. Dam. Bot. 235. 1871. 
Mueller, F. Set. Pis. 109. 1891. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants i6i 

the curious names of fat-hen and good-king-Henry, this plant was formerly largely culti- 
vated in the gardens in England as a potherb, and even in the beginning of the present 
century was still esteemed in Lincolnshire and some of the Midland counties but is now 
little used. Lightfoot ' says, in Scotland, the young leaves in the spring are often eaten 
as greens anSI are very good. Glasspoole ^ says, in Lincolnshire, it was preferred to garden 
spinach, and the young shoots used to be peeled and eaten as asparagus. The plant is 
now but rarely cultivated. Gerarde speaks of it in 1597 as a wild plant only, while Ray, 
1686, refers to it as frequently among vegetables. Bryant, 1783, says: " formerly culti- 
vated in English gardens but of late neglected, although certainly of siifficient merit." 
In 1807, Miller's Gardener's Dictionary says it is generally in gardens about Boston in 
Lincolnshire and is there preferred to spinach. It cannot ever have received very general 
culture as it is only indicated as a wayside plant by Tragus, 1552; Lobel, 1570 and 1576; 
Camerarius, 1586; Dalechamp, 1587; Matthiolus, 1598; and Chabraeus, 1677. Itsvalue 
as an antiscorbutic finds recognition in its names, bonus Henricus and tota bona. 

C. capitatimi Aschers. elite, strawberry blite. 

Northern and southern regions. Gerarde' says: "it is one of the potherbes that 
be unsavory or without taste, whose substance is waterish." The fruit, though insipid, 
is said formerly to have been employed in cookery. The leaves have a spinach-like flavor 
and may be used as a substitute for it.^ Unger ^ says even the blite or strawberry spinach 
finds constmiers for its insipid, strawberry-like fruit. The plant is found indigenous and 
common from Western New York to Lake Superior and northward.' Blitum capitatum, 
if Linnaeus's synonymy can be trusted, was known to Bauhin,^ 1623, and by Ray,* 1686. 
Miller's Gardener's Dictionary refers it to J. Bauhin ' who received the plant in 1651. 
The species was, during this time, little known outside of botanical gardens. 

C. quinoa Willd. petty rice, quinoa. 

South America. This plant, indigenous to the Pacific slopes of the Andes, constituted 
the most important article of food of the inhabitants of New Granada, Peru and Chile 
at the time of the discovery of America, and at the present day is still extensively culti- 
vated on account of its seeds, which are used extensively by the poorer inhabitants. There 
are several varieties, of which the white is adtivated in Europe as a spinach plant, rather 
than for its seeds. However prepared, the seed, says Thompson, is unpalatable to strangers. 
Gibbon,^'' who saw the plant in Bolivia, says that when boiled like rice and eaten with 
milk, the seeds are very savory. Seeds from France but originally from Peru, were dis- 

Lightfoot, J. PI. Scot. 1:147. 1789- 

Glasspoole, H. G. Rpt. Ohio State Bd. Agr. 528. 1875. 

Gerarde, J. Herb. 321. 1633 or 1636. 2nd Ed. 

Thompson, W. Treas. Bot. 1:150. 1870. {Blitum capitatum) 

Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 357. 1859. (Blitum capitatum) 

Gray, A. Man. Bot. 408. 1868. (Blitum capitatum) 

' Bauhin, C. PiTUix n. 7. 1 19. 1623. 

'JUy Hist. PI. i: n. 5, 7. 197. 1686. 

Bauhin, J. Hist. PI. 2:973. 1651- 

" Hemdon, W. L., and Gibbon, L. Explor. Valley Amaz. 2: 139. 1854. 



tributed from the United States Patent Office in 1854. Garcilasso de la Vega ' says it 
was called quinua by the natives of Peru and mujo by the Spaniards. He says: " Both 
the Indians and the Spanish eat the tender leaf in their dishes, because they are savory 
and very wholesome. They also eat the grain in the soups, prepared in various ways." 
A black-seeded variety, cultivated in gardens, is mentioned by Feuille,^ in Peru, preceding 
1725. It was introduced into France in 1785 ' but has not had very extended use. 
Molina * says in Chile there is a variety called dahue by the Indians which has greyish 
leaves and produces a white grain. The grain of the quinua serves for making a very 
pleasant stomachic beverage; that of the dahue, on being boiled, lengthens out in the form 
of worms and is excellent in soup. The leaves are also eaten and are tender and of an 
agreeable taste. 

Chlogenes serpyllifolia Salisb. Vacciniaceae. creeping snowberry. 

North America and Japan. The berry is white, edible, jiiicy and of an agreeable, 
subacid taste with a pleasant checkerberry flavor.^ The Indians of Maine use the leaves 
of the creeping snowberry for tea.* 

Chloranthus inconspicuus Sw. Chloranthaceae. 

China and Japan. This plant furnishes the flowers which serve to scent some 
sorts of tea,' particularly an expensive sort called chu-lan-cha.^ 

Chlorogalum pomeridianum Kunth. Liliaceae. amole. soapplant. wild potato. 

California. The egg-shaped bulb is one to three inches in diameter. Cooking elimi- 
nates all the acrid properties, rendering the bulb good, wholesome food.' 

Chondodendron tomentosum Rtiiz & Pav. Menispermaceae. wild grape. 

Peru. This plant is called by the Peruvians wild grape on accoxmt of the form of 
the fruit and its acid and not unpleasant flavor.'" 

Chondrilla juncea Linn. Compositae. 

Southern Europe and adjoining Asia. This plant is mentioned by Dorotheus as 
good for cooking and for the stomach; it is enumerated by Pliny as among the esculent 
plants of Egypt.^ 

C. prenanthoides Vill. 

East Mediterranean countries and moimtains of Yemen. This plant is enumerated 
by Pliny as among the esculents of Egypt. Forskal says it is eaten raw in Yemen.'^ 

' Vega Roy. Comment. Hakl. Soc. Ed. 2:358. 

' Feuillee Peru y.Ap. 16, t. x. 1725. 

'Heuze, G. Pis. Aliment. 2:25^. 1873. 

* Molina Hist. Chili 1:91. 1808. 

' Emerson, G. B. Trees, Shrubs Mass. 2:^60. 1875. (C. hisfndula) 

'Thoreau Me. Woods 270. 1877. (C. hispidula) 

'Williams, S. W. Mid. King. 1:282. 1848. 

'Smith, F. P. Conlrib. Mat. Med. China 61. 1871. - 

'Harvard, V. Torr. Bot. Club Bui. 22:114. 1895. 
" Masters, M. T. Treai. Bo/. 1:274. 1870. (C. convolvulaceum) 
" Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 2S1. 1879. 
" Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 361. 1879. (Prenanthes chondrilloides) 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 163 

Chondris crispus Lyngb. Rhodophyceae. carrageen, irish moss, pearl moss. 

This alga is found on the western coast of Ireland, England and Europe and also on 
the eastern coast of the United States. It has been used as a food and medicine by the 
Irish peasants from time immemorial. It is collected for the market and is largely used 
as a food fof invalids under the names carrageen, Irish moss and pearl moss. 

Choretrum candoUei F. Muell. Santalaceae. wild currants. 

A shrub bearing greenish-red berries which are called wild currants in New South 
Wales. They have a pleasant, acid taste combined with a certain degree of astringency. 
Mixed with other fruit, they are used for preserves and in the preparation of cooling, acid 

Chorispora tenelld DC. Cruciferae. 

Central Asia. The leaves of this plant are described as a good, early salad by -Pallas 
in his Travels in Russia. 

Chrysanthemum balsamita Linn. Compositae. ale cost, costmary. 

West Mediterranean countries. This plant is common in every cottage garden in 
England, where it was introduced in 1568. The leaves possess a strong, balsamic odor 
and are sometimes put in salads but it has ceased to be grown for culinary purposes 
and even in France is only occasionally used. The leaves were formerly used in England 
to flavor ale and negus, hence the name alecost. In the United States, it is mentioned 
by Burr,^ 1863, who names one variety. It is grown in Constantinople.' 

C. leucanthemum Linn, marguerite, ox-eye daisy, white daisy, whiteweed. 

Europe. Johnson* says the leaves may be eaten as salad. The plant is the well- 
known flower of our fields, where it has become naturalized from Europe. 

C. segetum Linn, corn chrysanthemum, corn marigold. 

Europe, north Africa and western Asia. The stalks and leaves, " as Dioscorides 
saith, are eaten as other pot herbes are."^ In northern Japan and China, Miss Bird' 
describes a cultivated form of chrysanthemimi as occurring frequently in patches and 
says the petals are partially boiled and are eaten with vinegar as a dainty. 

Chrysobalanus ellipticus Soland. Rosaceae. coco plum. 

African tropics. This plant bears a damson-sized fruit with a black, thin skin and 
is eaten.^ 

C. icaco Linn, coco plum. 

African and American tropics. This tree-like shrub, with its fruit similar to the damson, 
grows wild as well as cultivated in the forests along the shores of South America and in 

Smith, A. Treai. 5(7/. 2:674. 1870. {Leptomeria biilardieri) 

*Burr, F. Field, Card. Feg. 416. 1863. {Balsamita vulgaris) 

Forskal Fl. Aeg. Arab. 32. 1775. 

< Johnson, C. P. Useful Pis. Gt. Brit. 161. 1862. 

Gerarde, J. Herb. 745. 1633 or 1636. 2nd Ed. 

*B\iA Unheal. Tracks Jap. i:iT5. 1881. 

'Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 2:477. 1832. 

164 sturtevant's notes on edisle plants 

Florida.' Browne * says in Jamaica the fruit is perfectly insipid but contains a large nut 
inclosing a kernel of very delicious flavor. The fruits in the West Indies, prepared with 
sugar, form a favorite conserve with the Spanish colonists, and large quantities are annually 
exported from Cuba. On the African coast it occurs from the Senegal to the Congo. 
The fruit is eaten by the natives of Angola and, according to Montiero,* is like a roimd, 
black-purple plum, tasteless and astringent. Sabine* says: " the fruit is about the size 
of an Orleans plum but is rounder, of a yellow color, with a flesh soft and juicy, the flavor 
having much resemblance to that of noyau." 

Chiysophyllum africaniun A. DC. Sapotaceae. 

African tropics.. This is a tall tree of Sierra Leone, whose fruit is in request.' 

C. argenteum Jacq. 

Martinique. The fruit, the size of a plimi, contains a soft, bluish, edible pulp.* 

C. cainito Linn, star apple. 

West Indies. This tree has been cultivated from time immemorial in the West Indies 
but nowhere is found wild.' It seems to have been observed by Cieza de Leon ' in his 
travels in Peru, 1532-50, and is called caymitos. Lunan ' says some trees bear fruit with 
a purple and some with a white skin and pulp, which when soft is like jelly, with milky 
veins and has a sweet and pleasant taste. 

C. glabrum Jacq. 

Martinique. The fruit is blue, of the form and size of a small olive and is seldom 
eaten except by children.'" 

C. michino H. B. & K. 

New Granada. The fruit is yellow outside, whitish and clammy inside and is very 

C. microcarpum Sw. 

Haiti. The fruit is the size of a gooseberry, of a very sweet, delicious taste." 

C. monopyrenum Sw. damson plum of Jamaica. 

West Indies. The fruit is oval and about the size of a Bergamot pear. It contains 
a white, clammy jviice when fresh, which, after being kept a few days, becomes sweet, 

Unger, F. U. S. Pal. Off. Rpl. 349. 1859. 

Lunan, J. Hort. Jam. 1:211. 1814. 

Montiero, J. J. Angola, River Congo 2:298. 1875. 

'Sabine, J. Trans. Hort. Soc. Lond. $-.453. 1824. (C.luUus) 

Sabine, J. Trans. Hort. Sac. Lond. 5:458. 1 824. 

Don, G. Hist. DicM. Pis. 4:32. 1838. 

' De CandoUe, A. Orig. Pis. Cult. 285. 1885. 

Markham, C. R. Trav. Cieza de Leon. Hakl. Soc. Ed. 33:234- 1864. 

Lunan, J. Hort. Jam. 2:202. 1814. 

" Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 4:32. 1838. 

" Ibid. 

" Ibid. 


and delicious. It frequently contains four or five black seeds about the size of pumpkin 

C. obovatum Sabine. 

African tropics. The fruit is the size of an apple, with a short apex and is much 
inferior to tfifc star apple of the West Indies. 

C. prunifenim F. Muell. 

Australia. The fruit is of a pluip-like appearance and is edible." 

C. roxburghii G. Don. pitakara. star apple. 

Asiatic tropics. The fruit is greedily eaten by the natives.' It is the size of a small 
crab, yellow when ripe, smooth and is greedily eaten although insipid. The pulp is toler- 
ably firm but is exceedingly clammy, adhering to the lips or knife with great tenacity.* 

Chrysosplenium altemifolium Linn. Saxifrageae. golden saxifrage. 

Europe, northern Asia and North America. The leaves are eaten as a salad in the 
Vosges Mountains.* 

C. oppositifolium Linn. 

Europe, northern Asia and East Indies. In some countries, this plant is eaten as 
a salad.* The leaves are eaten in salad and soup.' 

Cicer arietinum Linn. Leguminosae. chick-pea. Egyptian pea. 

Eiu-ope, Orient and the East Indies. This plant is represented as growing wild in 
the Caucasus, in Greece and elsewhere; it is also foimd escaped from cultivation in the 
fields of middle Eiu'ope. The Jews, Greeks and Egyptians cultivated it in ancient times. 
It is extensively cultivated at the present time in the south of Europe, in the Levant, in 
Egypt as far as Abyssinia and in India. The seeds vary in size and color in the different 
varieties. In Paris, they are much used for soups. In India, they are ground into a 
meal and either eaten in puddings or made into cakes. They are also toasted or parched 
and made into a sort of comfit. In India, says Wight: * " The leaves of the plant secrete 
an acid which the natives collect by spreading a cloth over night on the plant and wring- 
ing out the dew in the morning. They then use it as vinegar or for forming a cooling 
drink." In 1854, the seed was distributed from the United States Patent Office.' 

The shape of the tmripe seed, which singiilarly resembles a ram's head, may account 
for its being regarded as unclean by the Egyptians of the time of Herodotus.'" It was 

' Lunan, J. Hort. Jam. 1:259. 1814. 

Mueller, F. Sel. Pis. 2<)8. 1891. (Niemeyera prunifera) 

' Royle, J. F. Illustr. Bol. Himal. 1:263. 1839. 

Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 4:33. 1838. 
Johns, C. A. Treas. Bot. 1:280. 1870. 

Johnson, C. P. Useful Pis. Gt. Brit. no. 1862. 
'Baillon.H. Hm/. P/i. 3:418. 1874. Note. 

Wight, R. Illustr. Ind. Bot. i: 192. 1840. 
U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. XVI. 1854. Preface. 

" Pickering, C. Geos. Dist. Ans. Pis. 380. 1863-1876. 


in common use in ancient Rome and varieties are mentioned by Columella and Pliny,* 
the latter naming the white and black, the Dove of Venus pea, and many kinds differing 
from each other in size. Albertus Magnus,' in the thirteenth century, mentions the red, 
the white and the black sorts, and this mention of colors is continued by the herbalists 
of the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries. The white chick-pea is the sort 
now generally grown in France, where the dried seeds find large use in soups. The red 
variety is now extensively grown in eastern countries, and the black sort is described as 
more curious than useful. 

Cichorium endivia Linn. Compositae. endive. 

Etirope and the Orient. This is a widely distributed plant, probably of East Indian 
origin, where certainly, says Unger,* " The same plant is met with wild about Patna and 
Kamaon, as well as in Nepal." Others deem it a native plant of Sicily. It was used as 
an esculent from a very early period by the Egyptians and was known to the Greeks 
Ovid mentions it in his tale of Philemon and Baucis, Columella also refers to it as common 
in his day, and Pliny states it was eaten in his time as a salad and as a potherb. It was 
in cultivation in England as early as 1548.* It is not known when the endive was first 
used in the United States, but McMahon,' 1806, mentions the Green Curled, White Ciu-led 
and the Broad-leaved in cultivation. In 1828 and 1881, Thorbum offers the seed of these 
varieties only. 

There are two distinct forms of endive, the ciu-led and the broad-leaved. The first 
does not seem to have been known to the ancients, although Dioscorides ^ and Pliny * 
name two kinds. In the thirteenth century, Albertus Magnus ' names also two kinds, 
the one with narrower leaves than the other; and in 1542 Fuchsius '" figures two kinds 
of like description, and like forms are noted in nearly all the earlier botanies. A curled, 
broad-leaved form is figured by Camerarius," 1586; Dalechamp,'^ 1587; and Gerarde," 
1597. Endive is described in the Adversaria,^^ 1570. The authors named furnish what 
may reasonably be considered as the types of the four kinds of broad-leaved endives 
described by Vilmorin.^^ The origin of the curled endives, of which Vilmorin describes 
twelve, is difficult to trace. The peculiar tnmcate appearance of the seed-stalks is very 

' Columella lib. 9, c. I. 

Bostock and Riley Nat. Hist. Pliny 4:46. 1856. 

* Albertus Magnus Veg. Jessen Ed. 490. 1867. 
< Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 353. 1859. 
'Mcintosh, C. Book Card. 2:1 sg. 1855. 
McMahon, B. Amer. Card. Cat. 581. 1806. 

' Dioscorides lib. 2, c. 147. 
' Pliny lib. 20, c. 29, 32. 

* Albertus Magnus Feg. Jessen Ed. 508. 1867. 
' Fuchsius Hist. Stirp. 677, 678. 

" Camerarius Epit. 283. 1586. 

" Dalechamp Hist. Gen. PI. (Lugd.) 557. 1587. 

" Gerarde, J. Herb. 221. 1597. 

" Pena and Lobel Advers. 86. 1570. 

" Vilmorin Les Pis. Potag. 95. 1883. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 167 

conspicuous, and this feature would lead one to su.spo^t that the type is to be seen in the 
Seris sativa of Lobel/ but the resemblances are quite remote. This is the Cichorium 
latioris Join of Dodonaeus,^ 1616. The endives were in English gardens as well-known 
plants in 1778' and were named among seec^men's supplies in 1726.^ They were in 
the United States prior to 1806.^ 

C. intybus Linn, barbe de capuchin, cijicory. succory, witloof. 

Eiirope and the Orient. Wild chicory has been used from time immemorial as a 
salad-plant and, forced in darkness, affords the highly-esteemed vegetable in France known 
as barbe de capuchin. It has also large-rooted varieties and these, when treated in like 
manner, form the vegetable known in Belgivim as witloof. 

Whether chicory was cultivated by the ancients there is reason to doubt, although 
they knew the wild plant and its uses as a vegetable. It is not mentioned in the descrip- 
tive list of garden vegetables in use in the thirteenth century, as given by Albertus Magnus.* 
Ruellis," 1535, mentions two kinds but does not imply cultivation; nor does Fuschius,' 
1542, who likewise names two kinds, one of which is our dandelion. It is treated of by 
Tragus,' 1552; Matthiolus,'" 1558; the Adii^sana," 1570; Lobel,'^ 1576; Camerarius,i' 1586; 
Dalechamp," 1587; Gerarde,'^ iS97; but with no mention of cultivation. Although not 
mentioned in Lyte's translation of Dodonaeus, 1586, as cultivated, yet, in Dodonaeus' 
Pempiades, 1616, it is said not only to occur wild throughout all Germany but to be oil- 
tivated in gardens. This is the first mention of culture noted. In 1686, Ray '* says " it 
is sown in gardens and occurs wild in England." The seed occurs among seedsmen's 
supplies in 1726.'^ 

At the present time, chicory is grown for the use of its leaves in salads and for its 
root to be used as an adidterant for coffee. The smooth, tapering root, which seems such 
an improved form in our modem varieties, is beautifully figured by Camerarius in 1586. 
The common chicory grown for salads is but the wild plant little changed and with the 
divided leaves as figured by the herbalists. The entire-leaved form with a tendency to a 
red midrib also occurs in nature and may be considered as the near prototype of the Magde- 

Lobel Obs. 114. 1576. 

' Dodonaeus Pempt. 634. 161 6. 

Mawe and Abercrombie Univ. Card. Bot. 1778. 

Townsend Seedsman 20. 1726. 

McMahon, B. Amer. Card. Cal. 581. 1806. 

Albertus Magnus lib. 7, tract 2, c. 2. 
1 Ruellius Nat. Stir p. 495. 1536. 

Fuchsius Hist. Stir p. 679. 1542. 
Tragus Stirp. 272. 1552. 

" Matthiolus Comment, 258. 1558. ; 
" Pena and Lobel Advers. 82. 1570. 
" Lobel PI. Stirp. Hist. 114. 1576. 
" Camerarius Epit. 285. 1586. 
" Dalechamp Hist. Cen. PL (Lugd.) 557. 1587. 
"Gerarde, J. Herb. 2^$. 1597- 
"Ray ^ii/. P/. 1:255. 1686. 
" Townsend Seedsman 33. 1726. 

.168 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

burg large-rooted and of the red Italian sorts. The variegated chicory, the curled-leaved 
and the broad-leaved may have their prototypes in nature if sought for but at present 
must remain unexplained. The common, the spotted-leaved and the large-rooted were 
in French culture in 1826.' 

Cinnamomum cassia Blume. Laurineae. cassia, cinnamon. 

China, Stmiatra, Ceylon and other parts of eastern Asia. This plant yields a cinnamon 
of commerce. Cinnamon seems to have been known to the ancient natives inhabitating 
the covintries bordering on the Levant. It is the kinnamomon of Herodotus, a name 
which he states the Greeks learned from the Phoenicians. It is spoken of in Exodus, 
is referred to by Hippocrates, Dioscorides, Pliny and others of the ancient writers. The 
inner bark of the shoots is the portion used. Nearly every species of the genus yields 
its bark to commerce, including not less than six species on the Malabar coast and in 
Ceylon, and nearly twice as many more in the eastern part of Asia and in the islands of 
the Eastern Archipelago. Cassia bark resembles the true cinnamon but is thicker, coarser 
and not as delicately flavored. Both are used for flavoring confectionery and in cooking. 

C. culilawan Blimie. 

Malays, China, Moluccas and Cochin China. The bark of this species is said to 
have the flavor of cloves and is used as a condiment. 

C. iners Reinw. 

Burma, Malays, tropical Hindustan and Siam. In India, the natives use the bark 
as a condiment in their cturies. In southern India, the more mature fruits are collected 
for use but are very inferior to the Chinese cassia buds.^ Among the Ghauts, the bark 
is put in curries as a spice.' 

C. loureirii Nees. 

Cochin China and Japan. From the bark of this plant is made a cinnamon of which 
the finest kind is superior to that of Ceylon. 

G. nitidum Blume. 

Java, Ceylon and India. This plant furnishes a spice. 

C. sintok Blume. 

Malays and Java. The plant possesses an aromatic bark. 

C. tamala T. Nees & Eberm. 

Himalayan region. This plant furnishes leaves that are essential ingredients in 
Indian cookery.'* 

C. zeylanicum Nees. cinnamon. 

East Indies and Malays. This plant is largely cultivated in Ceylon for its bark. 
Its cultivation is said to have commenced about 1770, but the plant was known in a wild 

> Petit Dia. Jard. 1826. 

Fliickiger and Hanbury Pharm. 480. 1879. 

> Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 394. 1879. 

* Dutt, U. C. Mat. Med. Hindus 224. 1877. 


state long before. Herodotus says: " the bark was the lining taken from birds' nests 
built with clay against the face of precipitous mountains in those countries where Bacchus 
was nurtured." It has been cultivated for some time in Mauritius, the West Indies, 
Brazil and other tropical countries. 

Cistus ladaniferus Linn. Cistineae. laudanum. 

Western Mediterranean regions. This species, which furnishes the laudanimi of 
Spain and Portugal, is often to be met with in gardens. Loudon ' says the gum which 
exudes from it is eaten by the common people. 

C. villosus Linn, shaggy rock-rose. 

Spain. This plant is used in Greece in prteparing infusions similar to tea. It is the 
cistus mas of the ancients.* 

Citriobatus sp. ? Pittosporeae. native orange, orange thorn. 

Australia. A species of this genera is the native orange and orange thorn of the 
Australian colonists. The fruit is an orange berry with a leathery skin, subglobular, 
about one and one-half inches through and is eaten by the natives.' 

Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. Cucurbitaceae. bitter gourd, colocynth. 

Tropical Africa. This creeping plant grows abundantly in the Sahara, in Arabia, 
on the Coromandel coast and in some of the islands of the Aegean. The fruit, which is 
about as large as an orange, contains an extremely bitter and drastic ptilp, from which 
the drug colocynth is obtained.* Thunberg' says this gourd is rendered so perfectly 
mild at the Cape of Good Hope, by being properly pickled, that it is eaten by the natives 
and by the colonists. The gourds are also made into preserves with sugar, having been 
previously pierced all over with knives and then boiled in six or seven waters until all 
the bitterness disappears. Gypsies eat the kernel of the- seed freed from the seed-skin 
by a slight roasting. Fluckiger ^ says the seed kernels are used as a food in the African 
desert, after being carefully deprived of their coatings. Stille ' says they are reported to 
be mild, oleaginous and nutritious. Captain Lyon * speaks also of their use in northern 
Africa. In India, according to Vaupell,^ there is a sweet variety which is edible and 

C. vulgaris Schrad. watermelon. 

Tropical Africa. The watermelon has succeeded especially well under American 
culture, the varieties being many in nimiber and continuously increasing, either through 
importation or through the process of selection. The size has also become enormous 

Loudon, J. C. Enc. Agr. 117. 1866. 
Baillon, H. Hist. Pis. ^-.ziT. 1875. Note. 

Syme, J. T. Treas. Bot. 1:290. 1870. 

Fluckiger, F. A. Sci. Record 63. 1874. 
Thunberg, C. P. Trav. 2:171. 1796. 

Fluckiger, F. A. Sci. Record 63. 1874. 

' Stille, A. Therap. Mat. Med. 2:428. 1874. 

*U. S. Disp. 315. 1865. 

Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 253. 1879. 


selected specimens sometimes weighing 96 pounds or even more. The varieties vary in 
shape from round to oblong and in color from a light green to almost a black, self-colored 
or striped with paler green or marbled. The flesh may be white, cream-color, honey- 
color, pale red, red or scarlet. The seeds are white, white with two black spots, cream- 
colored tipped with brown and a brown stripe around the edge, yellow with a black stripe 
round the margin and with black spots, dark brown, reddish-brown, russet-brown, black, 
sculptured or as if engraved with ornamental characters, and pink or red. 

The watermelon is mentioned by the early botanists and described as of large size, 
but it must be considered that this fruit even now is not as successfully grown in Europe 
as in more southern countries. That none or few types have originated imder modem 
culture is indicated by an examination into the early records. 

Size. Cardanus,' 1556, writes that the size is sometimes so great that a man can 
scarcely embrace the fruit with his expanded arms. Marcgravius,^ 1648, describes those 
of Brazil as being as large as a man's head, sometimes larger, sometimes smaller. In 
1686, Ray ' says the size is such as to be scarcely grasped with the two hands; this is what 
J. Bauhin * wrote many years earlier for he died in 1613. The figures in the earlier bot- 
anies, of which there are many, all indicate a smalll-sized fruit, although the description 
is usually of a " large " or " very large " fruit. 

Shape. Round fruits are mentioned by Fuchsius,^ 1542; by Cardanus,* 1556; Garcia 
ab Horto,' 1567; Marcgravius,' 1648; Piso,' 1658; and Ray,^" 1686. Subround or roundish, 
by Camerarius," 1586; and Gerarde,'^ 1597. Oblong by Garcia ab Horto," 1567 ; Lourerio," 
1790. Oval, by Garcia ab Horto,'^ 1567. Elliptical, by Marcgravius,'* 1648; and Ray," 

Color. Grass-green, by Fuchsius,'' 1542. Green, by Albertus Magnus, thirteenth 
century; Bauhin,^' 1596; Gerarde,^'' 1597. Grass-green and spotted, by Matthiolus,^! 1570; 

Cardanus Rerum var. 185. 1581. 

Marcgravius Hisl. Rerum Nat. Bras. 22. 1648. 

Ray Hist. PI. 643. 1686. 
'Bauhin, J. Hist. PI. 1650. 
Fuchsius Hist. Stirp. 702. 1542. 
Cardanps iJerwrn ror. 184. 1556. 

' Horto, G. ab. ^roraa/um 237. 1567. 

' Marcgravius Hist. Rerum Nat. Bras. 22. 1648. 

Piso De Ind. 263. 1658. 
"Ray Hist. PL 643. 1686. 

" Camerarius Efnt. 22. 1648. 

"Gerarde, J. Herb. 767. 1597. 

" Horto, G. ab. Aromatum 22,7 . 1567. 

" Loureiro Fl. Cochin. 594. 1790. 

" Horto, G. ab. Aromatum 237. 1567. 

" Marcgravius Hist. Rerum Nat. Bras. 22. 1648. (Piso) 

" Ray Hist. PL 643. 1686. 

" Fuchsius flii/. 5/i>/>. 702. 1542. 

" Bauhin, C. Phytopinax 622. 1596. 

" Gerarde, J. Herb. 767. 1597. 

" Matthiolus Comwew/. 369. 1570. 


Camerarius,* 1596; Dalechamp,^ 1587. Green and spotted, by Bauhin,' 1596. Black- 
ish, by Gerarde,^ iS97- 

Flesh. Red, by Baiohin,^ 1596; 1623,* Marcgravius,' 1648. White, by Bauhin,' 
1596, 1623;' Chabraeus,'" 1677. Scarlet, by Marcgravius," 1648. Pale red, by Piso,^^ 
1658; Lonreirti,!' 1790. Yellow, by Bryant," 1783. Flesh-color, by Josselyn, 1663. 

Seed. Chestnut-brown, by Fuchsius.^* 1542. Purple-red, by Tragus,^^ 1552. Black, 
by Matthiolus,!^ 1570; Camerarius,'* 1596; Dalechamp,'' 1587; Bauhin,^'' 1596; J. Bauhin.^' 
165 1. Red, by Matthiolus,^ 1570; Bauhin,^^ 1596; Sloane,^* 1696; Bryant,^^ 1783. Reddish, 
by Camerarius,^' 1586. Brown, by Baiihin,^' 1596; Marcgravius,^' 1648. Raven-black, 
by Marcgravius,-^ 1648. White, by J. Bauhin,'" 1651. Sculptured, by Forskal,^' i775- 

It is interesting to note that the older writers described some varieties as sweet, others 
as insipid and acid. Livingstone ^^ describes the wild watermelons of South Africa as 
some sweet and wholesome, others bitter and deleterious. The bitter or acid forms do 
not now appear in our culture. 

The most surprising plant of the South African desert, writes Livingstone, is the 
kengwe or kerne, the watermelon. In years when more than the usual quantity of rain 

' Camerarius Epit. 297. 1586. 

' Dalechamp Hist. Gen. PI. (Lugd.) 625. 1597. 

' Bauhin, C. Phytopinax 622. 1596. 

*Gerarde, J. Heth.-jd-]. 1597. 

' Bauhin, C. Phytopinax 622. 1596. 

Bauhin, C. Pinax t,\2. 1623. 

' Marcgravius Hist. Rerum Nat. Bras. 22. 1648. (Piso) 

' Bauhin, C. Phytopinax 622. 1596. 

' Bauhin, C. Pinax 312. 1623. 

' Chabraeus Icon. Sciag. 133. 1677. 

" Marcgravius Hist. Rerum Nat. Bras. 22. 1648. (Piso) 

Piso De Ind. 263. 1658. 

" Lourerio Fl. Cochin. 594. 1790. 

" Bryant Fl. Diet. 269. 1783. 

" Fuchsius Hist. Stirp. 702. 1542. 

" Tragus Stirp. 832. 1552. 

" Matthiolus Comment. 369. 1570. 

" Camerarius Epit. 297. 1586. 

" Dalechamp Hist. Gen. PI. (Lugd.) 625. 1587. 

"Bauhin, C. Phytopinax 622. 1596. 

Bauhin, J. Hist. PL 2:236. 1651. 

Matthiolus Comment. 369. 1570. 

^ Bauhin, C. Phytopinax 622. 1596. 

Sloane, H. Cat. 103. 1696. 

Bryant Fl. Diet. 269. 1783. 

* Camerarius Epit. 297. 1586. 

"Bauhin Phytopinax 622. 1596. 

" Marcgravius Hist. Rerum Nat. Bras. 22. 1648. (Piso) 


"Bauhin, J. Hist. PL 2:236. 1651. 

Forskal, P. FL Aeg. Arab, i : 122, 167. 1775. 

" Livingstone, D. Trav. Research. So. Afr. 54. 1858. 

,172 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

falls, vast tracts of the country are literally covered with these melons. Some are sweet, 
and others so bitter that they are named by the Boers the " bitter watermelon." The 
bitter ones are deleterious, but the sweet are quite wholesome. As this missionary observer 
was not a botanist, it is possible that this species may have been the colocynth, Citrullus^ 
colocynthis, or a hybrid of the colocynth and the watermelon. 

Rauwolf,* IS74, found the watermelon growing in abundance in the gardens of Trip- 
oli, Rama and Aleppo under the name bathieca, the root of which word, says R. Thomp- 
son,2 is from the Hebrew abattichim, one of the fruits of Egypt which the Jews regretted 
in the wilderness. The watermelon still forms the chief food and drink of the inhabit- 
ants of Egypt for several months in the year. In Bagdad, also, it is a staple summer 
food. Pallas says in southern Russia the people make a beer from their abundant crops 
of watermelons, with the addition of hops. They also make a conserve or marmalade 
from the fruit, which is an excellent substitute for syrup or molasses. In 1662, Nieuhoff ' 
found the watermelon called batiek by the Indians of Batavia, some being white, others 
red and the seeds black. This melon is said to have been introduced into Britain in 1597. 
By European colonists, says Pickering,^ it was carried to Brazil and the West Indies, to 
eastern North America, to the islands of the Pacific, to New Zealand and Australia. 

Watermelons are mentioned by Master Graves ^ as abounding in Massachusetts in 
1629, and shortly after Josselyn * speaks of it as a fniit " proper to the coimtrie. The 
flesh of it is of a flesh-colour . . . and excellent against the stone." " A large fruit, but 
nothing near so big as a pompion; colour smoother, and of a sad grass-green, rounder, or, 
more rightly, sap-green; with some yellowness admixt when ripe. The seeds are black; 
the flesh, or pulpe, exceeding juicy." Before 1664, according to Hilton,' watermelons 
were cultivated by the Florida Indians. In 1673, Father Marquette,* who descended 
the Wisconsin and Mississippi Rivers, speaks of melons, " which are excellent, especially 
those with a red seed." In 1822, Woods' says of the Illinois region: " Watermelons 
are also in great plenty, of vast size; some I suppose weigh 20 pounds. They are more 
like pvmipkins in outward appearance than melons. They are round or oblong, generally 
green, or a green and whitish. color on the outside, and white or pale on the inside, with 
many black seeds in them, very juicy, in flavor like rich water, and sweet and mawkish, 
but cool and pleasant." In 1747, Jared Eliot mentions watermelons in Connecticut, the 
seed of which came originally from Archangel in Russia. In 1799, watermelons were 
raised by the tribes on the Colorado River. In 1806, McMahon i" describes four kinds. 
They are now cultivated throughout the warm regions of the globe. 

' Ray, J. Trav. through Imw Countries 2:16. 1738. 
Thompson, R. Treox. Bo<. 1:357. 1870. 
' Churchill Co//. Voy. 2:281). 1732. 
' Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 72. 1879. 
' Graves Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll. 1:124. 1806. 
'Josselyn, J. Voy. loi. 1865. 

' Hilton Rel. Fla. 8. 1664. Force Coll. Tracts 4: No. 2. 1846. 
///. Horl. Soc. Trans. 125. 1876. 
' Woods, J. ///. Country 226, 227. 1822. 
" McMahon, B. Amer. Card. Col. 582. 1806. (Cucurbita citrullus) 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 173 

Citrus. Rutaceae. bergamot. cltron. grape fruit, lemon, lime, orange, pomelo 


._ The determination of the species of this genus seems to be in confusion, as might 
be expected from the great variability of this favorite fruit so long under cultivation. 
Linnaeus 1 established two species, Citrus aurantium, comprising the sweet and bitter 
orange and the shaddock; and Citrus medica, comprising the lime, lemon and citron. 
Risso and Poiteau ^ recognized eight species, C. bergamia, the bergamot, C. limetta, the 
sweet lime with white flowers, C. decumana, the shaddock, C. lumia, the sweet lemon, 
C. limonum, the lemon, and C. medica, the citron. In 1818, Risso ' describes 169 varieties 
and figures 105. The mass of evidence collected by Professor Targioni-Tozzetti seems 
to show that oranges were first brought from India into Arabia in the ninth century, that 
they were unknown in Europe, or at any rate in Italy, in the eleventh, but were shortly 
afterwards carried westward by the Moors. They were in cultivation at Seville towards 
the end of the twelfth century, and at Palermo in the thirteenth and probably also in 
Italy, for it is said that St. Domine planted an orange for the convent of S. Sabina in 
Rome in the year 1200. In the course of the same century, the crusaders foimd citrons, 
oranges and lemons very abundant in Palestine, and in the fourteenth century both 
oranges and lemons became common in several parts of Italy. 

They must have been early introduced to America, for Himiboldt ^ says "it would 
seem as if the whole island of Cuba had been originally a forest of palm, lemon and wild 
orange trees," and he thinks the oranges, which bear a small fruit, are probably anterior 
to the arrival of Europeans, who transported thither the agrumi of the gardens. Cald- 
louch * says the Brazilians affirm that the small, bitter orange, which bears the name of 
loranjo do terra and is found wild far from the habitations of man, is of American origin, 
De Soto,' ISS7. mentions oranges in the Antilles as bearing fruit all the year, and, in 1587. 
Cavendish ' found an orchard with lemons and oranges at Puna, South America, and off 
San Bias lemons and oranges were brought to the ships. In 1693-94, Phillips speaks of 
the wild orange as apparently indigenous in Mexico, Porto Rico, Barbados and the Ber- 
mudas, as well as in Brazil and the Cape Verde Islands.' 

The citron appears to have been the only one of this genus known in ancient Rome 
and is probably the melea persike of Theophrastus and the persika mala of Dioscorides. 
Lindley says those who have bestowed the most pains in the investigation of Indian botany, 
and in whose judgment we should place the most confidence, have come to the conclusion 
that the citron, orange, lemon, lime and their numerous varieties now in circulation, are 
all derived from one botanical species. 

Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 51. 1876. 

' Ibid. 

Wood, A. Class Book Bat. 275. 1864. 

* Targioni-Tozzetti Journ. Hort. Soc. Lond. 9:173. 1855. 
' Humboldt, A. Trav. 3:171- 1 889- 


' De Soto Disc. Conq. Fla. Hakl. Soc. Ed. 19. 1851. 
^ Lives Voy. Drake, Cavendish 136. 1854. 
Nuttall, T. No. Amer. Sylva 2:54. 1865. 

174 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

C. aurantium Linn, bergamont. bitter orange. Seville orange, sweet orange. 

Tropical eastern Asia. The sweet orange began to be cultivated in Europe about the 
middle of the fifteenth century. Phillips ' says it was introduced at Lisbon in 1548 by 
Juan de Castro, a celebrated Portuguese warrior, and from this one tree all the European 
orange trees of this sort were propagated. This tree was said to have been alive at Lisbon 
in 1823. One of the first importations of oranges into England occurred A. D. 1290, in 
which year a Spanish ship laden with this fruit arrived at Portsmouth; of this cargo the 
Queen of Edward I bought seven.' Gallesio ' says the sweet orange reached Europe 
through Persia to Syria, and thence to the shores of Italy and the south of France, being 
carried by the Arabs. It was seen by Friar Jordanus * in India about 1330. In the year 
1500, says Loudon,' there was only one orange-tree in France, which had been planted 
in 142 1 at Pempeluna in Navarre, and this tree is still living. In 1791, Bartram * refers 
to the orange as growing abundantly in Florida, as is apparent from the context, and in 
187 1 Dr. Baldwin writes, " you may eat oranges from morning to night at every planta- 
tion along the shore (of the St. Johns), while the wild trees, bending with their golden 
fruit over the water, present an enchanting appearance." Oranges are also found in 
Louisiana and in California (they were seen by Father Baegert ^ in 1751) and are now quite 
extensively grown for market in the extreme southern states. They are imported to 
our Atlantic ports from the Mediterranean, the Azores and also from the West Indies. 
At San Francisco, large quantities are received from Tahiti and Mexico and a few from 
Hawaii. There are nimierous varieties grown, some of which are so distinct as to be 
described as botanical species. 


The bergamot first appeared in the latter part of the seventeenth century. It is 
not mentioned in the grand work on orange trees by Ferrari,' 1676, nor by Lanzani,' 1690, 
nor Quintinye,'" 1692. It seems to be first mentioned in a Uttle book called La Parjumeur 
Fran$ois,'-^ published at Lyons in 1693.'' There are several varieties. 

BiGARADE Orange. Sour Orange. Bitter Orange. Seville Orange. 
The sour orange is extensively ctiltivated in the warmer parts of the Mediterranean 
region, especially in Spain, and exists under many varieties. It was probably the first 
orange cultivated in Europe. i' The sour orange was not mentioned by Nearchus among 

Phillips, H. Comp. Orch. 266. 1831. 

2 Fluckiger and Hanbury Pharm. 112. 1879. 

' Gallesio TreaJ. Bo/. 1:292. 1870. 

* Jordanus, Fr. Wonders East. 1330. Hakl. Soc. Ed. 15. 1863. 

' Loudon, J. C. Hort. 608. i860. 

'Bartram, W. Trav. No., So. Car. 144. 1791. 

' Smithsonian Inst. Rpt. 356. 1863. 

' Fluckiger and Hanbury Pharm. 109. 1879. 

" Ibid. 
" Ibid. 


" Fluckiger and Hanbury Pharm. ill. 1879. 


the productions of the country which is watered by the Indus, but the Arabs, pushing 
farther into the interior than Alexander the Great, iound the orange, and brought it 
into Arabia in the ninth century. It reached Italy in the eleventh century and was in 
cultivation about Seville at the close of the twelfth and at Palermo in the thirteenth 
centtuy. Gallesio ' states that it was introduced from Arabia and the north of Africa 
into Spain. Pickering,^ states that the bitter orange was cultivated in Sicily in A. D. 
1002. The sour orange had become naturalized in the forests of Essequibo, about Vera 
Cruz and ^&ar Mexico City, in 1568; in Brazil in 1587;' in Porto Rico, Barbados and the 
Bermudas,* Cape Verde islands and in Florida at early dates. There are many varieties 
and the fruit of a curious one consists of an orange within an orange. 

Tangerine. Mandarin. 
This fruit is rare in China but abundant in Cochin China. The fruit is round, a 
little compressed, red inside as well as out. It is the most agreeable of all oranges.^ 
Loudon * says the thin rind is loose, so much so that when ripe the pulp may be shaken 
about as a kernel in some nuts. The flesh, of a deep orange color, possesses a- superior 
flavor. Williams ' says it is the most deHcious of the oranges of China. 

C. decumana Murr. grape fruit, pomelo, pummelo. shaddock. 

Tropical Asia. The shaddock was first carried from China to the West Indies early 
in the eighteenth century. It occurs in several varieties and both the red and white kinds 
are considered by Wilkes * indigenous to the Fiji Islands. In 1777, they were somewhat 
distributed by Capt. Cook in his voyage of discovery. 

C. japonica Thunb. kumquat. 

Japan and China. The fruit is about the size of a cherry or gooseberry. It is cvdti- 
vated in China and Japan and is found near Canton in China. The small, oblong, reddish- 
yellow fruit contains but five sections under a very thin skin; the pulp is sweet and 

C. javanica Blume. java lemon. 

Java. This ciiltivated species bears small, roundish, slightly acid fniits.'" 

C. limonia Osbeck. lemon. 

Tropical Asia. De Candolle" says the lemon was unknown to the ancient Romans 

'Gallesio Treas. Bot. 1:292. 1870. 

Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 656. 1879. 

'Lives Voy. Drake, Cavendish 136. 1854. 

* Nuttall, T. No. Amer. Sylva 3:54. 1865. 
'Gallesio, G. Traite Citrus 32. 1811. 

Loudon, J. C. Hort. 608. i860. 

' Williams, S. W. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 475. i860. 

Wilkes, C. U. S. Explor. Exped. 3:335. 1845. 

De CandoUe, A. Ceog. Bot. 2:870. 1855. 
' Ibid. 
" De Candolle, A. Ceog. Bot. 2:865. 1855. 

176 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

and Greeks, and that its culttire extended into the West only with the conquests of the 
Arabs. It is mentioned in the Book of Nabathae on Agriculture which is supposed to date 
from the third or foiirth centviry of our era. The Arabs brought the lemon in the tenth 
century from the gardens of Omar into Palestine and Egypt. Jacques de Vitry, writing 
in the thirteenth century, very well describes the lemon, which he had seen in Palestine. 
About 1330, Friar Jordanus,' saw in India " other lemons sour like ours " which wovild 
indicate its existence in India before that date. It was ctiltivated in Genoa, about the 
middle of the fifteenth century and as early as 1494 in the Azores.^ From the north of 
India, the lemon appears to have passed eastward into Cochin China and China and west- 
ward into Europe; it has become naturalized in the West Indies and various parts of 
America. There are ntomerous varieties. Some are cultivated in Florida to a limited 
extent. They are mentioned in California in 1751-68 by Father Baegert.' 


In Jamaica, the lime is quite naturalized. The fruit is nearly globose, small, yellow 
when ripe, with a thin skin and an abundance of pure, acid juice.^ This fruit is largely 
imported into the United States, in its natural form, pickled and in the form of lime juice. 
About 1755, Henry Laurens * imported Umes into South Carolina. 

Sweet Lemon. 

The fruit has the rind and the flesh of a lemon but the ptilp is sweet. There are 
many varieties in Italy. 

C. medica Linn, citron. 

Tropical Asia; indigenous to and still found wild in the motmtains of east India. 
The citron is the only member of the orange tribe, the fruit of which was known in ancient 
Rome. The tree appears to have been cultivated in Palestine in the time of Josephus 
and was introduced into Italy about the third centtuy. In 1003, it was much grown 
near Naples.' Hogg ' thinks this is the tnelea medike of Theophrastus, 322 B. C, and 
mela medika e kedromela of Dioscorides.* Rhind says it was first cultivated in Italy by 
Palladius in the second century. Royle ^ found it growing wild in the forests of northern 
India. In Media and Persia, the citron is found only in the cultivated state. It is now 
distributed throughout the whole of southern Europe, also in Brazil and in the Congo.'" 
Fruits are used chiefly in a candied form. 

Jordanus, Fr. Wonders, East. Hakl. Soc. Ed. 15. 1863. 
' Fluckiger and Hanbury Pharm. 103. 1879. 
' Smithsonian Inst. Rpt. 356. 1863. 
'Brandis, D. Forest Fl. $4. 1876. 
' Loudon, J. C. Hort. 609. i860. 
Fluckiger and Hanbury Pharm. 115. 1879. 
'Hooker, W. J. Journ. Bat. 1:105. 1831. 
'Rhind, W. Hist. Veg. King. m. 1855. 
Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 337. 1859. 
"> Ibid. 


Cladothrix lanuginosa Nutt. Amarantaceae. 

California and Mexico. According to Schott/ the Mexicans use a decoction of the 
plant as a tea. 

Clausena excavata Burm. f. Rutaceae. whample. 

East India and Malay Archipelago. This shrub of China and the Moluccas is cul- 
tivated in the West Indies. The fruit has a good deal the taste of the grape, accompanied 
with a peculiar flavor, being very grateful to the palate.^ The fruit is borne in clusters, 
resembling, when ripe, a diminutive lemon, about the size of an acorn. It contains three 
large seeds which nearly fill the interior. The scanty pvilp has an anise-seed flavor.' 
Williams * says in China it is pleasantly acid and held in esteem, as it also is in the Indian 
archipelago. About two bushels are produced on a tree. 

Clavija sp. Myrsineae. 

A genus of South American shrubs or small trees. The fruits are fleshy and contain 
nimierous seeds embedded in a piilp which is said to be eatable. They vary in size, but 
are seldom larger than a pigeon's egg.' 

Claydonia rangiferina (Linn.) Web. Lichenes. reindeer moss. 

Northern regions. Reindeer moss is sometimes eaten by the people of Norway and 
is crisp and agreeable. Reindeer moss, says Kalm,' grows plentifully in the woods around 
Quebec. M. Gaulthier and several other gentlemen told him that the French, on their 
long voyages through the woods, in pursuit of their fur trade with the Indians, some- 
times boil this moss and drink the decoction for want of better food when their provisions 
are exhausted. 

Claytonia caroliniana Michx. Portulaceae. 

Eastern United States. This plant has edible bulbs much prized by Indians.' 

C. exigua Torr. & Gray. 

California. The succulent leaves are in popular use as a potherb in California.* 

C. megarrhiza Parry. 

Western North America. This plant has a long, fleshy taproot but it is confined to 
the summits of the Rocky Mountains and is seldom available.' 

C. perfoUata Donn. cuban spinach. 

North America. This species, according to Robinson,'" is cultivated in France as a 

' Toirey, J. U. S. Afex. Bound. Surv. 181. 1859. {Alternanthera lanuginosa) 
Hooker, W.J. Journ. Bot. 7:1$$. 1855. (Cookia punctata) 
' Firminger, T. A. C. Card. Ind. 217. 1874. {Cookia punctata) 
Williams, S. W. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 475. i860. 
'Black, A. A. Treas. Bot. i:2g6. 1870. 

Kalm, P. T>av. No. Amer. 2:287,288. 1772. (Lichen rangiferinus) 
' Havard, V. Torr. Bot. Club Bui. 22: 107. 1895. 
" Brewer and Watson Bot. Cal. 1:76. 1880. 
'Havard, V. Torr. Bot. Club Bui. 22:107. 1895. 
"> Robinson, W. Parks, Card. Paris 503. 1878. 


salad plant. The foliage is used in England, according to Loudon,' as a spinach. De 
CandoUe * says it is occasionally cultivated there. C. perfoliata of Cuba is an annual 
employed as a spinach in France in place of purslane.' It was first described in 1794 
but in 1829 was not named by Noisette* for French gardens; in 1855 it was said by De 
Candolle ' to be occasionally cultivated as a vegetable in England. It is now included 
by Vilmorin among French vegetables. 

C. sibirica Linn. Siberian purslane. 

Northern Asia and northwestern North America. This species is eaten both raw 
and cooked by the Indians of Alaska.' 

C. tuberosa Pall. 

Kamchatka and eastern Siberia. The tubers are edible.* 

C. virginica Linn, spring beauty. 

Eastern United States. This species has edible bulbs, much prized by the Indians.' 

Clematis flammula Linn. Ranunculaceae. virgin's bower. 

Mediterranean countries. The young shoots, when boiled, may be eaten. 

Cleome chelidonii Linn. Capparideae. spider-flower. 

East Indies. The seeds are used by the natives as a mustard in their curries, on 
account of their pungency.' 

C. felina Linn. f. 

East Indies. In India, the flowers are used to flavor salads.'* 

C. heptaphylla Linn. 

American tropics. The leaves are eaten. 

C. viscosa Linn. 

Old World tropics. This plant has an acrid taste, something like mustard, and is 
eaten by the natives among other herbs as a salad." The seeds, being pungent, are used 
in ctirries as a mustard.'^ Its seeds are eaten as a condiment like mustard.'' The seeds 
are used in curries." 

' Dewey, C. Rpt. Herb. Flow. Pis. Mass. 92. 1840. 

s De Candolle, A. Geog. Bol. 2:662. 1855. 

' Bon Jard. 476. 1882. 

* Noisette Man. Jard. 1829. 

' De Candolle, A. Ceog. Bot. 2:662. 1855. 

V. S. Nat. Herb. 3:330. 1896. 

'Don, G. Hist. DicU. Pis. 3:82. 1834. 

Havard, V. Torr. Bot. Club Bui. 22:107. 1895. 

Royle, J. F. Illustr. Bot. Himal. 1:73. 1839. 
1 Baillon, H. Hist. Pis. 3:169. 1874. 

" Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 736. 1879. (Polanisia icosandra) 
"Royle, J. F. Illustr. Bot. Himal. 1:73. 1839. 
"Baillon, H. Hisl. Pis. 3:169. 1874. 
" Speede Ind. Handb. Card. 50. 1842. Supplement. 


Clerodendron serratum Spreng. Verbenaceae. 

Tropical India and Burma. Its flowers and leaves are eaten.^ 

Clethra tinifolia Sw. Ericaceae, soap-wood, sweet pepper, wild pear. 

Tropical America, Jamaica and southern Brazil. In Jamaica the trees bear a green, 
roundish berry of which the piilp is sweet, white, mealy and includes a hard, brownish- 
black stone. These berries are gathered and eaten as a pleasant dessert.* 

Cleyera theoides Choisy. Ternsiroemiaceae. 

West Indies. Henfrey ' says the leaves of this plant fxxmish a tea in Panama. 

CGdemia sp.? Melastomaceae. indian currant. 

Tropical America. A genus of shrubs the berry of which is fleshy and edible.* 

C. dependens D. Don. 

Peru. This shrub furnishes a gooseberry-like fruit of little value.' 

Cliffortia ilicifolia Linn. Rosaceae. evergreen oak. 

South Africa. The leaves have been used in Africa as a tea substitute.^ 

Clinogyne dichotoma Salisb. Scitamineae. maranta 

East Indies and Malays. The maranta is cultivated in the East Indies for arrowroot.' 

Clitoria tematea Linn. Leguminosae. butterfly pea. 

Mountains of Madagascar and Mauritius. In the Philippines, the pods are sometimes 
eaten.' In Amboina, the flowers are used to tinge boiled rice a cerulean color.' 

Cnicus eriophorus Roth. Compositae. 

Europe and Asia Minor. This thistle is said to have been cultivated by M. Lecoq'" 
in France and is pronounced by him a savory vegetable. The receptacles of this plant, 
says Lightfoot," are pulpy and esculent, like those of the artichoke. 

C. oleraceus Linn. 

Northern Europe and Asia. The leaves of this thistle are cooked and eaten by the 
Russians.!'' In France, it is in flower gardens." The plant is included among vegetables 

' Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 739. 1879. 

' Lunan, J. Hort. Jam. 1:65. 1814. 

' Henfrey, A. Bol. 230. 1870. (Freziera theoides) 

* Syme, J. T. Treas. Bot. 1:298. 1870. 

'Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. i$i. 1859. {Melastoma spicatum) 

Card. Chron. 20 : 766. 1 883. 

' Masters, M. T. Treas. Bot. 2:720. 1870. {Maranta ramosissima) 
' Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 606. 1879. 

Ambank U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 655. 1851. (Cirsium eriophorum) 
" Lightfoot, J. F/. 5co/. 1:455. 1789. 
Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 784. 1879. 
" Vilmorin F/. P/. Ter. 275. 1870. 3rd Ed. {Cirsium eriophorum) 

i8o sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

by Vilmorin,' although he says it does not appear to be cultivated. The swollen rootstock, 
gathered before the plant flowers, was formerly used as a table-vegetable. It does not 
appear to have ever reached American gardens. 

C. palustris Willd. 

Europe and Asia Minor. In Evel5m's time, the stalks were employed, as were those 
of the milk-thistle, for food.' Lightf oot ' says the stalks are esculent, after being peeled and 

C. serratuloides Roth. 

Siberia. The roots are eaten.* 

C. virginianus Pursh. 

North America. The roots are about the size of carrots, are sweet and well flavored 
but require a long preparation. They are eaten by the western Indians.^ 

Coccinia indica Wight & Am. Cucurbitaceae. scarlet-fruited gourd. 

Tropical Asia. The fruit of this plant, so common in every hedge, is eaten by the 
natives in their curries and when fully ripe is eaten by birds.' 

C. moimoi M. Roem. 

Tropical Arabia and Africa. The fruit' is eaten.' 

Coccoloba uvifera Linn. Polygonaceae. kino, seaside grape. 

Shores of the West Indies and neighboring portions of tropical America. Its fruit 
is eatable and commonly sold in markets but is not much esteemed.* As grown in India, 
the fruit is reddish-purple, pear-shaped, sweetish-acid and is borne in drooping racemes. 
The fruit consists of the fleshy perianth which encloses a solitary seed.' 

Cocculus cebatha DC. Menispermaceae. 

A woody vine of tropical Arabia. The ripe berries are acrid but edible, and a spirituous 
liquor is obtained from them.'* 

C. limacia DC. 

Eastern Asia. The berries are acid and edible." 

Cochlearia armoracia Linn. Cruciferae. horseradish, red cole. 

Europe. This well-known condimental plant is indigenous to eastern Europe from 

' Vilmorin Le5 Pii. Potog. 157. 1883. 

' Johnson, C. P. Usejvl Pis. Gt. Brit. 150. 1862. 

Lightfoot, J. Fl. Scot. 1:454- 1789. 

* Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 793. 1879. (Cirsium serratuloides) 

' Fremont Explor. Exped. 146, 159. 1845. (^Cirsium virginianum) 

Wight, R. Illustr. Bot. 2:27. 1850. 

' Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. $go. 1879. (Turia moghadd) 

Lindley, J. Med. Econ. Bot. 126. 1849. 

' Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 373. 1874. 
' Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 712. 1879. 
"Royle, J. P. Illustr. Bot. Himal. 1:62. 1839. 


sturtevant's notes on edible plants i8i 

the Caspian through Russia and Poland to Finland and is now spontaneous in the United 
States. Both the leaves and roots were eaten in Germany during the Middle Ages but 
their use was not common in England until a much later period. This plant cannot be 
identified with certainty with the armoracia of the Romans.^ If it be the armoracia of 
Palladius,^ which is a wild plant transferred to the garden, it is very curious that its use 
is not mentioned by Apicius ' in his work on cookery, of the same century. Zanonius * 
deems horseradish to be the draba of Dioscorides. It seems to be the raphanus of 
Albertus Magnus,* who lived in the thirteenth century; he speaks of the plant as wild and 
domesticated, but its culture then was probably for medicinal purposes alone, as indicated 
by him. Its cultiu-e in Italy, in 1563, is implied by Ruellius ^ under the name armoracia 
but Castor Durante,' 161 7, does not describe it. In Germany, its culture as a condimental 
plant is mentioned by Fuchsius,* 1542, and by later writers. In 1587, Dalechamp ' speaks 
of its culture in Germany but does not mention it in France. L5rte,"' 1586, mentions the 
wild plant and its uses as a condiment in England but does not imply culture. Horse- 
radish, though known in England as red cole in 1568, is not mentioned by Ttirner " as used 
in food, nor is it noticed by Boorde,'^ 1542, in his chapter on edible roots in the Dyetary of 
Helth. Gerarde " speaks of it as used by the Germans, and Coles, in Adam in Eden, states 
that the root sliced thin and mixed with vinegar is eaten as a sauce with meat as among 
the Germans." In the United States, horseradish is in general cultivation for market 
purposes. It was included by McMahon,'* 1806, in his list of garden esculents. 

C. danica Linn. 

Northern and Arctic regions. This species is employed as a salad plant.^* 

C. macrocarpa Waldst. & Eat. 

Himgary and Transylvania. The root may be used as a horseradish but it is less 

C. officinalis Linn, scurvy grass, spoonwort. 

Arctic regions. This species is used occasionally as a cress and is cultivated in gardens 

1 De Candolle, A. Orig. Pis. Cult. 34. 1885. 
' Palladius lib. 4, c. 9; lib. II, c, 2; lib. 12, c. 6. 
' Apicius Opson. 1709. 

Zanonius Stirp. Hist. t. 15, p. 23. 1742. 

Albertus Magnus Veg. lib. 6, tract 2, c. 16. 1867. Jessen Ed. 

Ruellius Nat. Stirp. 466. 1536. 
' Durante, C. Herb. 1617. 

Fuchsius Hist. Stirp. 660. 1542. 

Dalechamp Hist. Gen. PL (Lugd.) 636. 1587. 
' Dodoens Herb. 688. 1586. Lyte Ed. 

" Fluckiger and Hanbury Pharm. 66. 1879. 
" Ibid. 

" Gerarde, J. Herb. 242. 1633 or 1636. 2nd Ed. 
" Fluckiger and Hanbury Pharm. 66. 1879. 
McMahon, B. Amer. Card. Cal. 582. 1806. 
" Unger, F. V. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 356. 1859. 
" Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 1:188. 1831. 


for that purpose. It is a common plant in some parts of Scotland, and Lightfoot * says 
" it is eaten in sallads as an antiscorbutic." It serves as a scurvy grass in Alaska.* 

Cocos australis Mart. Palmae. 

Paraguay. This palm bears a fruit somewhat the shape and size of an acorn, with 
a pointed tip and is of a beautiful golden-yellow color somewhat tinged or spotted with 
red when ripe. At maturity, it is soft and pulpy, the flesh yellow, succulent and somewhat 
fibrous. The flavor is delicious, resembling that of a pineapple.' 

C. butjrracea Linn. f. oil palm, wine palm. 

South America. This is the paltna de vino of the Magdalena. This tree is cut down 
and a cavity excavated in its trunk near the top. In three days, this cavity is found filled 
with a yellowish- white juice, very limpid, with a sweet and vinous flavor. During i8 
or 20 days, the palm-tree wine is daily collected; the last is less sweet but more alcoholic 
and more highly esteemed. One tree yields as much as 18 bottles of sap, each bottle 
containing 42 cubic inches, or about three and a quarter gallons.* 

C. coronata Mart. 

Brazil. This species yields a pith, which the Indians n^ke into bread, and a nut from 
which an oil is extracted.* 

C. nucifera Linn, cocoanut. 

Tropics. The centers of the geographical range of this palm are the islands and 
countries bordering the Indian and Pacific oceans ^ but it is now extensively cultivated 
throughout the tropics. About 1330, it was described in India, and quite correctly too, 
under the name of nargil, by Friar Jordanus.' In 1524, the cocoanut was seen by Pizarro * 
in an Indian coast village of Peru. In the vicinity of Key West and as far north as Jupiter 
Inlet, the cocoanut is foimd, having been first introduced about 1840 by the wrecking 
of a vessel that threw a quantity of these nuts upon the beach. Thirty species of cocoanut 
are said by Simmonds ' to be described ' and named in the East. Firminger '" mentions 
ten varieties in India. Captain Cook found several sorts at Batavia. Ellis '' says there 
are many varieties in Tahiti. The nuts are much used as a food. When the embryo is 
unformed, the fruit furnishes sweet pakn-milk, a further development supplies a white, 
sweet and aromatic kernel; it finally becomes still firmer and then possesses a pleasant, 
sweet oil. In the Fiji Islands, the kernel of the old nut is scraped, pressed through a 
grater, and the pulp thus formed is mixed with grasses and scented woods and suffered 

' Lightfoot, J. Fl. Scot. 1:343. 1789. 

Dall, W. H. U. S. D. A. Rpt. 187. 1868. {C. fenestrata) 

' Garden 11. 1876. 

'Humboldt, A. rrap. 3:210. 1889. 

'Seemann, B. Pop. Hist. Palms 173. 1856. 

Seemann, B. Pop. Hist. Palms 157. 1856. 

' Jordanus, Fr. Wonders, East 1330. Hakl. Soc. Ed. 15. 1863. 

' Prescott, W. H. Conq. Peru 1:218. i860. 

Simmonds, P. L. Trop. Agr. 229, 230. 1889. 

"Firminger, T. A. C. Card. Ind. 269. 1874. 

"Ellis, W. Polyn. Research. 1:57. 1833. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 183 

to stand in the sun, which causes the oil to rise to the top, when it is skimmed ofiE. The 
residuum, called kora, is pounded or mashed, wrapped in banana leaves and then buried 
under salt water covered with piles of stones. This preparation is a common food of the 
natives.! Toddy or palm-wine, is also made frbm the sap of the flower-spathes. 

C. oleracea Mart, iraiba palm. 

Brazil. The leaf-buds, or cabbages, are edible.^ 

C. ventricosa Arruda. 

Brazil. The oily pulp of the fruit and the almond of the inner stone is eaten and 
is sold in the markets. The pith contains a fecula which is extracted in times of want 
and is eaten.' 

Codiaeum variegattun Blume. Euphorbiaceae. 
India. This species is used as a vegetable.* 

Coffea arabica Linn. Rubiaceae. coffee. 

Arabia and African tropics. This shrub is found wild in Abyssinia' and in the Sudan 
where it forms forests.' It is mentioned as seen from the mid-Niger to Sierra Leone and 
from the west coast to Monrovia. In the territory west of Braganza, says Livingstone,' 
wild coffee is abundant, and the people even make their huts of coffee trees. On or about 
the equator, says Grant,* the m'wanee, or coffee, is cultivated in considerable quantities 
but the berry is eaten raw as a stimulant, never drunk in an infusion by the Wanyambo. 
The Ugundi, says Long,' never make a decoction of coffee but chew the grain raw; 
this is a general custom. The Unyoro, says Burton,*" have a plantation of coffee about 
almost every hut door. According to the Arabian tradition, says Krapf," the civet-cat 
brought the coffee-bean to the mountains of the Arusi and Ilta-Gallas, where it grew and 
was long odtivated, until an enterprising merchant carried the coffee plant, five hundred 
years ago, to Arabia where it soon became acclimated. 

About the fifteenth century, writes PhiUips," the use of coffee appears to have been 
introduced from Persia to Aden on the Red Sea. It was progressively used at Mecca, 
Medina, and Cairo; hence it continued its progress to Damascus and Aleppo. From 
these two places, it was introduced into Constantinople in the year 1554. Rauwolf," 
who was in the Levant in 1573, was the first European author who made any men- 

1 Wilkes, C. U. S. Explor. Exped. 3:334. 1845. 

' Seemann, B. Pop. Hist. Palms 180. 1856. 

Koster, H. Trav. Braz. 2:366. 1817. 

Unger, P. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 359. 1859. (C. chrysosticton) 

' De Candolle, A. P. Geog. Bot. 2:969. 1855. 


'Livingstone, D. Trav. Research. So. Air. 466. 1858. 

' Speke, J. H. Journ. Disc. Source Nile 571. 1864. 

Long, C. C. Cent. Afr. 142. 1877. 

" Burton, R. F. Lake Reg. Cent. Afr. 399. i860. 

" Krapf Trav. East Afr. 47. 

Phillips, H. Comp. Orck. 104. 1831. 

"Phillips, H. Comp. Orch. Z05. 1831. 


tion of coffee, but the first who has particularly described it, is Prosper Alpinus,' 1591, 
and 1592. The Venetians seem to be the next who used coffee. This beverage was 
noticed by two English travellers at the beginning of the seventeenth century, Biddulph * 
about 1603 and William Finch ' in 1607. Lord Bacon * mentions it in 1624. M. Theve- 
not' taught the French to drink coffee on his return from the East in 1657. It was 
fashionable and more widely known in Paris in 1669. Coffee is said to have been first 
brought to England in 1641, but Evelyn * says in his diary, 1637. It was first publicly 
known in London in 1652. According to other accotints, the custom of drinking coffee 
originated with the Abyssinians, by whom the plant had been cultivated from time imme- 
morial, and was introduced to Aden in the early part of the fifteenth century, whence its 
use gradually extended over Arabia. 

Towards the end of the seventeenth century, the Dutch transported the plant to 
Batavia, and thence a plant was sent to the botanic gardens at Amsterdam, where it 
was propagated, and in 17 14 a tree was presented to Louis XIV. A tree was imported 
into the Isle of Bourbon in 1720. One account asserts that the French introduced it to 
Martinique in 1 7 1 7 and another states that the Dutch had previously taken it to Surinam. 
It reached Jamaica in 1728. It seems certain that we are indebted to the progeny of a 
single plant for all the coffee now imported from Brazil and the West Indies. It was 
introduced to Celebes in 1822.' In Java and Sumatra, the leaves of the coffee plant are 
used as a substitute for coffee.* In 1879, four trees were known to have been grown and 
successfully fruited in Florida. 

C. liberica Hiem. liberian coffee. 

Tropical Africa. This seems to be a distinct species, which furnishes the Liberian 
coffee. It was received in Trinidad from Kew Gardens, England, in 1875.' 

Coix lacryma-jobi Linn. Gramineae. job's tears. 

Tropical Asia. The seeds may be ground to flour and made into a coarse but nourish- 
ing bread which is utilized in times of scarcity." 

Cola acuminata Schott & Endl. Sterculiaceae. colanut. gooranut. kolanut. 

Tropical Africa. This tree, a native of tropical Africa, is cultivated in Brazil and 
the West Indies. Under the name of cola or kolla or goora-nuts, the seeds are 
extensively used as a sort of condiment by the natives of western and central tropical 
Africa and likewise by the negroes in the West Indies and Brazil." There are several 

Phillips, H. Comp. Orch. 105. 1831. 
> Ibid. 

* Ibid. 

'Phillips, H. Comp. Orch. 106. 1831. 


' Wallace, A. R. Malay Arch. 251. 1869. 

' Hanbury, D. Sci. Papers 84. 1876. 

Prestoe Rpt. Bol. Card. Trinidad 21. 1 880, 
"> Long Hist. Jam. 3 : 83 1 . 1 774. 
"Smith, A. Treas. Bol. i-.iii. 1870. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 185 

varieties. Father Carli 1 noticed them in Congo in 1667 under the name of colla. Barth ^ 
says the chief article of African produce in the Kano markets is the guro or kolanut, which 
forms an important article of trade and which has become to the natives as necessary 
as coffee or tea is to us. The nuts contain the alkaloid thein. A small piece of one of 
their seeds is chewed before each meal as a promoter of digestion; it is also supposed to 
improve the flavor of anything eaten after it or, as Father Carli ' says, " they have a little 
bitterness but the water drank after makes them very sweet." This plant was introduced 
into Martinique about 1836. Its amylaceous seeds, of a not very agreeable taste, are 
much sought after by the negroes.* 

Colea telfairii Boj. Bignoniaceae. 
Madagascar. The fruit is eaten. 

Coleus aromaticus Benth. Labiatae. coleus. country borage. 

East Indies. This is the covmtry borage of India. Every part of the plant is delight- 
fully fragrant, and the leaves are frequently eaten and mixed with various articles of food 
in India.* In Burma, it is in common use as a potherb. A purple coleus was observed 
in cultivation in northern Japan by Miss Bird,' the leaves of which are eaten as spinach. 

C. barbatus Benth. 

East Indies and tropical Africa. About Bombay, this species is commonly cultivated 
in the gardens of the natives for the roots, which are pickled.'' 

C. spicatus Benth. 

East Indies. Wilkinson * quotes Pliny as saying that the Egyptians grew this plant 
for making chaplets and for food. 

Colocasia antiquorum Schott. Aroideae. dasheen. taro. 

Tropical Asia. This is very probably an Indian plant, as it is cultivated in the whole 
of central Asia in very numerous varieties and has a Sanscrit name. It was carried west- 
ward in the earliest times and is cultivated in the delta of Egypt tmder the name of Quolkas.^ 
Clusius, writing in 1601, had seen it in Portugal. The Spaniards are said to call it alcoleaz 
and to have received it from Africa.'" Boissier " cites it as common in middle Spain. Lunan '^ 
says there are several varieties cultivated in Jamaica which are preferred by the negroes 

' Churchill CoW. Foy. 1:501. 1744. 

'Barth, H. Trav. Disc. No., Cent. Afr. 1:514. 1857. 

Churchill CoW. Foy. 1:501. 1744. 

* Berlanger Trans. N. Y. Agr. Soc. 568. 1858. (Sterculia acuminata) 
' Drury, H. Useful Pis. Ind. 154. 1873. 

* Bird Unheal. Tracks Jap. 1:175. 1881. 

' Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 732. 1879. 

Wilkinson, J. G. Anc. Egypt. 2:7,^. 1854. (Ocymum zatarhendi) 

' De CandoUe, A. Geog. Bot. 2:817. 1855. {Arum colocasia) 



'^Lxxna.n Hort. Jam. 1:212. 1814. 

1 86 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

to yams. In 1844, this species was cultivated by Needham Davis ^ of South Carolina, 
who says one acre of rich, damp soil will produce one thousand bushels by the second 
year. In India, colocasias are universally cultivated and the roots are without acrimony.* 
The tubers, says Firminger,' resemble in outward appearance those of the Jerusalem arti- 
choke. They are not in great request with Europeans in Bengal where potatoes may 
be had all the year through but in the Northwest Provinces, where potatoes are vmobtain- 
able during the simimer months, they are much consumed in the way of a substitute. 
Their flavor is not vmlike salsify. The plant is cultivated extensively by the Polynesians, 
who call it taro; the tubers are largely consvmied and the young leaves are eaten as a 

C. antiquorum esculenta Schott. elephant's ear. kalo. taro. 

This plant is largely grown in Tahiti, and Ellis ' says the natives have distinct names 
for 33 of the varieties. Nordoff ' says more than 30 varieties of kalo are cultivated in 
the Hawaiian Islands and adds that all the kinds are acrid except one which is so 
mild that it may be eaten raw. Simpson ' says, " Kalo forms the principal food of the 
lower class of the Sandwich Islanders and is cultivated with great care in small enclosures 
kept wet." From the root a sort of paste called poi is made. Masters * says it is called 
taro, and the rootstocks furnish a staple diet. It is also grown in the Philippines ' and 
is enumerated by Thunberg '" among the edible plants of Japan. In Jamaica, Sloane " 
says the roots are eaten as potatoes, but the chief use of the vegetable, says Lunan,'^ is 
as a green, and it is as delicate, wholesome, and agreeable a one as any in the world. In 
soup it is excellent, for such is the tenderness of the leaves that they, in a manner, 
dissolve and afford a rich, pleasing and mucilaginous ingredient. It is very generally 
cultivated in Jamaica. Adams " found the boiled leaves very palatable in the Philippines 
but the uncooked leaves were so acrid as to be poisonous. At Hongkong, the tubers are 
eaten under the name of cocoas. In Europe and America it is grown as an ornamental 

C. indica Hassk. 

Southern Asia. This plant is adtivated in Bengal for its esculent stems and the 
small, pendulous tubers of its root, which are eaten by people of all ranks in their curries." 

' Davis, N. Trans. N. Y. Agr. Soc. 517. 1845. 

'Royle, J. F. lilustr. Bot. Himal. 1:406. 1839. 

'Firminger, T. A. C. Card. Ind. iii. 1874. 

Seemann, B. Fl. Viti. 285. 1865-73. 

'Ellis, W. Polyn. Research. 1:48. 1833. 

' Nordhoff, C. No. Cat., Sandwich Is. 253. 1874. Notes. 

' Simpson, G. Journ. Around World 2:33. 1847. 

Masters, M. T. Treas. Bo/. 1:315. 1870. 

Adams, A. Voy. Samarang 2:32^. 1848. 
Thunberg, C. P. Fl. Jap. 234. 1784. {Arum escvlentum) 
" Sloane, H. Nat. Hist. Jam. 1:167. I707- (Arum minus) 
" Lunan, J. Horl. Jam. 1:415. 1814. 
" Adams, A. Voy. Samarang 2:331). 1848. 
" Wight, R. Icon. Pis. 3:794. Bears no date. (Arum indica) 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 187 

Royle ' says it is much cultivated about the huts of the natives. It is also cultivated 
in Brazil ^ and is found in East Australia. The acridity is expelled from this plant by 

Combretum butyrostun Tul. Combretaceae. butter tree. 

Tropical Africa. The Kaffirs call the fatty substance obtained from the fruit chiquito. 
It is largely used by them as an admixture to their food and is also exported.* 

CommeUna angustifolia? Commelinaceae. 

The rhizomes contain a good deal of starch mixed with mucilage and are therefore 
fit for food when cooked.' 

C. coelestis Willd. blue spiderwort. 

Mexico. The rhizomes are used as food in India. 
C. communis Linn. 

China. In China, this plant is much cultivated as a potherb, which is eaten in 

C. latifolia Hochst. 

Abyssinia. It is used as a potherb.' 

C. striata? 

The rhizomes are suitable for food.' 

Comocladia integrifolia Jacq. Anacardiaceae. burn-wood, maiden plum, papaw- 


Tropical America. Lunan '" says the fruit is eatable but not inviting. The maiden 
plum of the West Indies, says Morris," is grown as a fruit in the Public Gardens of Jamaica. 

Conanthera bifolia Ruiz & Pav. Haemodoraceae. 

Chile. The natives of the cotmtry make use of the root of this plant in their soups 
and it is very pleasant to the taste. Molina " says the bulbs, when boiled or roasted, 
are an excellent food. It is called illmu. 

Condalia mexicana Schlecht. Rhamneae. 

Northern Mexico. The berries are similar to those of C. obovata.^^ 

' Royle, J. F. Illustr. Bot. Himal. 1:407. 1839. 

' Masters, M. T. Treoi. 5o/. 1:315. 1870. 

MueUer, F. Sel. Pis. 125. 1891. 

*MueUer, F. Sel. Pis. 126. 1891. 

< Lindley, J. Veg. King. 188. 1853. 

Henfrey, A. Bot. 380. 1870. 

' Smith, F. P. Contrib. Mat. Med. China 69. 1871. (Commelyna polygama) 

' Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 466. 1879. 

Lindley, J. Veg. King. 1%%. 1853. 
" Lunan, J. Hort, Jam. I'.^y^. 1814. 
" Morris Rpt. Pub. Card. Jam. 35. 1880. 
"Molina ifii/. CMi 1:96. 1808. {Bermudiana bulbosa) 
"Havard, V. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 509. 1885. 


C. obovata Hook, blue-wood, texan logwood. 

Texas. This plant is a shrub of San Antonio, Texas and westward. The small, 
deep red berry is acidulous, edible and is used in jellies.' 

C. spathulata A. Gray. 

Western Texas. The berries are similar to those of C. obovata." 

Conferva sp. Confervae. 

Green cakes are made of the slimy river confervae in Japan, which, pressed and dried, 
are used as food. 

Conium maculatum Linn. Umbelliferae. herb bennet. poison hemlock. 

Europe and the Orient. Poison hemlock has become naturalized in northeastern 
America from Europe. Although poisonous, says Carpenter,' in the south of England, 
it is comparatively harmless in London and is eaten as a potherb by the peasants of Russia. 

Conopodium denudatum Koch. Umbelliferae. arnut. earth chestnut, jurnut. 

KIPPERNUT. pignut. 

Western Evirope. The small, tuberous roots of this herb, when boiled or roasted, 
are available for food and are known as earth chestnuts.* In England, says Don,^ the 
tubers are frequently dug and eaten by children. When boiled, they are very pleasant. 
The roots, says Johnson,* are edible but are little eaten in England except by children. 

Convolvulus arvensis Linn. Convohulaceae. field bindweed. 

Old World tropics, middle Asia and naturalized in America from Europe. This 
plant gives its flavor to the liquor called noyeau, imported from Martinique, according 
to Lindley.^ It reached Philadelphia in 1876 in the packing of exhibits at the Centennial. 

Copaifera coleosperma Benth. Leguminosae. 

Tropical Africa. The aril is used in preparing a nourishing drink.' 

C. hymenaeifolia Moric. 

Cuba. This species is said to be the mosibe of eastern tropical Africa, a tree which 
yields a red-skinned, fattening, bean-like seed.' 

Corchorus acutangulus Lam. Tiliaceae. 

Cosmopolitan tropics. This plant is the papau ockroe of the Barbados and is eaten 
by the negroes as a salad and potherb.'" 

' Havard, V. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 509. 1885. 


Carpenter, W. B. Veg. Phys. Bot. 203. 1850. 

* MueUer, F. Set. Pis. 126. 1891. 

Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 3:291. 1834. 

* Johnson, C. P. Useful Pis. Gt. Brit. 114. 1862. {Bunium flexuosum) 
' Lindley, J. Med. Econ. Bot. 209. 1849. (C. dissectus) 

Masters. M. T. Treas. Bot. 2:1282. 1876. 

rrM. Bot. 2:1319. 1876. - 

" De Candolle, A. Geog. Bot. 2:102b. 1855. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 189 

C. antichorus Raeusch. 

Old World tropics. The whole plant is boiled as a potherb.' 
C. capsularis Linn. jute. 

Cosmopolitan tropics. This plant is extensively cultivated in Bengal for its fiber, 
which forms one of the jutes of commerce so extensively exported from Calcutta.^ It 
was introduced into the United States shortly before 1870 and placed under experimental 
culture,' and, in 1873, favorable reports of its success came from many of the southern 
states. Th young shoots are much used as a potherb in Egypt and in India.* 
C. olitorius Linn, corchorus. jew's mallow. 

Cosmopolitan tropics. This plant yields some of the jute of commerce but is better 
known as a plant of the kitchen in tropical countries. It is cultivated in Egypt, India 
and in France. In Aleppo, it is grown by the Jews, hence the name, Jew's mallow. The 
leaves are used as a potherb.' 

It is mentioned by Pliny * among Egyptian potherbs, and Alpinus,' 1592, says that 
no herb is more commonly used among the Egyptian foods. Forskal * also mentions its 
cultivation in Egypt and notes it among the cultivated esculents of Arabia. In India, 
it occurs wild and the leaves are gathered and eaten as spinach.' In tropical Africa, it 
is both spontaneous and cultivated as a vegetable *" and it is in the vegetable gardens of 
Mauritius." In Jamaica, the plant is frequently met with in gardens but has, in a great 
measure, ceased to be cultivated, although the leaves are used as a spinach.'^ It is now 
cultivated in French gardens for its young leaves, which are eaten in salads.'' It is 
recorded by Btur" as in American gardens in 1863 but the plant seems not to have been 
mentioned by other writers as growing in this country. 
C. procumbens Boj. 

Tropical Africa. This plant was carried to the Mauritius where it is cultivated in 
kitchen gardens.'* 
C. siliquosus Linn, broom-weed. 

Tropical America. This plant is called ti by the inhabitants of Panama who use 
its leaves as a tea substitute." 

' Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 1:542. 1831. (Antichorus depressus) 

'Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 57. 1876. 

U. S. D. A. Rpt. 15. 1870. 

'Smith, A. Treas. Bot. 1:329. 1870. 


' Bostock and Riley Nat. Hist. Pliny 4:349. 1856. 

' Alpinius PI. Aegypt. 39. 1592. 

'Forskal Fl. Aeg. Arab, xciii, loi. 1775. 

' Speede Ind. Handb. Card. 155. 1842. (C. obtorius) 

'"Oliver, D. Fl. Trap. Afr. 1:262. 1 868. 

" Bojer, W. Hart. Maurit. 42. 1837. 

"Macfadyen /om. 1:108. 1837. 

" Vilmorin Lei Ph. Potag. 168. 1883. 

"Burr, F. Field, Card. Veg. 338. 1863. 

" Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. 380. 1879. 

"Smith, A. Treas. Bat. \:t,29. 1870. 



C. tridens Linn. 

Cosmopolitan tropics. It is used as a potherb in Egypt.* 

C. tiilocularis Linn. 

Old World tropics. In Arabia this plant is used as a potherb.' It is used as a pot- 
herb in Sennaar and Cordova, where it is native.* 

Cordia collococca Linn. Boragineae. clammy cherry. 

Jamaica. The fruit is red, with a sweetish pulp and is edible. 

C. loureiri Roem. et Schiilt. 

China. The drupe is red, small, acid and edible.* 

C. myza Linn. Assyrian plum. selu. 

Tropical Asia and Australia. The tender, young fruit is eaten as a vegetable and 
is pickled in India. The ripe fruit is also eaten. The kernel tastes somewhat like a filbert 
and that of the cultivated tree is better.^ 

C. obUqua Willd. 

Tropical India. The yotmg fruit is pickled and is also eaten as a vegetable.' 

C. rothii Roem. et Schult. 

Western India. The fruit is eaten.' 

C. sebestena Linn. 

Tropical America. The plant bears a mucilaginous, edible fruit. Nuttall ' says it 
has been observed growing at Key West, Florida. 

C. vestita Hook. f. & Thoms. 

Himalayan region. The fruit is filled with a gelatinous pulp, which is eaten and is 
preferred to that of C. myxa.^ 

CordyUne indivisa Steud. Liliaceae. dracaena. ti. 

New Zealand. The berries are eaten by the New Zealanders.*" 

C. terminalis Kvmth. dracaena. ti. 

Tropical Asia and Australia. This plant, common in the islands of the Papuan 
Archipelago, is there cultivated. In the Samoan Islands, some 20 varieties, mostly edible, 
are distinguished by name." The thick, fleshy roots contain large quantities of saccharine 

' Unger, F. U. S.- Pat. Off. Rpt. 355. 1859. 
'Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 1:542. 1831. 
' Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 356. 1859. 

* Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 4:376. 1838. 
' Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 336. 1874. 

Drury, H. Useful Pis. Ind. 158. 1873. 

' Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 594. 1879. 
Nuttall, T. No. Amer. Sylva 2:147. 
Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 338. 1874. 
> Unger, P. U. <?. Pat. Off. Rpt. 347. 
" Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 438. 



(C. angustiiolia) 

(Dracaena indivisa) 
{Dracaena terminalis) 


matter and, when baked, become very agreeable to the taste.' The baked ti root, says 
ElHs,^ macerated in water, is fermented and then a very intoxicating Hquor is obtained 
from it by distillation. The large, tuberous roots are eaten by the natives of Viti.' The 
tuberous root often weighs from 10 to 14 pounds and, after being baked on hot stoves, 
much resembles in taste and degree of sweetness stock licorice. The Fijians chew it, or 
use it to sweeten puddings.^ The root is roasted and eaten.^ 

Coriandrum sativum Linn. Umbelliferae. coriander. 

Southern Exirope and the Orient. The seeds of this plant were used as a spice by 
the Jews and the Romans. The plant was well known in Britain prior to the Norman 
conquest and was employed in ancient English medicine and cookery.' Coriander was 
cultivated in American gardens prior to 1670.' The seeds are carminative and aromatic 
and are used for flavoring, in confectionery and also by distillers. The young leaves 
are put into soups and salads. In the environs of Bombay, the seeds are much used by 
the Musselmans in their curries.* They are largely used by the natives of India as a 
condiment and with betelnuts and pau leaves.' In Burma, the seeds are used as a condi- 
ment in curries.'" The ripe fruits of coriander have served as a spice and a seasoning from 
very remote times, its seeds having been found in Egyptian tombs of the twenty-first 
dynasty;" a thousand or so years later, Pliny '^ says the best coriander came to Italy from 
Egypt. Cato,"' in the third century before Christ, recommends coriander as a seasoning; 
Colimiella," in the first century of our era and Palladius,'^ in the third, direct its planting. 
The plant was well known in Britain prior to the Norman conquest '^ and was carried to 
Massachusetts before 1670.'' In China, it can be identified in an agricultural treatise of 
the fifth century and is classed as activated by later writers of the sixteenth and eighteenth 
centuries.'* In Cochin China, it is recorded as less grown than in China.'' In India, it 
is largely used by the natives as a condiment."" Coriander has reached Paraguay and is 

'Wilkes, C. U. S. Explor. Exped. 3:337. 1845. 
EUis, W. Polyn. Research. 2:102. 1833. {Dracaena iermtTialis) 
Seemann, B. Fl. Viti. 311. 1865-73. 
* Ibid. 

'Mueller, P. Sel. Ph. 129. 1891. 
' Pluckiger and Hanbury Pharm. 293. 1879. 
' Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 142. 1879. 
> Ibid. 

Dutt, U. C. Mat. Med. Hindus 175. 1877. 
'0 Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 142. 1889. 
^^ Nature 113. 1883. 
" Pliny lib. 20, c. 82. 
" Cato c. 157. 

'< Columella lib. 6, c. 33; lib. 10, c. 244; lib. 11, c. 3. 
'' Palladius lib. 3, c. 24; lib. 4, c. 9, etc. 
" Pluckiger and Hanbury Pharm. 329. 1879. 
" Josselyn, J. New Eng. Rar. 146. 1865. 
" Bretschneider, E. So/. 5t. 78, 59, 85. 1882. 
" Loureiro Fl. Cochin. 180. 1790. 
Dutt, U. C. Mat. Med. Hindus 175. 1877. 


in especial esteon for condimental purposes in some parts of Peru.' Notwithstanding 
this extended period of ciiltivation, no indication of varieties tinder cultivation is found. 

Coriaria nepalensis Wall. Coriarieae. tanner's tree. 

Himalayan region and China. Brandis * says the fruit is eaten but is said to cause 
thirst or colic. J. Smith * says the fruit is eaten and is not unwholesome. 

C. ruscifolia Linn. deu. 

Peru and Chili. The baccate, fructiferous perianth yields a palatable, purple juice, 
ivhich is much liked by the natives and from which a kind of wine may be made, but the 
seeds are poisonous.* 

C. sarmentosa Forst. f. wineberry. 

New Zealand. The fruit affords a refreshing wine to the natives but the seeds are 
poisonous. It is called tutu.^ 

Comus amomum Mill. Cornaceae. kinnikinnik. 

North America. In Loioisiana, this plant is said by Rafinesque to have black fruit 
very good to eat. 

C. canadensis Linn, bunchberry. dwarf carnel. 

North America. This species occurs from Pennsylvania to Labrador on the east 
and to Sitka on the northwest. The scarlet berries are well known to children, being 
pleasant but without much taste. They are sometimes made into puddings.' 

C. capitata Wall. 

Himalayan region. This plant was introduced into English gardens about 1833 as 
an ornamental. The fruit is sweetish, mingled with a little bitter taste, and is eaten 
and made into preserves in India.* 

C. macrophylla Wall, large-leaved dogwood. 

Himalayan region, China and Japan. The round, smooth, small berries are eaten 
in India.' 

C. mas Linn, cornelian cherry, cornus. sorbet. 

Europe and Asia Minor. The cornelian cherry was formerly cultivated for its fruits 
which were used in tarts. There are animiber of varieties. De Candolle 1 mentions one 
with a yellow fruit. Duhamel " says there are three varieties in France and Germany; 

Johnson, C. P. Useful Pis. Gt. Brit. 125. 1862. 

' Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 128. 1876. 

Smith, J. Dom. Bot. 132. 1882. 

* Gray, A. Bot. U. S. Explor. Exped. 306. 1854. 

' Smith, J. Dom. Bot. 132. 1882. 

Rafinesque, C. S. Fl. La. y8. 1817. (C. polygamus) 

' Emerson, G. B. Trees, Shrubs Mass. 2:470. 1875. 

'Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 254. 1874. 

'Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 252. 1874. 

' De Candolle, A. Geog. Bot. 2:1083. 1855. 

" Loudon, J. C. Hort. 581. i860. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 193 

one with wax-colored fruit, another with white fruit and a third with fleshy, round fruit. 
Don ' says the fruit is gratefvdly acid and is called sorbet by the Turks. A. Smith ^ says 
the harsh, acid fruits are scarcely eatable but are sold in the markets in some parts of 
Germany to be eaten by children or made into sweetmeats and tarts. J. Smith ^ says the 
fruit is of a cornelian color, of the size of a small plimi, not very palatable, but is eaten 
in some parts as a substitute for olives; it is also preserved, is used in confectionery and, 
in Turkey, serves as a flavoring for sherbets. In Norway, the flowers are used for flavor- 
ing distilled*pirits. 

C. sanguinea Linn, cornel dogwood, dogberry. dogwood, pegwood. 

Europe and northern Asia. The fruit is said to contain a large quantity of oil used 
for the table and in brewing. 

C. stolonifera Michx. red-osier. 

North America. Thoreau * found the bark in use by the Indians of Maine for smok- 
ing, under the name magnoxigill, Indian tobacco. Nuttall ^ says the fruit, though bitter 
and unpalatable, is eaten by the Indians of the Missouri River. 

C. suecica Linn, kinnikinnik. 

North America. The berries are gathered in the autumn by the western Eskimo 
and preserved by being frozen in wooden boxes out of which they are cut with an axe.* 
In central New York, this plant is called kinnikinnik by the Indians.' 

Correa alba Andr. Rutaceae. 

Australia. Henfrey ' says the leaves are used by the Australian settlers for a tea. 

Corydalis bulbosa DC. Papaveraceae. fumewort. 

Northern Europe. This species has a tuberous root, which, when boiled, furnishes 
the Kalmuck Tartars with a starchy substance much eaten by them.' 

Corylus americana Walt. Cupuliferae. hazelnut. 

North America. This species bears well-flavored nuts but they are smaller and 
thicker shelled than the Eitropean hazel. The nuts are extensively gathered as a food 
by the Indians in some places.'" 

C. avellana Linn, cobnut, filbert, hazelnut. 

Europe and Asia Minor. This species includes not only the hazelnut but all of the 
European varieties of filbert. It was cultivated by the Romans, and Pliny says the name 

' Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 3:400. 1834. 
' Smith, A. Treas. Bot. i:m. 1870. 

Smith, J. Dom. Bot. 134. 1882. 

Thoreau Me. Woods 223. 1877. 

Nuttall, T. Gen. No. Amer. Pis. i:<)8. 1818. (C. canadensis) 
Seemann, B. A nthrop. Journ. 3: cccm. 1865. 
' Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 807. 1879. (C. sericea) 
Henfrey, A. .5o/. 246. 1870. 

Johnson, C. P. Useful Pis. Gt. Brit. 21. 1862. (C. solida) 
Brown, R. Bot. Soc. Edinb. 9:383. i858. 



is derived from Abellina in Asia, supposed to be the valley of Damascus. Pliny ' adds 
that it had been brought into Greece from Pontus, hence it was also called nux pontica. 
The nut was called by Theophrastus, heraclotic nuts, from Heraclea now Ponderachi 
on the Asiatic shore of the Black Sea. These ixames probably refer to particular varie- 
ties as the species is common in Europe and adjoining Asia. In Peacham's' Emblems, 
we find it stated that the name filbert is derived from Philibert, a king of France, who 
" caused by arte sundry kinds to be brought forth." There are a number of varieties. 
The best nuts come from Spain and are known as Barcelona nuts. Cobnuts and filberts 
are largely grown in Kent, England. In Kazan, Russia, the nuts are so plentiful that 
an oil used as food is expressed from them. Filberts were among the seeds mentioned 
in the Memorandimi ' of Mar. i6, 1629, to be sent to the Massachusetts Company and 
are now to be occasionally foimd in gardens in Virginia and elsewhere. 

C. columa Liim. cobnut. v 

Eastern Europe, Asia Minor and Himalayan region. This plant furnishes the 
imported cobnuts of Britain. The kernels form an important article of food in some 
parts of the hills of India.'' The nuts are known in England as cobnuts or Turkish nuts. 
This tree was carried from Pontus to Macedonia and Thrace and has been distributed 
throughout Italy. It was brought to Germany in the sixteenth century.' 

C. ferox Wall. 

Himalayan region. This species bears a small, thick-shelled nut, in taste like the 
common hazel. 

C. rostrata Ait. beaked hazelnut. 

Northeastern America. The plant bears a well-flavored nut. 

C. tubulosa Willd. Lambert's nut. lombardy-nut. 

Asia Minor and Southern Europe. This species furnishes the Lombardy, or Lam- 
bert's nut. 

Corynocarpus laevigata Forst. Anacardiaceae. new Zealand laurel. 

New Zealand. The pulp of the drupe of this tree is edible, but the embryo is con- 
sidered poisonous until steeped in salt water. Bennett ' says it is valued for its fruit and 
seeds, the former of the size of a plum, pulpy in the interior and sweet. The seeds are 
used in times of scarcity and contain a tasteless, farinaceous substance. The new seeds 
are, however, poisonous until steamed for a day and soaked. 

Corj^ha gebanga Bliime. Palmae. gebang palm. 

Malay. The pithy substance of the trunk yields a sort of sago.' 

' Thompson, R. Treas. Bot. 1:336. 1870. 
Disraeli Curios. Lit. 2:332. 1858. Note. 

Mass. Records i :24. 

* Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 494. 1876. 

' Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 321. 1859. 
Bennett, G. Gath. Nat. Austral. 346. i860. 
'Seemann, B. Pop. Hist. Palms 187. 1856. 


Costus speciosus Sm. Scitamineae. wild ginger. 

East Indies and Malay. Ainslie ' says the natives of India preserve the root and 
deem it very wholesome. Lunan^ says the roots of wild ginger are sometimes used as 
ginger but are not as good. Browne ' says this species is found everywhere in the woods 
of Jamaica. 

Cotyledon edulis Brewer. Crassulaceae. 

California. The young leaves are eaten by the Indians.* 

C. spinosa Linn. 

North America. The leaves are agreeably acid and are eaten.' 

C. umbilicus Linn, navelwort. 

Europe and the adjoining portions of Asia. This plant is classed by Loudon as a 

Couepia chrysocalyx Benth. Rosaceae. 

Brazil. This beautiftil tree is said by Mr. Spruce * to grow plentifully a.long the 
Amazon River from the Barra upward. The Indians plant it near their houses for the 
sake of its edible fruits. 

C. guianensis Aubl. 

Guiana. The seed is edible. The fruit contains a sweet oil like that of the almond." 

Couma utilis Muell. Apocynaceae. 

Brazil. This species bears a fruit known as couma which is said by Bates to be 
delicious. The fruit is a berry containing several seeds embedded in a pulp. 

Couroupita guianensis Aubl. Myrtaceae. cannon-ball tree. 

Guiana and Cayenne. The pulp of the fruit is vinous, white, acid and not 

Crambe cordifolia Stev. Cruciferae. colewort. 

Persia and the Caucasus to Thibet and the Himalayas. The root and foliage afford 
an esculent.' 

C. maritima Linn, sea kale, scurvy grass. 

This plant is found growing upon the sandy shores of the North Sea, the Atlantic 
Ocean and of the Mediterranean Sea. It appears to have been known to the Romans, 

' Ainslie, W. Mat. Ind. 2:165. 1826. 

Lunan, J. Hort. Jam. 2:281. 1814. 

Ainslie, W. Mat. Ind. 2: i6t. 1826. 

* Brewer and Watson Bot. CaL 1:211. 1880. 

' Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 812. 1879. (Sedum spinosum) 

Black, A. A. Treas. Bot. 1:341. 1870. 

' Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 2:^-j?,. 1832. {Acioa guianensis) 

Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 2:875. 1832. 

MueUer, F. Sel. Pis. 131. 1891. 


who gathered it in a wild state and preserved it in barrels for use during long voyages.^ 
Although Crambe is recorded by Pena and Lobel,' Dalechamp,' Gerarde,* and Ray ' as 
wild on the coast of Britain and as fit for food, yet it was brought into English culture 
from Italy,' a few years preceding 1765, and the seed sold at a high price as a rarity. In 
1778,' it is said to " be now cultivated in many gardens as a choice esculent;" in 1795,' 
it was advertised in the London market. According to Heu/.e,' it was first cultivated 
in France by Quintyne, gardener to Louis XIV, but it is not mentioned in Quintyne 
of 1693; it, however, is mentioned by the French works on gardening of 1824'" and 
onward. Parkinson notices it in England in 1629 and Bryant" does also, about 1783, 
but Philip Miller ^^ first wrote upon it as an esculent in 1731, saying the people of Sussex 
gather the wild plants in the spring. It is recorded that bundles of it were exposed for 
sale in the Chichester markets in 1753 but it was not known about London until 1767. 
In 1789, Lightfoot *' speaks of "the young leaves covered up with sand and blanched 
while growing," constituting when boiled a great delicacy. Sea kale is now very popular 
in English markets and is largely used in France, the blanched stems and leaf-stalks being 
the parts used. It is mentioned by McMahon,'* 1609, in his list of American esculents. 
In 1809, John Lowell, Roxbury, Massachusetts, cultivated it and in 1814 introduced it 
to the notice of the public. In 1828, Thorbum.'^in his seed catalog of that year, says 
it "is very little known in the United States, though a most excellent garden vegetable 
and highly deserving of cultivation." The same might be said now, although its seeds 
are advertised for sale in all leading seed lists. 

C. orientalis Linn. 

Asia Minor and Persia. Pallas " says the Russians use it. Its roots resemble those 
of horseradish, but they are often thicker than the himian arm. The root is dug for the 
use of the table as a substitute for horseradish, and the younger stalks may be dressed 
in the same manner as broccoli. 

C. tatarica Jacq. tartar bread-plant. 

Eastern Europe and northern Asia. This is a plant of the steppes region along the 

' Mcintosh Book Card. 103. 1855. 
' Pena and Lobel Advers. 92. 1570. 
' Dalechamp Hist. Gen. PI. (Lugd.) 526. 1587. 

* Gerarde, J. Herb. 248. 1597. 
' Ray Hist. PL 838. 1686. 

' Stevenson Gard. Kal. 22. 1765. 

' Ma we and Abercrombie Univ. Gard. Bot. 1778. 

' Gard. Chron. 2S:(>26. 1886. New Series. 

Heuze, G. Pis. Alim. 2:667. 1873. 
' PiroUe L'Hort. Franc. 1824. 

" Bryant Fl. Diet. 124. 1783. 

^ MiWet Gard. Diet. 1731. ist Ed. 

" Lightfoot, J. Fl. Scot. 1:364. 1789. 

" McMahon, B. Amer. Gard. Cat. 583. 1806. 

" Thorbum Cat. 86. 1828. 

" Pallas, P. S. Trav. Russia 1:373. 1802. 


Lower Danube, Dneiper and the Don. The root is fleshy, sweet and the thickness of 
a man's arm. It is eaten raw as a salad in Htmgary, as well as cooked, as is the case 
with the young shoots of the stem. In times of famine, it has been used as bread in Hun- 
gary and, says Unger,' it is probable that it was the chara caesaris which the soldiers of 
Julius Caesar used as bread. 

Craniolaria annua Linn. Pedalineae. 

Tropi|g.l America. The fleshy and sweet root is preserved in sugar by the Creoles 
as a delicacy.^ 

Crataegus aestivalis Torr & Gray. Rosaceae. Crataegus. 

North America. The tree bears a juicy, pleasant-flavored fruit which is much used.' 
The fruit is said by Elliott * to be large, red, acid and used for tarts and preserves. 

C. azarolus Linn, azarole. 

Asia Minor and Persia. Azarole is much cultivated for its fruits, which are the size 
of a cherry, red, with sometimes a tinge of yellow, and are said to have a very agreeable 
flavor.' The fruit is eaten in Sicily, in Italy and the Levant, being sometimes served as 
dessert, and is much used for preserves. It is common about Jerusalem, where its fruit 
is collected for preserves.' It is, according to Stackhouse, the mespile anthedon of 

C. coccinea Linn. 

Eastern United States. Gray ' says the fruit is scarcely eatable. Elliott ' says the 
fruit is red, large and eatable. The fruit is eaten fresh or mingled with choke cherries 
and service berries and is pressed into cakes and dried for winter use by the western 
Indians.' The small, purplish fruits are edible.^" 

C. douglasii Lindl. 

Michigan and the Northwest. This species bears a small, sweet, black fruit ripening 
in August. It is largely collected by the Indians. 

C. fiava. SUMMER haw. yellow-fruited thorn. 

North America. The fruit is said by Elliott to be oval, red and well flavored. 

C. orientaUs Bieb. eastern thorn. 

Greece and Asia Minor. In the Crimea, this species bears little apples, sometimes 

Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpl. 354. 1859. 
' Dickie, G. D. Treas. Bot. 1:344. i870- 
Wood, A. Class Book Bot. 331. 1864. 

* Elliott, S. Bot. So. Car., Ga. 1:547-553. 1821. 
' Andrews Bot. Reposit 9:P1. 579. 1797. 

' Smith, J. Dom. Bot. 407. 1871. 
'Gray, A. Man. Bot. lUi. 1868. 

Elliott, S. Bot. So. Car., Ga. 1:553. 1821. 
U. S. D. A. Rpt. 413. 1870. 

"> Wood, A. Class Book Bot. 332. 1865. 

198 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

of a bright yellow and at other times of a lively red color, an agreeable fruit, much improved 
by grafting.' 

C. ozyacantha Linn, hawthorn, quick, quick-set thorn, white thorn. 

Europe and temperate Asia. The fruit is said by Don "^ to be mealy, insipid, dark 
red and occasionally yellow. Johnson ' says it is seldom eaten in England except by 
children. Lightfoot * says that when thoroughly ripe it is eaten by the Highlanders. 
In Kamchatka, the natives eat the fruits and make a land of wine by fermenting them 
with water. In India, says Brandis,^ the tree is cultivated for its fruit. 

C. parvifolia Ait. dwarf thorn. 

North America. The greenish-yellow fruit is eatable.' 

C. pentagyna Waldst. & Kit. 

Europe and Asia. The plant grows wild in the hills west of Peldn. The red fruit 
is much larger than the ordinary Crataegus; it is collected and an excellent sweetmeat 
is prepared therefrom.' 

C. pubescens Steud. 

Mexico. A jelly is made from the fruit, resembling that of the quince.* 

C. sanguinea Pall. 

Russia and Siberia. In Germany, this species yields edible fruits. 

C. subvillosa Schrad. 

Eastern Asia and North America. The large, red fruit, often downy, is edible and 
of an agreeable flavor.' 

C. tanacetifolia Pers. 

Armenia. The fruit resembles a small apple, about an inch in diameter, and is eaten 
in Armenia.'" The Armenians relish the fruits, which resemble small apples, with five 
roundings like the ribs of a melon, a little hairy, pale green inclining to yellow, with a raised 
navel of five leaves." 

C. tomentosa Lirm. black thorn, pear thorn. 

Eastern United States. This species is said, in the Michigan Pomological Society's 
catalog of 1879, to bear an edible fruit, often of pleasant flavor but which varies much in 
quality. Probably, this is the " hawes of white thorn neere as good as our cherries in 

' Pallas, P. S. Trax. Russia 2:174. 1803. 

2 Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 2:600. 1832. 

> Johnson, C. P. Useful Pis. Gt. Brit. 98. 1862. 

Lightfoot, J. Fl. Scot. 1:256. 1789. 

'Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 207. 1874. 

Elliott, S. Bot. So. Car., Ga. 1:547. 1821. 

' Bretschneider, E. On Study 11. 1870. (C. pinnatifida) 

'Watson Proc. Amer. Acad. Sci. 411. 1887, 

"Sargent t/. 5. CenjMj 9:78. 1884. 
"Loudon, J. C. Arb. Frul. Brit. 2: 828. 1844. 
" Toumefort Voy. Levant 2:172. 1 7 1 8. 


England," noted by Rev. Francis Higginson.* Wood says: * " The white thorn affords 
hawes as big as an English cherrie which is esteemed above a cherrie for his goodneese 
and pleasantnesse to the taste." Josselyn' says of it: " Hawthorn: the berries being as 
big as services and very good to eat and not so stringent as the hawes in England." The 
fruit is somewhat hard and tough but is eatable and rather agreeable to the taste.^ 

Crataeva magna DC. Capparideae. 

Cochin China. The roundish, ash-colored fruits are eatable.* 

C. obovata TTahl. 

Madagascar. The fruit is eatable.^ 

C. religiosa Forst. f. 

Old World tropics. In equatorial Africa, the fresh shoots are made into spinach 
and the young branches into tooth-scrubbers.' In India, this plant furnishes food for man.' 

C. tapia Linn, garlic pear. 

South America. The fruit is edible but not very good.' It is the size of a small 
orange, eatable but not pleasant.'" In Jamaica, the fruit is spherical, orange-sized, mth 
a hard, brown shell, a mealy pulp like that of a pear, sweetish, smelling Hke garHc, and 
near the center there are many kidney-shaped seeds. It is edible but not very pleasant." 

Crescentia cujete Linn. Bignoniaceae. calabash tree. 

Tropical America. The fruit of this tree resembles a gourd. The plant is found 
wild or cultivated in various parts of tropical America and in the West Indies. The hard, 
woody shell of the fruit is made to serve many useful domestic purposes in the household 
economy of the people of these countries, such as basins, cups, spoons, water-bottles and 
pails. Wafer,'^ apparently, speaks of this tree and of C. cuctwbitina during his visit to the 
Isthmus, 1679-86: " There are two sorts of these trees but the difference is chiefly in the 
fruit; that of the one being sweet, the other bitter. The substance of both is spongy and 
juicy. That of the sweeter sort does not incline to a tart, sourish taste. The Indians, 
however, eat them frequently on a march, tho they are not very delightful. They only 
suck out the juice and spit out the rest. The bitter sort is not eatable." Henfrey '^ 
says the subacid pulp of the fruit is eaten; Seemann," that it affords food to the negroes. 

' Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll. ist Ser. 1:118. 1806. Reprint of 1792. 
' Wood, W. New Eng. Prosp. ist Ed. 16. 1634. 
' Josselyn, W. /?ar. 93. 1865. 

* Emerson, G. B. Trees, Shrubs Mass. 1:4^5. 1875. 
' Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 1:276. 1831. 


' Speke, J. H. Journ. Disc. Source Nile 561. 1864. (C. adansonii) 

Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 337. 1859. 

'Ainslie, W. Mat. Ind. 2: ig^;. 1826. 

' Grisebach, A. H. R. Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 17. 1864. 

" Lunan, J. Hort. Jam. I'.^iT- 1814. 

"Wafer Voy. Isth. Amer. 93. 1699. 

"Henfrey, A. Bo<. 331. 1870. 

" Hooker, W. J. Journ. Bot. 9:143. 1857. 

200 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

Nuttall ' says the plant is found at Key West, Florida, and that the fruit is eaten by the 
Indians in time of scarcity while the unripe fruit is candied with sugar. 

Crithmum inaritimum Linn. Umbelliferae. samphire, sea fennel. 

Europe. This is a seaside plant, foiuid on rocky shores from the Crimea to Land's 
End, England, and extends even to the Caucasus. The whole plant is " of a spicie taste 
with a certaine saltnesse " on which account it has been long held in great repute as an 
ingredient in salads. It was declared by Gerarde* to be "the pleasantest sauce." 
Samphire is cultivated in English gardens for its seed pods, which make a warm, aromatic 
pickle, and for its leaves, which are used in salads,' but it is oftener collected from the 
shores. In Jamaica, as Titford * declares, it forms an agreeable and wholesome pickle. 
In France, it is cultivated for its leaves which, pickled with vinegar, enter into salads and 
seasonings.* The first mention of its culture is by Qiiintyne,' in France, 1690; it is again 
mentioned by Stevenson,' in England, 1765; and its use as a potherb by the poor, as well 
as a pickle, is noticed by Bryant,* 1783. It is noticed in American gardens in 182 1.' 

Crocus cancellatus Herb. Irideae. 

Asia Minor. This plant is said by Unger '"to be brought to market in Damascus, 
when the bulb is about sprouting, and is much prized as a vegetable. 

C. sativus Linn, saffron. 

Greece and Asia Minor. This plant was formerly cultivated in England and is now 
spontaneous. It is cultivated in Austria, France and Spain for the deep, orange-colored 
stigmas of the flowers, which are used for coloring. It was not cultivated in France before 
the Crusades, the bulbs from Avignon being introduced about the end of the foiirteenth 
century." Loudon '^ says saffron is used in sauces and for coloring by the Spaniards and 
Poles. In England and France, it enters into creams, biscuits, preserves and liquors 
and is used for coloring butter and cheese. The Mongols use it in cooking.*' Under the 
Hebrew name, carcom, the plant is alluded to by Solomon; and as krokos, by Homer, Hippo- 
crates, Theophrastus and Theocritus. Virgil and Columella mention it and Cilicia and 
Sicily are both alluded to by Dioscorides and Pliny as localities celebrated for this drug. 
Throughout the middle ages, frequent notices are found of its occurrence in commerce 
and in cultivation. 

' Nuttall, T. No. Amer. Sylva 2:136. 1865. 

Johns, C. A. Treas. Bot. 1:348. 1870. 

Loudon, J. C. Enc. Pis. 213. 1855. 

< Titford, W. J. Hort. Bot. Amer. 51. 1812. 

' Bon. Jard. 5/^g. 1882. 

' Quintyne CoOT^. Card. 105. 1693. 

' Stevenson Card. Kal. 102. 1765. 

Bryant Fl. Diet. 136. 1783. 

Cobbett, W. Amer. Card. 159. 1846. 
" Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 311. 1859. (C. edidis) 
^^ Card. Chron. 671. 1848. 
" Loudon, J. C. Enc. Agr. 943. 1866. 
"Smith, P.P. Contrib. Mat. Med. China 189. 1871. 


Crotalaria glauca Willd. Leguminosae, 

African tropics. The people of Madi eat its flowers, pods and leaves as spinach.^ 

C. laburnifolia Linn. 

Asiatic tropics. This is an upright, perennial plant, bearing short, black and light 
brown beans the size of soy beans. It is sometimes cultivated.* 

Croton corymbulosus Rothr. Euphorbiaceae. chaparral tea. encenilla. 

Nortb- America. An infusion of the flowering tops makes a very palatable drink, 
one much used by the Mexicans and Indians as well as by colored (U. S.) soldiers who 
prefer it to coffee.' 

Cryptocarya moschata Nees & Mart. Laurineae. Brazilian nutmeg. 
Brazil. This tree produces the spice known as BraziUan nutmegs.* 

C. peumus Nees. 

Chile. The fruit is edible.' 

Cryptotaenia canadensis DC. Umbelliferae. honewort. 

North America. This species is very generally cultivated in Japan. The tips are 
used as greens and to flavor soups; the blanched stems are used as a salad and a potherb; 
the root also is utilized.' 

Cucumeropsis edulis Cogn. Cucurbitaceae. 

Tropical Africa. This is a cuctunber-like plant which bears edible fruits of one foot 
in length and three inches in diameter.' 

Cucumis angaria Linn. Cucurbitaceae. bur cucumber, gherkin, goareberry gourd. 

west INDIAN gherkin. WILD CUCUMBER. 

West Indies. This is the wild cucumber of Hughes. It is a native of the West Indies, 
and the green fniit is eaten there but it is far inferior to the common cuctunber. Sloane ' 
says the fruit is of a pale green color, oval, as big as a walnut, having many short, blunt, 
thick tubercles, sharper than those of other cucumbers, and that within the pulp are a great 
many small seeds like those of other cucvunbers. It is cultivated in Jamaica, but oftener the 
fruits are collected from the wild plants. In France, it is called Concombre arada and is 
sometimes grown in gardens, the fruit being called sweet and e.xcellent when grown under 
good circumstances of soil. This vegetable is described by Marcgravius * in Brazil 1648, 
the name Cucumis sylvestris Brazileae indicating an uncultivated plant. Ten years later. 

' Speke, J. H. Journ. Disc. Source Nile 565. 1864. 

'Georgeson ^mer. Gord. 14:85. 1893. 

'Havard, V. Totr. Bot. Club Bui. 23:46. 1896. 

Masters, M. T. Treas. Bol. 1:354. 1870. 

'Molina Hisl. Chili i:i2<). 1808. (Peumus mammosa) 

'GeoTgeson Amer. Card. 12:714. 1891. 

' Mueller, F. Sel. Pis. 131. 1891. (Corynosicyos edulis) 

'Sloane, H. Nat. Hist. Jam. 1:227. i774- 

' Marcgravius Hist. Rerum Nat. Bras. 44. 1648. 


Piso ' also described it as a wild plant of Brazil under the name guarervaoba or cucumer 
asinius and gives a figure. It has also been found in the Antilles ard in continental tropical 
arid subtropical America, New Granada and South Florida.* It is not mentioned as culti- 
vated in Jamaica by Sloane,' 1696. Its fruit is mentioned as being used in soups and 
pickles, apparently gathered from the wild plant, by Long,* 1774, Titford,^ 1812, and 
Lunan,' 1814. It is, however, cultivated in French Gtiiana and Antiqua.' Although 
described by Ray,* 1686 and 1704, and grown by Miller in his botanic garden in 1755, 
it yet does not appear to be in the vegetable gardens of England in 1807,' although it 
was known in the gardens of the United States '" in 1806. In France, it was under 
cultivation in 1824 and 1829 " but apparently was abandoned and was reintroduced by 
Vihnorin in 1858." 

C. longipes Hook. f. 

The fruit tastes like a cucumber." 

C. melo Linn, cantaloupe, melon, muskmelon. 

Old World tropics. Naudin " divides the varieties of melon into ten sections, which 
differ not only in their fruits but also in their leaves and their entire habit or mode of growth. 
Some melons are no larger than small plums, others weigh as much as 66 pounds; one 
variety has a scarlet fruit ; another is only one inch in diameter but three feet long and is 
coiled in a serpentine manner in all directions. The fruit of one variety can scarcely be 
distinguished from cucimibers; ope Algerian variety suddenly splits up into sections when 
ripe. The melons of our gardens may be divided into two sections: those with green 
flesh, as the citron and nutmeg; those with yellow flesh, as the Christiana, cantaloupe 
and Persian melons, with very thin skins and melting honey-like flesh of delicious flavor. 
In England, melons with red, green, and white flesh are cultivated. 

By the earUer and unscientific travellers, the term melon has been used to signify 
watermelons, the Macock gourd of Virginia, and it has even been applied to pumpkins by 
our early horticulturists. The names used by the ancient writers and translated by some 
to mean melon, seem also in doubt. Thus, according to Fraas,'^ the sikua of Theophrastus'* 

' Piso Hist. Rerum Nat. Bras. 264. 1648. 

' Naudin Ann. Sci. Nat. 8, 12. No year. 

' Sloane, H. Co/. 103. 1696. 

* Long Hist. Jam. 801. 1774. 

Titford, W. J. Hort. Bot. Amer. 100. 1812. 

' Lunan, J. Hort. Jam. 1:2^^. 1814. 

' De CandoUe, A. & C. Monog. 3 : 50 1 . 1 88 1 . 

8 Ray Hist. PI. 1686; Suppl. 333. 1704. 

Miller Card. Diet. 1807. 
"McMahon, B. Amer. Card. Cat. 581. 1806. 
" Pirolle L'Hort. Franc. 1824. 
" Naudin Ann. Sci. Nat. 8, 12. 
" Oliver Fl. Trap. Afr. 2 : 547. 1 87 1 . 
" Sachs Bo/. 925. 1882. 
' De CandoUe, A. Geog. Bot. 2:905. 1855. 
" Ibid. \ 


was the melon. In Liddell and Scott's Lexicon, the definition is given " a fruit like the 
melon or gourd but eaten ripe." Fraas ^ says the melon is the pepon of Dioscorides.^ 
The Lexicon says " sikuos pepon, or more frequently o pepon, a kind of gourd or melon 
not eaten till quite ripe." Fraas' says " the melon is the melopepon of Galen and the 
melo of Pliny."* Andrews' Latin Lexicon gives under melopepo " an apple-shaped melon, 
cucumber melon, not eaten till fully ripe." Pliny, on the other hand, says in Greece in 
his day it was named peponia. In Italy, in 1539, the names of pepone, melone and mellone 
were applied^to it. In Sardinia, where it is remarked by De CandoUe ^ that Roman traditions 
are well preserved, it is called meloni. As a summary, we may believe that although 
" a kind of gourd not eaten until fully ripe " may have been cultivated in ancient Greece 
and Rome, or even by the Jews under their Kings, as Unger * asserts, yet the admiration 
of the authors of the sixteenth century for the perftmie and exqmsite taste of the melon, 
as contrasted with the silence of the Romans, who were not less epicurean, is assuredly 
a proof that the melon had not at that time, even if known, attained its present luscious 
and perftmied properties, and it is an indication, as De Candolle ^ observes, " of the novelty 
of the fruit in Europe." When we consider, moreover, the rapidity of its diffusion through 
the savage tribes of America to remote regions, we cannot believe that a fruit so easily 
transported through its seed could have remained secluded during such a long period of 

Albertus Magnus,' in the thirteenth century, says, melons, which some call pepones, 
have the seed and the flower very nearly like those of the cucumber and also says, in 
speaking of the cucvunber, that the seeds are like those of the pepo. Under the head of 
watermelon, citrullus, he calls the melon pepo, and says it has a smooth, green skin, but 
the pepo is commonly yellow and of an uneven surface and as if round, semi-circular 
sections were orderly arranged together. In 1536, Ruellius ' describes our melon as the 
pepo; in 1542, Fuchsius ^^ describes the melon, but figtires it under the name of pepo. In 
1550, Roeszlin '^ figures the melon under the name of pepo, and in 1558 Matthiolus '^ fig. 
ures it under the name of melon. The Greek name of pepon, and the Italian, German, 
Spanish and French of melon, variously spelled, are given among synonyms by vari- 
ous authors '' of the sixteenth century; melones sive pepones are used by Pinaeus," 1561; 

De Candolle, A. Geog. Bot. 2:905. 1855. 
' Ibid. 


* Ibid. 

' Ibid. 

' Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 333. 1859. 
' De Candolle, A. Geog. Bo/. 2:906. 1855. 
' .Albertus Magnus Feg. 501. 1867. Jessen Ed. 
'Ruellius Nat. Slirp. 503. 1536. 
'" Fuchsius Hist. Stirp. 701, 702. 1542. 
"Roeszlin Kreuterb. 116. 1550. 
" Matthiolus Comment. 262. 1558. 

" Pinaeus i/js/. P/. 194. 1561. Camerarius />/. 296. 1 586. 
'* Pinaeus Hm/. P/. 194. 1561. 


melone and pepone by Castor Durante,' 1617, and by Gerarde* in England, 1597. 
Melons and pompions are used synonymously, and the melon is called mtiske-melon or 

Whether the ancients knew the melon is a matter of doubt. Dioscorides,' in the first 
century, says the flesh or pulp {cara) of the pepo used in food is diuretic. Pliny,* about 
the same period, says a new form of cucumber has lately appeared in Campania called 
melopepo, which grows on the ground in a round form, and he adds, as a remarkable cir- 
cumstance, in addition to their color and odor, that when ripe, although not suspended, 
yet the fruit separates from the stem at maturity. Galen,' in the second century, treating 
of medicinal properties, says the autimm fruits {i. e., ripe) do not excite vomiting as do 
the vmripe, and further says mankind abstains from the inner flesh of the pepo, where the 
seed is borne but eats it in the melopepo. A half-century later, Palladius * gives directions 
for planting melones and speaks of them as being sweet and odorous. Apicius,' a writer 
on cookery, about 230 A. D., directs that pepones and melones be served with various 
spices corresponding in part to present customs, and Nonnius, an author of the sixth century, 
speaks of cucumbers which are odoriferous.' In the seventh century, Paulus Agineta,* 
a medical writer, mentions the medicinal properties of the melopepo as being of the same 
character but less than that of the pepo, and separates these from the cucurbita and cucumis, 
not differing from Galen, already quoted. 

From these remarks concerning odor and sweetness, which particularly apply to our 
melon, and the mention of the spontaneous falling of the ripe fruit, a characteristic of 
no other garden vegetable, we are inclined to believe that these references are to the melon, 
and more especially so as the authors of the sixteenth and following centuries make mention 
of many varieties, as Amatus Lusitanus,"* 1554, who says, quorum varietas ingens est, and 
proceeds to mention some as thin skinned, others as thicker skinned, some red fleshed, 
others white. 

In 1259, Tch'ang Te, according to Bretschneidei," found melons, grapes and pome- 
granates of excellent qiiality in Turkestan. This Chinese traveller may have brought 
seeds to China, where Loureiro '^ states the melons are of poor quality and whence 
they did not spread, for Rumphius '' asserts that melons were carried into the islands of 
the Asiatic Archipelago by the Portuguese. Smith," however, in his Materia Medica of 

' Durante, C. Herb. 345. 1617. 
' Gerarde, J. Herft. 770, 775. 1597. 

Dioscorides Fecge/tMi d. 210. 1532. 

* Pliny lib. 19, c. 23. 

' Galen De Aliment, lib. 2; Gregorius Ed. 97. 1547. 

' Palladius lib. 4, c. 9; lib. 5, c. 3; lib. 6, c. 15. 

' Apicius Opion. 82. 1709. 

' Nonnius Quoted from Lister in Apulius, /. c. 

' Agineta, P. Pharm. Simp. ^6. 1531. 

>" Dioscorides Amatus Lusitanus Ed. 265. 1554. 

" Schuyler rrHjton 1:399. 1876. 

" De Candolle, A. Geog. 5o/. 3:907. 1855. 

" Ibid. 

"Smith, P.P. Conirib. Mat. Med. ChtTia 80. 1871. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 205 

China, says Chang K'ien, the noted legate of the Han dynasty, seems to have brought 
this " foreign cucumber " from central Asia to China, where it is now largely cultivated 
and eaten both raw and in a pickle. According to Pasquier, melons were unknown in 
central or northern Europe until the reign of Charles VIII, 1483-1498, King of France, 
who brought them from Italy. We find a statement by J. Smith ^ that they were supposed 
to have been first introduced from Egypt into Rome. They were perhaps known com- 
monly in Spain before 1493, for Columbus on his second voyage found melons " already 
grown, fit to eat, tho' it was not above two months since the seed was put into the 
ground." In 1507, Martin Baimigarten,^ travelling in Palestine, mentions melons as 
brought to him by the inhabitants. In 15 13, Herrera,^ a Spanish writer, says, " if the 
melon is good, it is the best fruit that exists, and none other is preferable to it. If it is 
bad, it is a bad thing, we are wont to say that the good are like good women, and the bad 
like bad women." In the time of Matthiolus,'' 1570, many excellent varieties were ciilti- 
vated. The melon has been cultivated in England, says Don,^ since 1570, but the precise 
date of its introduction is unknown, though originally brought from Jamaica. 

The culture of the melon is not very ancient, says De Candolle,* and the plant has 
never been found wild in the Mediterranean region, in Africa, in India or the Indian 
Archipelago. It is now extensively cultivated in Armenia, Ispahan, Bokhara and else- 
where in Asia; in Greece, South Russia, Italy and the shores of the Mediterranean. 
About 1519, the Emperor Baber is said to have shed tears over a melon of Turkestan 
which he cut up in India after his conquest, its flavor bringing his native country to his 
recollection. In China, it is cultivated but, as Loureiro ' says, is of poor quality. In 
Japan, Thimberg,' 1776, says the melon is much cultivated, but the more recent writers 
on Japan are very sparing of epithets conveying ideas of qualities. Capt. Cook 
apparently distributed the melon in suitable climates along his course around the world, 
as he has left record of so doing at many places; as, the Lefooga Islands, May 1777, at 
Hiraheime, October, 1777. 

Coltimbus is recorded as finding melons at Isabela Island in 1494 on his return from 
his second voyage, and the first grown in the New World are to be dated March 29, 1494. 
The rapidity and extent of their diffusion may be gathered from the following mentions. 
In 1516, " melons different from those here " were seen by Pascual de Andagoya in 
Central America. In Sept. 1535, Jacques Cartier mentions the Indians at Hochelega, 
now Montreal, as having " musk mellons." '" In 1881, muskmelons from Montreal appeared 

' Smith, J. Dom. Bol. 386. 1871. 
' Churchill CoW. Foy. 1:343. 1744- 
' De Candolle, A. Geog. 5o<. 2:906. 1855. 
* Ibid. 

' Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 3:5. 1834. 
' DeCandolle, A. Geog. Bot. 2:907. 1855. 
' Ibid. 

' Andagoya, P. de. Narrative Hakl. Soc. Ed. 29. 1865. 
"Pinkerton CoW. Foy. 12:656. 1812. 

2o6 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

in the Boston market. In 1749, Kalm ' found at Quebec melons abounding and always 
eaten with sugar. In 1540, Lopez de Gomara,^ in the expedition to New Mexico, makes 
several mentions of melons. In 1542, the army of the Viceroy of Mexico sent to Cibolo 
found the melon already there. In 1583, Antonis de Espejo found melons ctdtivated 
by the Choctaw Indians. In 1744, the melon is mentioned as cultivated by the Coco 
Maricopas Indians by Father Sedelmayer, and melons are mentioned on the Colorado 
River by Vinegas, 1758. In 1565, melons are reported by Benzoni ' as abounding in Hayti, 
but melon seeds appear not to have been planted in the Bermudas until 1609.* 

Muskmelons are said to have been grown in Virginia in 1609 * and are again mentioned 
in 1848.* In 1609, melons are mentioned by Hudson ' as found on the Hudson River. 
Muskmelons are mentioned by Master Graves * in his letter of 1629 as aboimding in New 
England and again by Wm. Woods/ 1629-33. According to Hilton's Relation,^" musk- 
melons were cultivated by the Florida Indians prior to 1664. In 1673 the melon is said 
to have been cultivated by the Indians of Illinois, and Father Marquette " pronotmced 
them excellent, especially those with a red seed. In 1822, Woods '^ says: " There are many 
sorts of sweet melons, and much difference in size in the various kinds. I have only noticed 
musk, of a large size, and nutmeg, a smaller one; and a small, pale colored melon of a rich 
taste, but there are other sorts with which I am unacquainted." In 1683, some melon 
seeds were sown by the Spaniards on the Island of California. The Indians about Phila- 
delphia grew melons preceding 1748, according to Kalm." In Brazil, melons are mentioned 
by Nieuhoff," 1647, and by Father Angelo," 1666. 

In various parts of Africa, as in Senegal and Abeokuta, and in China, the seeds are 
collected and an oil expressed which is used for food and other ptuposes and is also 
exported. In i860, the production in Senegal was 62,266 kilos., and a considerable 
amount was shipped from Chefoo, China, in 1875. During the Civil War many farmers 
in the southern states made molasses and sugar from muskmelons and cantaloupes. In 
Kentucky, an occasional experiment has been made in converting a surplusage of melons 
into syrups with considerable success. 

' Kalm, P. Trav. No. Amer. 2:324. 1772. 

' Pacific R.R.Rpt.y.iii. 1 856. 

' Benzoni Hist. New World Hakl. Soc. Ed. 91. 1857. 

* Newes from Barmudas 20. 1613. Force Coll. Tracts 3: No. 3. 1844. 

' True Decl. Va. London 13. 1610. Force Coll. Tracts 3: No. 3. 1844. 

'New Desc. Va. Mass. Hist. Coll. 19:122. 1832. 

''N. Y. Agr. Soc. Trans. 359. 1850. 

Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll. ist Ser. 1:124. 1806. Reprint of 1792. 

'Woods, W. New Eng. Pros p. Prince Soc. Ed. 15. 1865. 
" Hilton Rel. Fla. 8. 1664-68. Force Coll. Tracts 4: No. 2. 1846. 
" Marquette, Fr. Trans. III. Hort. Soc. 125. 1876. 
"Woods, J. III. Country 226. 1822. 
" Watson Annals Phil. 442. 1856. . 
" Churchill CoW. 7oy. 2:132. 1732. 
"Churchill Co//. Foy. 1:489. 1744. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 207 

Notes on Classification. 

1. Early and late melons, as also winter melons, are described by Amatus,i iSS4; 
Slimmer and winter, by Bauhin,^ 1623. 

2. White- and red-fleshed are described by Amatus, 1554; yellow-fleshed by Dodonaeus, 
1616; green-fleshed by Marcgravius' 1648; green, golden, pale yellow and ashen by Bauhin,* 

3. Svi^ar melons are named sucrinos by Ruellius,* 1^,16; succrades rouges and succrades 
blanches by Chabraeus,' 1677; and succris and succredes by Dalechamp,^ 1587. 

4. Netted melons are named by Camerarius,* 1586, as also the ribbed. The warted 
are mentioned in the Adversaria,' 1570; rough, warted and smooth, by Baxihin,'" 1623. 

5. The rotind, long, oval and pear-form are mentioned by Gerarde," 1597; the quince 
form, by Dalechamp,"' 1587; the oblong, by Dodonaeus, 1616; the round, oblong, depressed, 
or flat, by Bauhin,'' 1623. 

C. melo dudaim Naud. dudaim melon, pomegranate melon, queen anne's-pocket 


Equatorial Africa. The fruit is globose-ovate, as large as a lemon, and noi edible 
but is cultivated for its strong and pleasant odor. It has a very fragrant, musky smell 
and a whitish, flaccid, insipid pulp." 

C. melo flexuosus Naud. snake cucumber, snake melon. 

East Indies. This melon is cultivated in Japan and is called by the Dutch banket 

C. prophetarum Linn, globe cucumber. 

Arabia and tropical Africa. The flesh of this cucumber is scanty and too bitter to 
be edible, says Vilmorin,'* who includes it among the plants of the kitchen garden. Btirr ^^ 
says the fruit is sometimes eaten boiled, but is generally pickled in its green state like the 
common cucimiber and adds that it is not worthy of ctiltivation. 

Dioscorides Amatus Lusitanus Ed. 265. 1554. 

' Bauhin Ptnax 310, 311. 1623. 

' Marcgravius Hist. Rerum Nat. Bras. 22. 1648. (Piso) 

*Bauhin, C. Pinax 310, 311. 1623. 

' Ruellius Nat. Stirp. 503. 1536. 

' Chabraeus Icon. Sciag. 134. 1677. 

' Dalechamp Hist. Gen. PL (Lugd.) 623. 1587. 

' Camerarius iJ/>i7. 296. 1586. 

' Pena and Lobel ^dueri. 285. 1570. 
" Bauhin, C. PJna* 310, 311. 1623. 
" Gerarde, J. Herb. 770, 775. 1597. 
" Dalechamp Hist. Gen. PI. (Lugd.) 623 1587. 
" Bauhin, C. Pinax 310, 311. 1623. 
"Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 3:27. 1834. 
" Ibid. 

"Vilmorin Veg. Card. 227. 1885. 
" Burr Field, Card. Veg. 179. 1863. 

2o8 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

C. sativus Linn, cucumber. 

East Indies. The origin of the cucumber is usually ascribed to Asia and Egypt. 
Dr. Hooker ' believes the wild plants inhabit the Himalayas from Kimiaun to Sikkim. 
It has been a plant of cultivation from the most remote times, but De Candolle ' finds 
no support for the common belief of its presence in ancient Egypt at the time of the Israelite 
migration into the wilderness, although its culture in western Asia is indicated from philo- 
logical data as more than 3000 years old. The cucumber is said to have been brought 
into China from the west, 140-86 B. C.;' it can be identified in a Chinese work on agri- 
culture of the fifth centiuy and is described by Chinese authors of 1590 and 1640.* 
Cuctmibers were known to the ancient Greeks ^ and to the Romans, and PUny ' even 
mentions their forced culture. They find mention in the Middle Ages and in the botanies 
from Ruellius, 1536, onward. The cuciunber is believed to be the sikus hemeros of 
Dioscorides, and the sikuos of Theophrastus. Phny ^ says cucimibers were much grown 
in Africa as well as in Italy in his time, and that the Emperor Tiberius had cuamibers 
at his table every day in the year. We find reference to them in France in the ninth 
century, for Charlemagne ordered cuciombers to be planted on his estate. In Cough's * 
British Topography, cuciombers are stated to have been common in England in the time 
of Edward III, 1327, but during the wars of the houses of York and Lancaster, their 
cultivation was neglected, the plant was lost, and they were reintroduced only in 1573. 
In 1629, Parkinson ' says " in many countries they use to eate coccumbers as wee doe 
apples or Peares," and they are thus eaten and relished at the present day in southern 
Russia and in Japan. 

Cuamibers were grown by Columbus '" at Hayti in 1494. In 1535, Cartier " mentions 
" very great cucximbers " cviltivated by the Indians about Hochelaga, now Montreal. 
In 1539, De Soto ^ foimd in Florida at Apalache " cuctmibers better than those of Spain " 
and also at other villages, and, in 1562, Ribault " mentions them as ctiltivated by the 
Florida Indians. According to Capt. John Smith," Captains Amidos and Barlow mention 
cucumbers in Virginia in 1584 and they are mentioned as being croltivated there in 1609." 
Cuamibers were among the Indian vegetables destroyed by General Stillivan in 1779 " 

Burbidge, F. W. Cult. Pis. 277. 1877. 

De CandoUe, A. Orig. Pis. Cult. 266. 1885. 

Bretschneider, E. On Study 15. 1870. 

* Bretschneider, E. Bot. Sin. 78, 59, 83. 1882. 
' Theophratus Hist. PI. Bodaeus Ed. 1644. 

' Pliny lib. 19, c. 23. 

' Mcintosh, C. Book Card. 2:663. i^SS- 


Parkinson Par. Terr. 524. 1904. (Reprint of 1629) 
" Irving, W. Columbus 1:380. 1859. 
" Pinkerton CoW. Foy. 12:652. 1812. 
" De Soto Disc. Conq. Fla. Hakl. Soc. Ed. 9:44. 185 1. 
" Hakluyt, R. Coll. Divers Voy. Amer. Hakl. Soc. Ed. 7:102. 1840. 
"Pinkerton Co//. Foy. 13:6. 1812. 

" True Decl. Va. 13. 1610. Force Coll. Tracts. 3: No. 3. 1844. 
" Conover, G. S. Early Hist. Geneva 45. 1879. 


in the Indian fields about Kashong, near the present Geneva, N. Y. At the Bermudas, 
" cowcumbers " were planted in 1609.' In Massachusetts, they are mentioned in 1629 
by Rev. Francis Higginson; ^ William Wood ' mentions them in his New England's Pros- 
pects, 1629-33. In Brazil, cucumbers were seen by Nieuhoff* in 1647 and by Father 
Angelo * in 1666. 

There are a great ntmiber of varieties varying from the small gherkin to the mammoth 
English varieties which attain a length of twenty inches or more. The cultivated gherkin 
is a variety^ used exclusively for pickling and was in American gardens in 1806. 
At Unyanyembe, Central Africa, and other places where the cucumber grows almost 
wild, says Burton,* the Arabs derive from its seed an admirable salad oil, which in flavor 
equals and perhaps surpasses the finest produce of the olive. Vilmorin in Les Plantes 
Potageres, 1883, describes 30 varieties. Most, if not all, of these as well as others including 
59 different names have been grown on the grounds of the New York Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station. "WTiile some of the varieties grown differ but little, yet there are many 
kinds which are extraordinarily distinct. 

Types of Cucumbers. 

The types of our common cucumbers are fairly well figured in the ancient botanies, 
but the fruit is far inferior in appearance to those we grow today, being apparently more 
rugged and less symmetrical. The following synonymy is established from figures and 


Cucumis sativus vulgaris. Fuch. 697. 1542. 

Cucumis sativus. Roeszl. 116. 1550; Cam. E^i/. 294. 1586. 

Cucumis. Trag. 831. 1552; Fischer 1646. 

Cucumis vulgaris. Ger. 762, 1597; Chabr. 134. 1677. 

Concomhre. Toum. t. 32. 1719. 

f Sliort Green. Park. Par. 1629. 

? Short Green Prickly. Mawe 1778; Mill. Diet. . 1807. 

Early Green Cluster. Mill. Diet. 1807. 

Green Cluster. Thorb. 1828. 

Early Cluster of American seedsmen. 


A second form, very near to the above, but longer, less rounding and more prickly 
has a synonymy as below: 

Cucumeres. Matth. 282. 1558. 

Cucumis sativus. Dalechamp 1:620. 1587. 

Cticumeres sativi and esculenti Lob. Icon. 1:638. 1591. 

Cucumis vulgaris Dod. 662. 161 6. 

Cedruolo. Dur. C. 103. 161 7. 

' Newes from Barmudas 20. 1613. Force Coll. Tracts. 3: No. 3. 1844. 

Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll. ist Ser. 1:118. 1806. (Reprint of 1792) 
'Wood, W. New Eng. Prosp. 15. 1865. 

Churchill Co//. Koy. 1:132. 1732. 
' Churchill Co//. Foy. 1:489. 1744. 

Burton, R. F. Lake Reg. Cent. Afr. 465. i860. 

210 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

Cucutnis vulgaris, viridis, and albis. Bauh. J. 2:246. 1651. 
Long Green Prickly. Mill. Diet. 1807. 
Early Frame. Thorh. Cat. 1828 and 1886. 


The third form is the smooth and medium-long cucimibers, which, while they have 
a diversity of size, yet have a common shape and smoothness. Such are: 

f Cucumer sativus. Pin. 192. 1561. 

Concombre. Toum. t. 32. 17 19. 

f Large Smooth Green Roman. Mawe, itj8; Mill. Diet. 1807. 

Long Smooth Green Turkey. Mawe 1778; Mill. Diet. 1807. 

Long Green Turkey. Thorb. Cat. 1828. 

Turkey Long Green or Long Green. Landreth. 1885. 

Greek, or Athenian. Vilm. 1885. 


The fourth form includes those known as English, which are distinct in their excessive 
length, smoothness and freedom from seeds, although in a botanical classification they 
would be united with the preceding, from which, doubtless, they have originated. The 
synonymy for these would scarcely be justified had it not been observed that the tendency 
of the fruit is to curve under conditions of ordinary culture: 

Cucumis longus. Cam. Epit. 295. 1586. 

Cucumis longus eidem. Baugh. J. 2:248. 1651. 

Green Turkey Cucumber. Bryant 267. 1783. 

Long Green English varieties. Vilm. 163. 1883. 


The Bonneuil Large White Cucumber, grown largely about Paris for the use of per- 
fumes, is quite distinct from all other varieties, the fruit being ovoid, perceptibly flattened 
from end to end in three or four places, thus producing an angular appearance. We may 
suspect that Gerarde figured this type in his cuciunber, which came from Spain into 
Germany, as his figure bears a striking resemblance in the form of the fruit and in the leaf: 

Cucumis ex Hispanico semine natus. Ger. 764. 1597. 

Cucumis sativus major. Bauh. Pw. 310. 1623. (excl. Fuch.) 

Bonneuil Large White. Vilm. 222. 1885. 

White Dutch. A. Blanc. No. 6133. 


Another type of cuciombers is made up of those which have lately appeared tmder 
the name of Russian. Nothing is known of their history. They are very distinct and 
resemble a melon more than a cucumber, at least in external appearance: 

1. The Early Russian, small, oval and smooth. 

2. The Russian Gherkin, obovate and ribbed like a melon. 

3. The Russian Netted, oval and densely covered with a fine net-work. 

The appearance of new types indicates that we have by no means exhausted the 
possibilities of this species. The Turlde cucumber of Gerarde is not now to be recognized 
under culture; ndr are the Cucumer minor pyriformis of Gerarde and of J. Bauhin and 
the Cucumis pyriformis of C. Bauhin, Phytopinax, 1596. 


If the s^monymy be closely examined, it will be noted that some of the figures represent 
cucnimbers as highly improved as at the present day. The Cucumis longus of J. Bauhin 
is figured as if equalling our longest and best English forms; the concombre of Tournefort 
is also a highly improved form, as is also the cucumeres of Matthiolus, 1558. 

Cucurbita maxima Duchesne. Cucurhitaceae. turban squash. 

Nativity undetermined. The Turban squash is easily recognized by its form, to 
which it is'indebted for its name. This is possibly the Chilean mamillary Indian gourd 
of Molina,* described as with spheroidal fruit with a large nipple at the end, the pulp sweet 
and tasting like the sweet potato. In 1856, Naudin ^ describes le turban rouge and le turban 
nouveau du Bresil, the latter of recent introduction from South America. Its description 
accords with the Cucurbita clypeiformis tuberoso and verrucosa, seen by J. Bauhin ' in 
1607. The Zapilliot, from Brazil, advertised by Gregory in 1880, and said by Vilmorin 
to have reached France from South America about i860, resembles the Turban squash 
in shape. This evidence, such as it is, points to South America as the starting point of 
this form. 

The squashes of our markets, par excellence, are the marrows and the Hubbard, 
with other varieties of the succulent-stemmed. These found representation in our seed 
catalog in 1828,^ in the variety called Com. Porter's Valparaiso, which was brought from 
Chile shortly after the war of 1812. In the New England Farmer, Septemhev 11, 1824, notice 
is 'made of a kind of melon-squash or pimipkin from Chile, which is possibly the Valpa- 
raiso. The Hubbard squash is said by Gregory, its introducer in 1857, to be of unknown 
origin but to resemble a kind which was brought by a sea captain from the West Indies. 
The Marblehead, also introduced by Gregory and distributed in 1867, is said to have 
come directly from the West Indies. The Autimmal Marrow or Ohio, was introduced 
in 1832 and was exhibited at the rooms of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 

The Turban squash does not appear in any of the figures or descriptions of the 
herbalists, except as hereinafter noted for Lobel. 

C. moschata Duchesne. Canada crookneck. cushaw. winter crookneck. 

Nativity undetermined. The Winter Crookneck squash seems to have been first 
recorded by Ray,* who received the seeds from Sir Hans Sloane and planted them in his 
garden. This is the variety now known as the Striped. It has apparently been grown 
in New England from the earliest times and often attains a large size. Josselyn * refers 
to a cucurbit that may be this, the fruit " longish like a gourd," the very comparison made 
by Ray. Kalm ^ mentions a winter squash in New Jersey called " crooked neck," and 
Carver, 1776, speaks of " crane-necks " being preserved in the West for winter supply. 

' Molina Hist. Chili i :93. 1808. 
' Naudin A tin. Sci. Nat. 4th ser. 
'Bauhin, J. Hist. PI. 2:227. 1651. 

Thorbum Cat. 1828. 

' Ray Hist. PI. 1:642. 1686. 

* Josselyn, J. New Eng. Rar. 89. 1672. 
'Kalm, P. Trav. No. Amer. 1:271. 1772. 


A subvariety, the Ptiritan,' answers to Beverley's* description of a form which he calls 
Cushaw, an Indian name recognizable in the Ecushaw of Hariot, 1586. This form was 
grown at the New York Agricultural Experiment Station in 1884 from seed obtained from 
the Seminoles of Florida and appears synonymous with the Neapolitan, to which Vilmorin 
applies the French synonym, courge de la Florida. 

C. pepo Lirm. gourd, pumpkin, squash. 

The Squash. 

Nativity undetermined. The word " squash " seems to have been derived from 
the American aborigines and in particular from those tribes occupying the northeastern 
Atlantic coast. It seems to have been originally applied to the summer squash. Roger 
Williams' writes the word " askutasquash," "their vine apples, which the English 
from them call squashes; about the bigness of apples, of several colors." Josselyn ^ gives 
another form to the-word, writing, " squashes," " but more truly ' squoutersquashes,' a 
kind of mellon or rather gourd, for they sometimes degenerate into gourds. Some of 
these are green, some yellow, some longish, like a gourd; others rotmd, like an apple; all 
of them pleasant food boy led and buttered, and seasoned with spice. But the yellow 
squash called an apple squash (because like an apple), and about the bigness of a pome 
water is the best kind." This apple squash, by name at least, as also by the descrip- 
tion so far as applicable, is even now known to culture but is rarely grown on accoimt 
of its small size.* 

Van der Donck, after speaking of the pumpkins of New Netherlands, 1642-33, adds: 
" The natives have another species of this vegetable peculiar to themselves, called by 
our people quaasiens, a name derived from the aborignes, as the plant was not known to 
us before our intercourse with them. It is a delightftd fruit, as well to the eye on account 
of its fine variety of colors, as to the mouth for its agreeable taste. ... It is gathered 
in simmier, and when it is planted in the middle of April, the fruit is fit for eating by the 
first of June. They do not wait for it to ripen before making use of the fruit, but only 
until it has attained a certain size. They gather the squashes, and immediately place 
them on the fire without any fiuther trouble." * In 1683, Worlidge uses the word squash, 
saying: " There are lesser sorts of them (pompeons) that are lately brought into request 
that are called ' squashes,' the edible fruit whereof, boyled and serv'd up with powdered 
beef is esteemed a good sawce." Kalm,' in his Travels, says distinctly: " The squashes 
of the Indians, which now are cultivated by Europeans, belong to those kind of goiu-ds 
which ripen before any other." These squashes of New England were apparently called 
" sitroules " by Champlain,' 1605, who describes them " as big as the fist." Lahon- 

'Burr, F. Field, Card. Veg. 221. 1863. 

Beverley ffij/. Fa. 124. 1705. 

Williams, R. JTey. 1643. Narragansett Ed. 1:125. 1866. 

* Josselyn, J. New Eng. Rar. 109. 1865. Orig. 1672. 
' Burr, F. Field, Card. Veg. 207. 1863. 

Gray, A. Amer. Journ. Sci. 377. 1883. 
' Kalm, P. Trat. No. Amer. 1:110. 1772. 
Champlain Voy. Prince Soc. Ed. 2:64, 75. 1878. 


tan,i 1703, calls the sqiaashes of southern Canada " citrouilles " and compares them with 
the melon, which indicates a round form. 

These " squashes," now nearly abandoned in culture, would seem to be synonymous, 
in some of their varieties at least, with the Maycock of Virginia and the Virginian water- 
melon described in Gerarde's Herball ^ as early as 1621. 

The Perfect Gem squash, introduced in 1881, seems to belong to this class and is 
very correctly figured by Tragus,' 1552, who says they are called Mala indica, or, in 
German, iDdianisch apffel, and occur in four colors; saffron-yellow, creamy- white, orange, 
and black. He also gives the name Sommer apffel, which indicates an early sqimsh, and 
the names ziicco de Syria and zucco de Peru, which indicate a foreign origin. To identify 
this squash, with its claim of recent introduction, as synonymous with Tragus' Cucumis, 
sen zucco marinus, may seem unjustifiable. The Perfect Gem and Tragus plants have 
the following points in common: fruit of like form and size; so also the leaf, if the 
proportions between leaf and fruit as figured may be trusted; seed sweet in both; color 
alike, "Qviae Candida forts and quae ex pallida lutea sunt poma." The plants are runners 
in both. Compared also with the description of the Maycock, it appears to be the same 
in all but color. A curious instance of survival seems to be here noted, or else the regain- 
ing of a lost form through atavism. A careful comparison with the figures and the descrip- 
tion given would seem to bring together as synonyms : 

Cucumis marinus. Fuch. 699. 1542. Roeszl. 116. 1550. 

Cucumis vel ZUCCO marinus. Trag. 835. 1552. 

Cucurbita indica rotunda. Dalechamp i: 116. 1587. 

Pepo rotundis minor. Dod. 666. 1616. 

Pepo minor rotundis. Bodaeus 783. 1644. 

Cucurbitae folio aspero, sive zucchae. Icon. IV., Chabr. 130. 1673. 

The Maycock. Ger. 919. 1633. 

The Perfect Gem. 1881. 

The distinctions between the various forms of cucurbits seem to have been kept in 
mind by the vernacular writers, who did not use the words pompion and gourd, as 
S3monyms. Thus, in 1535, Cartier ^ mentions as fotmd among the Indians of Hochelega, 
now Montreal, " pompions, gourds." In 1586, Hariot * mentions in Virginia " pompions, 
melons, and gourds;" Captain John Smith " pumpions and macocks;" Strachey,' who 
was in Virginia in 16 10, mentions " macocks and pumpions " as differing. " Pumpions 
and gourds " are named by Smith ' for New England in 161 4. In 1648, at the mouth of 
the Susquehanna, mention is made of " symnels and maycocks." ' 

Lahontan, L. New Voy. Amer. 2:61. 1735. 
' Gerarde, J. Herb. 919, 921. 1633. 

Tragus Stirp. 835. 1552. 

Pinkerton Co//. Fov. 12:656. 1812. 

Pinkerton Co//. Foy. 12:596. 1812. 

Pinkerton Co//. Foy. 13:33. 1812. 

' Strachey Trav. Va. Hakl. Soc. Ed. 72. 1849. 

Smith i?it. JVcto Eng. 16. 1616. Force Coll. Tracts 2: No. i. 1838. 

' Desc. New Albion 2S. 1648. Force Coll. Tracts 2: No. 7. 1838. 


The word " squash," in its early use, we may conclude, applied to those varieties 
of cucurbits which furnish a summer vegetable and was carefully distinguished from the 
pumpkin. Kalm,' in the eighteenth century, distinguishes between pumpkins, gourds 
and squashes. The latter are the early sorts; the gourd includes the late sorts useful for 
winter supplies; and under the term pompion, or melon, the latter name and contem- 
porary use gives the impression of roundness and size, are included sorts grown for 
stock. Jonathan Carver,* soon after Kalm, gives indication of the confusion now 
existing in the definition of what constitutes a pimipkin and a squash when he says " the 
melon or pumpkin, which by some are called squashes," and he names among other 
forms the same variety, the crookneck or craneneck, as he calls it, which Kalm classed 
among gourds. 

At the present time, the word squash is used only in America, gourds, pumpkins, and 
marrows being the eqmvalent English names, and the American use of the word is so con- 
fusing that it can only be defined as applying to those varieties of cuctirbits which are 
grown in gardens for table use; the word pumpkin applies to those varieties grown in fields 
for stock ptirposes; and the word gourd to those ornamental forms with a woody rind 
and bitter flesh, or to the Lagenaria. 

The form of cucurbit now so generally known as Bush or Summer Squash is correctly 
figured in 1673 by Pancovius,' under the name of Melopepo clypeatus Tab. What may 
be the fruit, was figured by Lobel,* 1591; by Dodonaeus,^ 1616; and similar fruit with the 
vine and leaf, by Dalechamp,* 1587; Gerarde,' 1597; Dodonaeus, 1616; and by J. Bauhin,' 
1651. By Ray,^ 1686, it is called in the vernacular " the Buckler," or " Simnel-Gourd." 
This word cymling or cymbling, used at the present day in the southern states for the 
Scalloped Bush Squash in particular, was used in 1648 in A Description oj New Albion 
but spelled " Symnels." Jefferson i' wrote the word " cymling." In 1675, Thomson, in 
a poem entitled New England's Crisis, uses the word " cimnel," and distinguishes it from 
the pumpkin. There is no clue as to the origin of the word, but it was very possibly of 
aboriginal origin, as its use has not been transferred to Europe. In England this squash 
is called Crown Gotird and Custard Marrow; in the United States generally, it is the 
Scalloped Squash, from its shape, though locally, Cymling or Patty-pan, the latter name 
derived from the resemblance to a crimped pan used in the kitchen for baking cakes. It 
was first noticed in Europe in the sixteenth century and has the following synonymy: 

Cucurbita laciniata. Dalechamp 1:618. 1587. 

Melopepo latior clypeiformis. Loh. Icon. 1:642. 1591. 

'Kalm, P. Trav. No. Amer. 1:271, 272. 1772. 
'Carver, J. Trav. No. Amer. 525. 1778. 
' Pancovius Herbarium No. 920. 1673. 

* Lobel Icon, i : 642 . 1 59 1 . 

' Dodonaeus Pempt. 667. 1616. 

Dalechamp Hist. Gen. PI. (Lugd.) 1:618. 1587. 
'Gerarde, J. Herb. 774. 1597. 

"Bauhin, J. Hist. PI. 2:224. 1651. 
oRny Hist. PI. 1:648. 1686. 
"Jefferson Notes Va. 1803. 


Pepo maximum clypeatus. Ger. 774. 1597. 

Pepo latus. Dod. 666. 1616. 

Pepo latiorus fructus. Dod. 667. 1616. 

Cucurbita clypeiformis sive Siciliana melopepon latus a nonnuUs vocata. Bauh. J. 

2:224. 1651. (First known to him in 1 561.) 
Melopepo clypeatus. Pancov. n. 920. 1653. 
The Bucklet, or Simnel-Gourd. Ray Hw^ 1:648. 1686. 
Summer Scolloped. 

The Bush Crookneck is also called a squash. Notwithstanding its peculiar shape 
and usually warted condition, it does not seem to have received much mention by the 
early colonists and seems to have escaped the attention of the pre-Linnean botanists, 
who were so apt to figure new forms. The most we know is that the varietal name Simi- 
mer Crookneck appeared in our garden catalogs in 1828,' and it is perhaps referred to by 
Champlain in 1605. It is now recommended in France rather as an ornamental plant 
than for kitchen use.* 

The Pineapple squash, in its perfect form, is of a remarkably distinctive character 
on accoxuit of its acorn shape and regular projection. As grown, however, the .fruit is 
quite variable and can be closely identified with the Pepo indicus angulosus of Gerarde ' 
and is very well described by Ray,^ 1686. This variety was introduced in 1884 by Land- 
reth from seed which came originally from Chile. It is a winter squash, creamy white 
when harvested, of a deep yellow at a later period. 

The Pumpkin. 

The word " pumpkin " is derived from the Greek pepon, Latin pepo. In the ancient 
Greek, it was used by Galen as a compound to indicate ripe fruit as sikuopepona, ripe 
cucumber; as, also, by Theophrastus peponeas and Hippocrates sikuon peponia.^ The 
word pepo was transferred in Latin to large fruit, for Pliny * says distinctly that cucumeres, 
when of excessive size, are called pepones. By the commentators, the word pepo is often 
applied to the melon. Fuchsius,^ 1542, figures the melon under the Latin name pepo, 
German, pfeben; and Scaliger,' 1566, Dalechamp,' 1587, and Castor Durante,'" 1617, apply 
this term pepo or pepon likewise to the melon. The derivatives from the word pepo appear 
in the various European languages as follows: 

Belgian: pepoenem, Loh. Obs. 1 sj 6 ; pompeon, Marcg. 1648, Vilm. 1883. 
Enghsh: pepon, Lyte 1586; pompon, Lyte 1586; pompion, Ger. 1597; pumpion, J. Smith 

1606; pumpkin, Townsend 1726. 

' Thorbum Cat. 1828. 
Vilmoriniej P/s. Po/ag. 184. 1883. 
Gerarde, J. Herb. yj^. 1597. 

* Ray Hist. PI. 1:641. 1686. 

' Theophrastus i/ii/. P/. Bodaeus Ed. 781. 1644. 
' Grandsagne i/ts/. Nat. Pline 19, c. 23. 1829-33. 
' Fuchsius Hist. Stirp. 701. 1542. 
' Scaliger Aristotle 79, no. 1566. 

Dalechamp Hist. Gen. PL (Lugd.) 1:623. 1587. 
" Durante, C. Herb. 1617. 

2i6 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

French: pompons, Ruel. 1536; pepon, Dod. Gal. issQ. 

Italian: popone, Don. 1834. 

Swedish: pumpa, Tengborg 1764; pompa, Webst. Diet. 

In English, the words " melon " and " million " were early applied to the pumpkin, 
as by Lyte 1586, Gerarde 1597 and 1633, and by a number of the early narrators of voy, 
ages of discovery. Pumpkins were called gourds by Lobel, 1586, and by Gerarde, 1597, 
and the word gourd is at present in use in England to embrace the whole class and is 
equivalent to the French courge. In France, the word courge is given by Matthiolus, 1558, 
and Pinaeus, 1561, and seems to have been used as applicable to the pimipkin by early 
navigators, as by Cartier, 1535. The word courge was also applicable to the lagenarias 
1536, 1561, 1586, 1587, 1597, 1598, 1617, 1651, 1673 and 1772, and was shared with the 
pumpkin and squash in 1883. 

Our earliest travelers and historians often recognized in the pumpkin a different 
fruit from vhe courge, .the gourd, or the melon. Cartier, on the St. Lawrence, 1584, dis- 
criminates by using the words " gros melons, concombres and courges " ' or in a translation 
" pompions, gourds, cucumbers." ^ In 1586, a French name for what appears to be the 
svimmer squash is given by Lyte as concombre marin. With this class, we may interpret 
Cartier's names into gros melons, pumpkins, concombres, stmimer sqtaashes, and courge, 
winter crooknecks, as the shape and hard shell of this variety would suggest the gourd 
or lagenaria. In 1586, Hariot, in Virginia,' says: " Macoks were, according to their 
several forms, called by us pompions, melons and goiu-ds, because they are of the like 
forms as those kinds in England. In Virginia, such of several forms are of one taste, 
and very good, and so also spring from one seed. They are of two sorts: one is ripe in 
the space of a month, and the other in two months." Hariot, apparently, confuses all 
the forms with the macock, which, as we have shown in our notes on squashes, appears 
identical with the type of the Perfect Gem squash, or the Cucumis marinus of Fuchsius. 
The larger sorts may be his pompions, the round ones his melons, and the cushaw type 
his gourds; for, as we shall observe, the use of the word pompion seems to include size, 
and that of gourd, a hard rind. Acosta,* indeed, speaks of the Indian pompions in treating 
of the large-sized fruits. Capt. John Smith, ^ in his Virginia, separates his ptmipions 
and macocks, both planted by the Indians amongst their com and in his description of 
New England, 1614, speaks of " pumpions and gourds." This would seem to indicate 
that he had a distinction in mind, and we may infer that the word pompion was used for 
the like productions of the two localities and that the word gourd in New England referred 
to the hard-rind or winter squashes; for. Master Graves ' refers to Indian pompions. Rev. 
Francis Higginson ' to pompions, and Wood * to pompions and isquouter-squashes in 

' Cartier Bref. Recit. 1545. Reimpr. Tross. 1863. 
' Pinkerton CoW. 7031.12:656. 1812. 

Pinkerton CoK. Foy. 12:596. 1 812. 

Acosta Nat. Mor. Hist. Ind. 264. 1604. 
' Pinlcerton CoW. Foy. 12:33. 1812. 

Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll. 1:118, 124. 1806. Reprint of 1792. 
' Ibid. 

' Wood, W. New Eng. Prosp. 15. 1865. 


New England soon after its colonization. Josselyn,' about the same period, names also 
gourds, as quoted in ova notes on the squash. Kalm,^ about the middle of the eighteenth 
century, traveling in New Jersey, names " squashes of the Indians," which are a stmuner 
fruit, " gourds," meaning the winter crookneck, and " melons," which we may conclude 
are piimpkins; Jonathan Carver,' 1776, speaks of the melon or pumpkin, called by some 
squashes, and says the smaller sorts are for summer use, the crane-neck for winter use 
and names the Large Oblong. In 1822, Woods'* speaks of pompons, or pumpions, in 
Illinois, as^ften weighing from 40 to 60 pounds. 

The common field pimipkin of America is in New England carried back traditionally 
to the early settlement and occurs under several forms, which have received names that 
are ustially quite local. Such form-varieties may be tabulated alphabetically, as below, 
from Burr: 

Canada. Form oblate. 14 in. diam., 10 in. deep. Deep orange-yellow. 
Cheese. Flattened. 16 in. diam., 10 in. deep. Deep reddish-orange. 
Common Yellow. Rounded. 12 in. diam., 14 in. deep. Clear orange-yellow. 
Long Yellow. Oval. 10 in. diam., 20 in. deep. Bright orange-yellow. 
Nantucket. Various. 18 in. diam., 10 in. deep. Deep green. 


The Canada Pumpkin. 

The Canada pimipkin is of an oblate form inclining to conic, and is deeply and regu- 
larly ribbed and, when well grown, of comparatively large size. It is somewhat variable 
in size and shape, however, as usually seen. The following synonymy is justified: 

Cucurbitae indianae and perefrinae. Pin. 191. 1561. 

Cucurhita indica, rotunda. Dalechamp 1:616. 1587. 

Pepo rotundus compressus melonis effigie. Lob. O65. 365. 1576; /com. 1:642. 1591. 

(f) Pepo indicum minor rotundus. Ger. 774. 1597. 

Pepo silvestris. Dod. 668. 1616. 

Melopepo. Toum. t. 34. 17 19. 

Canada Pumpkin. Vermont Pumpkin. 


Cheese Pumpkin. 
The fruit is much flattened, deeply and rather regularly ribbed, broadly dishing about 
caArity and basin. It varies somewhat widely in the proportional breadth and diameter. 
Melopepo compressus alter. Lob. /com. 1:643. iSQi- 
Pepo maximus compressus. Ger. 774. 1597. 

Cucurbita genus, sive Melopepo compressus alter, Lobelio. Bauh. J. 2:266. 1651. 
Large Cheese. Fessenden 1828; Bridgeman 1832. 


This variety, says Burr, was extensively disseminated in the United States at the time 
of the American Revolution and was introduced into New England by returning soldiers. 

' Josselyn, J. New Eng. Rar. 109. 1865. Grig. 1672. 
' Kalm, P. Trav. No. Amer. i:2yi, 272. 1772. 
' Carver, J. Trav. No. Amer. 211. 1776. 
* Woods, J. III. Country 122. 1822. 

21 8 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 


Common Yellow Field. 
The fruit is rounded, a little deeper than broad, flattened at the ends, and rather 
regularly and more or less prominently ribbed. 
Cttcurbita indica. Ca1a.Epit.2gi. 1586. 
Melopepo teres. Lob. Icon. 1:643. iSQi- 
Pepo tnaximus rotundus. Ger. 773. 1597. 
Cucurbita as per a Icon. I. Bauh. J. 2:218. 1651. 
Cucurbita folio aspero, zucha. Chabr. 130. 1673. 
Common Yellow Field Pumpkin. 

Long Yellow. 
The fruit is oval, much elongated, the length nearly, or often twice, the diameter, of large 
size, somewhat ribbed, but with markings less distinct than those of the Common Yellow. 

Cucumis Turcicus. Fuch. 698. 1542. 

Melopepo. Roeszl. 116. 1550. 

Pepo. Trag. 831. 1552. 

Cucurbita indica longa. Dalechamp 1:617. 1587. 

Pepo maximus oblongus. Ger. 773. 1597. 

Pepo major qblongus. Dod. 635. 1616; Bodaeus 782. 1644. 

Cucurbita folio aspero, zucha. Chabr. 130. 1673. 

Long Yellow Field Pumpkin. 

The Jurumu Lusitanus Bobora of Marcgravius * and Piso ' would seem to belong 
here except for the leaves, but the figure is a poor one. 

These forms just mentioned, all have that something in their common appearance 
that at once expresses a close relationship and to the casual observer does not express 

We now pass to some other forms, also known as pumpkins, but to which the term 
squash is sometimes applied. 

The Nantucket pumpkin occurs in various forms under this name, but the form 
referred to, specimens of which have been examined, belongs to Cucurbita pepo Cogn., 
and is of an oblong form, swollen in the middle and indistinctly ribbed. It is covered 
more or less completely with warty protuberances and is of a greenish-black color when 
ripe, becoming mellowed toward orange in spots by keeping. It seems closely allied to 
the courge sucrihe du Bresil of Vilmorin. It is not the Cucurbita verrucosa of Dalechamp, 
1587, nor of J. Bauhin, 1651, as in these figures the leaves are represented as entire and 
the fruit as melon-formed and ribbed. 

In 1884, there appeared in our seedmen's catalogs, under the name of Tennessee 
Sweet Potato pimipkin, a variety very distinct, of mediimi size, pear-shape, little ribbed, 
creamy-white, striped with green, and the stem swollen and fleshy. Of its history nothing 
has been ascertained, but it bears a strong likeness in shape to a tracing of a piece of 
" pumpkin pottery " exhtuned from the western mounds. In Lobel's history, 1576, and 

' Piso Hist. Rerum Nat. Bras. 44. 1648. 
Piso De Ind. 264. 1658. 


in his plates, 1591, appear figures of a plant which in both leaf and fntit represents fairly- 
well our variety. These figures are of interest as being the only ones yet found in the 
ancient botanies which represent a fniit with a swollen, herbaceous stem. The following 
is the synonymy : 

Pepo oblongus vulgatissimus. Lob. Obs. 365. 1576. 

Pepo oblongus. Lobel /com. 1:641. 1591. 

Tennessee Sweet Potato Pumpkin. 

Nimieiwis series of pumpkins are listed in the catalogs of our seedsmen and some 
of a form qiiite distinct from those here noticed but not as yet sufficiently studied to be 
classified. However, much may yet be learned through the examination of complete 
sets of varieties within each of the three described species of cucurbita which furnish 
fruits for consimiption. Notwithstanding the ready crossings which are so apt to occur 
within the ascribed species, there yet seems to exist a permanency of types which is simply 
marvellous, and which would seem to lend countenance to the belief that there is need of 
revision of the species and a closer study of the various groups or types which appear to 
have remained constant during centimes of cultivation. 

If we consider the stability of types and the record of variations that appear in cul- 
tivated plants, and the additional fact that, so far as determined, the originals of cultivated 
types have their prototype in nature and are not the products of culture, it seems reason- 
able to suppose that the record of the appearance of types will throw light upon the 
cotmtry of their origin. From this standpoint, we may, hence, conclude that, as the 
present types have all been recorded in the Old World since the fifteenth century and 
were not recorded before the fourteenth, there must be a connection between the time of 
the discovery of Am.erica and the time of the appearance of pumpkins and squashes in 

The Gourd. 

The word, gourd, is believed to be derived from the Latin cucurbita, but it takes on 
various forms in the various European langtiages. It is spelled " gowrde " by Turner, 
1538; "gourde" by Lobel, 1576; and "gourd" by Lyte, 1586. In France, it is given 
as courgen and cohurden by RuelUus, 1536, but appears in its present form, courge, in 
Pinaeus, 1561. Dalechamp used coucourde, 1587, a name which now appears as cougourde 
in Vilmorin. The Belgian name appears as cauwoord in Lyte, 1586; and the Spanish name, 
calabassa, with a slight change of spelling, has remained constant from 1561 to 1864, as 
has the zucca of the Italians and the kurbs of the Germans. 

The gourd belonging to Lagenaria vulgaris is but rarely cultivated in the United 
States except as an ornamental plant and as such shares a place with the small, hard- 
shelled cucurbita which are known as fancy gourds. In some localities, however, under 
the name of Sugar Trough gourd, a lagenaria is gro\vn for the use of the shell of the fruit 
as a pail. What is worthy of note is the fact that this' type of fruit does not 
appear in the drawings of the botanists of the early period, nor in the seed catalogs of 
Europe at the present time. In the Tupi Dictionary of Father Ruiz de Montaga,' 1639, 

' Gray & Trumbull Amer. Journ. Set. 372. 1883. 


among the govird names are " iacvi-gourd, like a great dish or bowl," which may mean 
this form. When we examine descriptions, this gourd may perhaps be recognized in 
Colimiella's account, "Sive globosi corporis, atque utero tninutnum quae vasia tumescit," ' 
and used for storing pitch or honey; yet a reference to his prose description * rather con- 
tradicts the conjecture and leads us to believe that he describes only the necked form, 
and this form seems to have been known only to Palladius.' Pliny * describes two kinds, 
the one climbing, the other trailing. Walafridus Strabo,' in the ninth century, seems 
to describe the plebeia of Pliny as a cucurbita and the cameraria as a pepo. The former, 
apparently, was a necked form and the latter, one in which the neck has mostly disap- 
peared leaving an oval fruit. Albertus Magnus," in the thirteenth centvuy, describes the 
cucurbita as bearing its seed " in vase magna," which implies the necked form. The 
following types are illustrated by the various herbalists: 

Types of Gourds. 

Cucurbita oblonga. Fuch. 370. 1542. 
Cucurbita plebeia. Roeszl. 115. 1550. 
Cucurbita. Trag. 824. 1552. 
Curciibita longa. Cardan. 222. 1556. 

Cucurbita. Matth. 261. 1558; Pinaeus 190. 1561; Cam. piY. 292. 1586. 
Cucurbita sive zuccha, omnium maxima anguiria. Lob. Obs. 366. 1576; Icon. 1:644. 


Cucurbita cameraria longa. Dal echamp 1:615. iS^?- 

Cucurbita anguina. Ger. 777. 1597- 

Cucurbita oblonga. Matth. 392. 1598. 

Cucurbita longior. Dod. 161 6. 

Zucca. Dur., C. 488. 1617. 

Cucurbita anguina longa. Bodaeus 784. 1644. 

Cucurbita longa, folio molli, flore albo. Bauh., J. 2:214. 1651; Chabr. 129. 1673. 

Courge massue trh longue. Vilm. 190. 1883. 

Club Gourd. 


. Ruellius frontispiece 1536. 

Cucurbita minor. Fuch. 369. 1542. 

Cucurbita. Trag. 824. 1552; Matth. 261. 1558; Cam. pf/. 292. 1586. 

Cucurbita marina. Cardan. 222. 1556. 

Cucurbita cameraria. Dalechamp 1:615. 1587. 

Cucurbita lagenaria sylvestris. Ger. 779. 1597. 

Cucurbita prior. Dod. 668. 1616. 

Zucca. Dur., C. 488. 161 7. 

Courge p6Urine. Vilm. 191. 1883. 

Bottle Gourd. 

' Columella lib. 10, c. 383. 

- Columella lib. 11, c. 3. 

' Palladius lib. 9, c. 9. 

* Pliny lib. 19, c. 24. 

Macer Floridus Vir. Herb. Sillig Ed. 146, 147. 1832. 

Albertus Magnus Veg. Jessen Ed. 500. 1867. 



Cucurbita calebasse. Toum. 7.36. 1719. 
Courge siphon. Vilm. 190. 1883. 
Dipper Gourd. 

Cucurbita major. Fuch. 368. 1542. 
Cucurbita cameraria. Roeszl. 115. 1550. 
Cucurbita. Trag. 824. 1552; Matth. 261. 1558. 
Cucurbit^ cameraria major. Dalechamp 1:616. 1587. 
Cucurbita lagenaria. Ger. 777. 1597. 
Cucurbita major sessilis. Matth. 393. 1598. 
Cucurbita lagenaria rotunda. Bodaeus 784. 1644. 

Cucurbita latior, folio molli, flore albo. Bauh. J. 1:215. 1651; Chabr. 129. 1673. 
Sugar Trough Gourd. 

Cucurbita. Matth. 261. 1558; Dalechamp 1:615. 1587- 
Courge plate de corse. Vilm. 191. 1883. 

This classification, it is to be remarked, is not intended for exact synonymy but to 
represent the like types of fruit-form. Within these classes there is a wide variation in 
size and proportion. 

Whether the lagenaria gourds existed in the New World before the discovery by 
Columbus, as great an investigator as Gray ^ considers worthy of examination, and 
quoted Oviedo for the period about 1526 as noting the long and round or banded and 
all the other shapes they usually have in Spain, as being much used in the West Indies 
and the mainland for carrying water. He indicates that there are varieties of spontaneous 
growth as well as those under cultivation. The occurrence, however, of the so-called 
fancy gotords of Cucurbita pepo, of hard rind, of gourd shape, and often of gourd bitter- 
ness, render difficult the identification of species through the uses. The Relation of the 
Voyage of Amerigo Vespucci,^ 1489, mentions the Indians of Trinidad and of the coast 
of Paris as carrying about their necks small, dried gourds filled with the plant they are 
accustomed to chew, or with a certain whitish flour; but this record could as well have 
been made from the Cucurbita pepo gourds as from the lagenaria gourds. The further men- 
tion that each woman carried a cucurbita containing water might seem to refer to gourds. 

Acosta ' speaks of the Indians of Peru making floats of gourds, for swimming, and 
says, " there are a thousand kinds of Calebasses; some are so deformed in their bigness 
that of the rind cut in the midst and cleansed, they make as it were, baskets to put in all 
their meat, for their dinner; of the lesser, they make vessels to eat and drinlc in." 
Bodaeus' * quotation in Latin, reads differently in a free translation: " They grow in 
the province of Chile to a wonderful size, and are called capallas. They are of an indefinite 
number of kinds; some are monstrous in their immense size, and when cut open and cleaned, 
furnish various vessels. Of the smaller they most ingeniously make cups and saucers." In 

' Gray and Trumbull Amer. Journ. Set. 370. 1883. 

' Ibid. 

' Acosta Nat. Hist. Ind. 177, 238. 1604. Grimestone Ed. 

* Theophrastus Hist. PI. Bodaeus Ed. 784. 1644. 


1624, Bodaeus received from the West Indies some seed which bore fruit "Quae humanum 
crassitudinem et longittuiinem superaret," which fully justifies Acosta's idea of size. 
The Anonymous Portugal of Brasil ' says : " Some pompions so big that they can use 
them for vessels to carry water, and they hold two pecks or more." Baro,'' 1647, also 
speaks of "Courges et calebasses si grandes et profondes qu'elles servent comme de maga- 
zin," and Laet ' mentions "Pepones tarn vastae, ut Indigenae its utantur pro vasis quibus 
aquam aggerunt." These large-sized gourds were not, however, confined to America. 
Bodaeus, as we have noted, grew fruits deformed in their bigness, to use Acosta's term, 
from West Indian seed, and Cardanus * says he has seen gourds (he gives a figure which is 
a gourd) weighing 80 and 122 pounds. Bauhin ' records the club gourd as sometimes three 
feet long; Ray,* as five or six feet long; and Forskal,^ the bottle gourd as 18 inches in 
diameter. These records of size are all, however, of a date following the discovery of 
America, and the seed of these large varieties might have come from American sources, 
as is recorded in one case by Bodaeus. 

The lagenaria gourd is of Old World origin, for water-flasks of the lagenaria have 
been found in Egyptian tombs of the twelfth dynasty, or 2200 or 2400 years B. C.,* and 
they are described by the ancient writers. That the gourd reached America at an eaily 
period, perhaps preceding the discovery,' we cannot doubt for Marcgravius notes a cucurbit 
with a white flower and of lagenarian form, in Brazil in 1648;'" but there is not sufficient 
evidence to establish its appearance in America before brought by the colonists. What 
the "calabazas " were which served for water- vessels, and were apparently of considerable 
size, cannot at present be surmised. It is possible that there are varieties of Cucurbita 
pepo not yet introduced to notice that wotild answer the conditions. It is also less pos- 
sible that gourd-shaped clay vessels might have been used and were recorded by not over- 
careful narrators as gotirds. In 1595, Mendana, on his voyage to the Solomon Islands, 
said " Spanish pumpkins " '^ at the islands of Dominica and Santa Cruz, or according 
to another translation,!^ " ptimpkins of Castile." It would seem by this reference that, 
whether the " calabaza " of the original Spanish referred to gourds or pumpkins, it did 
not take many years for this noticeable class of fruits to receive a wide distribution, and 
it might further imply that Mendana, setting forth from the western coast of America, 
discriminated between the American pumpkin, or pvimpkin proper, and the Spanish 
pumpkin or gourd. 

' Sloane, H. Cat. 100. 1696. 

' Ibid. 


*Ca.Tda.miS De Rerum Var. 222. 1586. 

' Bauhin, C. Ptna* 313. 1623. 

Ray ffii/. P;. 1:638. 1686. 

''FoTskaX Fl. Aeg.- Arab. i6j. 1775. 

' Schweinfurth in JVo/wre 314. 1883. 

' Fruits of the lagenaria are at present carried to the coast of Iceland by ocean currents. 
'" Piso Hist. Rerum Nat. Bras. 44. 1648. 
" Dahymple Coll. Voy. 1:88. 1770. 
" De Morga Philippine Is. Hakl. Soc. Ed. 68, 70. 1868. : 


Cudrania javanensis Tree. Urticaceae. 

Tropical Asia, Africa and Australia. The fruit is a compound, irregularly-shaped 
berry as large as a small custard apple, formed of the enlarged fleshy perianths and 
receptacle, each perianth enclosing a one-seeded nut.' The fruit is edible and of a 
pleasant taste. ^ 

Cuminum cyminum Linn. Umbelliferae. cumin. 

Mediterranean region. This is a small, annual plant indigenous to the upper regions 
of the Nile but was carried at an early period by cultivation to Arabia, India and China, 
as well as to the countries bordering on the Mediterranean.' It is referred to by the 
prophet Isaiah * and is mentioned in Matthew.* Pliny * calls it the best appetizer of 
all the condiments and says the Ethiopian and the African are of superior quality but 
that some prefer the Egyptian. During the Middle Ages, cvmiin was one of the species 
in most common use and is mentioned in Normandy in 716, in England between 1264 
and 1400 and is enumerated in 141 9 among the merchandise taxed in the city of London. 
It is mentioned in many of the herbals of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and 
is recorded as under cultivation in England in 1594.'^ In India, the seeds form an ingre- 
dient of curry powders and pickles * and in France find use in cookery.' In Holland, 
cheeses are sometimes flavored with cimiin. The seed is occasionally advertised in Ameri- 
can seed catalogs " but is probably very rarely grown. 

Cupania americana Linn. Sapindaceae. 

Mexico. The sweet, chestnut-like seeds are used in the West Indies as a food." The 
seeds have the flavor of chestnut or sweet acorns and are used on the banks of the Orinoco 
to make a fermented liquor.*^ 

Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. Amaryllideae. 

Tropical Asia. In the Mariana Islands, the roots are eaten.^ 

Curcuma amada Roxb. Scitamineae. amada. ginger, mango. 

East Indies. The fresh root possesses the smell of a green mango and is used in 
India as a vegetable and condiment.'* 

Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 425. 1876. 
'Mueller, F. Sel. Pis. 137. 1891. 

Fluckiger and Hanbury Pharm. 331. 1879. ' 

Isaiah c. 28, 25-27. 
' Matthew c. 23, 23. 

Pliny lib. 19, c. 47. 

' Miller Card. Die/. 1807. 

Dutt, U. C. Mat. Med. Hindus 173. 1877. 

' Vilmorin Lei Pis. Polag. 199. 1883. 
"VickCa/. 1884. 

" Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 315. 1859. (C. tomentosa) 
"Baillon, H. Hist. Pis. 5:387. 1878. 
"Moore, T. Treas. Bot. 1:363. 1870. (C. stans) 
" Dutt, U. C. Mat. Med. Hindus 257. 1877. 

224 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

C. angustifolia Roxb. arrowroot. 

Himalayan region. The root had long been an article of food amongst the natives 
of India before it was particularly noticed by Europeans.* It furnishes an arrowroot of a 
yellow tinge which does not thicken in boiling water.' This East Indian arrowroot is 
exported from Travancore.' It forms a good substitute for the West Indian arrowroot 
and is sold in the bazaars.* 
C. leucorhiza Roxb. 

East Indies. The tubers yield a starch which forms an excellent arrowroot that 
is sold in the bazaars.' 

C. longa Linn, turmeric. 

Tropical Asia. This plant is extensively cultivated in India for its tubers which 
are an essential ingredient of native curry powders, according to Dutt.' The substance 
called turmeric is made from the old tubers of this and perhaps other species. The young, 
colorless tubers fvunish a sort of arrowroot.' 

C. rubescens Roxb. 

East Indies. This plant furnishes an excellent arrowroot from its tubers, which is 
eaten by the natives and sold in the bazaars.* 
C. zedoaria Rose, zedoary. 

Himalayas. This plant yields a product used as tvirmeric. 

Cyamopsis psoraloides DC. Leguminosae. 

East Indies. This species is cultivated about Bombay for the sake of the pods 
which are eaten like French beans,' and is grown also by the natives of Burma who esteem 
it a good vegetable.'" Wight " says " the young beans are with reason much prized by the 
natives as a culinary pulse and merit more attention from Etiropeans, as they are a 
pleasant and delicate vegetable." 

Cyanella capensis Linn. Haemodoraceae. 

South Africa. A kind 'of onion is obtained from this plant and roasted for the table 
by the farmers of Kaffraria.'^ 

Cyathea dealbata Swartz. Cyatheaceae. silvery tree-fern. 
The pith of this tree-fern is said to be eaten in New Zealand." 

'Ainslie, W. Mat. Ind. i:ig. 1826. 

^ Firminger, T. A. C. Card. Ind. 114. 1874. 

' Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 579. 1879. 

* Royle, J. F. lUustr. Bol. Himal. 1:359. 1839. 

Dutt, U. C. Mat. Med. Hindus 255. 1877. 
' Masters, M. T. Treas. Bot. 1:363. 1870. 
Royle, J. F. Illustr. Bot. Himal. 359. 1839. 

Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 332. 1879. 
" Ibid. 

" Wight lUustr. Ind. Bot. 1 : 191. 1840. 
" Thunberg, C. p. Trav. 2:14. 1796. 
"Moore, T. Treas. Bot. 1:366. 1870. 


C. medullaris Swartz. black-stemmed tree-fern. 

The pith of this plant, a coarse sago, is eaten in times of scarcity in New Zealand. 
In the Voyage of the Novara it is said that the whole stalk, often 20 feet high, is edible 
and is sufficient to maintain a considerable niimber of persons. The pith, when cooked 
and dried in the sun, is an excellent substitute for sago. It is also to be found in Queensland 
and the Pacific isles.^ 

Cycas circinalis Linn. Cycadaceae. sago palm. 

Tropic^ eastern Asia and the Malayan Archipelago. Captain Cook speaks of the 
inhabitants of Prince Island eating the nuts, which poisoned his hogs and made some of 
the crew sick. He adds, however, that they are sliced and dried and after steeping in 
fresh water for three minutes and dried a second time they are eaten in times of scarcity 
as a food, mixed with rice. In Malabar, Drury says a kind of sago prepared from the nuts 
is much used by the poorer classes. Pickering ^ says on the Comoro Islands it is a common 
esciilent; Blanco ^ says on the Philippines its fruit is sometimes eaten; Rumphius * says it is 
eaten on the Moluccas; J. Smith ^ says a kind of sago is obtained from the stem. 

C. revoluta Thunb. 

Subtropical Japan. Thimberg * says a small morsel of the pith of the stem is sufficient 
to sustain life a long time and on that account the plant is jealously preserved for the use 
of the Japanese army. The drupes are also eaten. J. Smith ' says it occtirs also in China 
and New Guinea. 

Cyclopia genistoides Vent. Leguminosae. bush tea. 

South Africa. An infusion of its leaves is used as a tea.' 

C. subternata Vog. 

South Africa. This is also a tea substitute, according to Church.' 

Cymbidiimi canaliculatum R. Br. Orchideae. 

Australia. The tubers of this plant are used by the blacks of Wide Bay.*" 

Cymopterus fendleri A. Gray. Umbelliferae. 

Texas and New Mexico. This plant emits, when in decoction, a peculiarly strong 
and pleasant odor. It is sometimes used as a stuffing for mutton." 

' Smith, J. Dom. Bot. 171. 1882. 

Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 304. 1879. 

' Ibid. 

' Ibid. 

' Smith, J. Dom. Bot. 146. 1882. 

Thunberg, C. P. Fl. Jap. 229. 1784. 

'Smith, J. Diet. Econ. Pis. 1^6. 1882. 

Church Card. Chron. 20:766. 1883. 

' Ibid. iC. vogelii) 

"Palmer, E. Journ. Roy. Soc. New So. Wales 17:97. li 
Rothrock, J. T. U. S. Geog. Sun. Bot. 6:45. 1878. 


226 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

C. glomeratus DC. 

Western states of North America. The root is edible.* 
C. montantis Torr. & Gray, gamote. 

Western North America. This plant is called by the Mexicans gamote or camote.' 
The root is spindle-shaped, parsnip-like but much softer, sweeter and more tender than the 
parsnip. This root is collected largely by the Mexicans and also by the Ute and Piute 

Cynara cardunculus Linn. Compositae. artichoke, cardoon. 


Mediterranean region and common in its wild form in southern Europe and a portion 
of central Asia. Cardoon was known, according to Targioni-Tozzetti,* to the ancient 
Romans and was cultivated for the leaf-stalks which were eaten. Some commentators 
say that both the Greeks and Romans procured this vegetable from the coast of Africa, 
about Carthage, and also from Sicily. Dioscorides mentions it. Pliny * says it was much 
esteemed in Rome and obtained a higher price than any other garden herb. In more 
recent times, Ruellius,' 1536, speaks of the use of the herb as a food, after the manner 
of asparagus. Matthiolus,' 1558, says there are many varieties in the gardens which are 
commonly called cardoni by the Etruscans, and that, diligently cultivated, these are tender, 
crisp, and white and are eaten with salt and pepper. The plant is mentioned by Parkinson, 
1629, under the name of Cardus esculentus but its introduction into England is stated 
to have been in 1656 or 1658. 

Cardoon is now cultivated in but few English gardens. On the continent of Europe, 
it is regarded as a wholesome esculent and in France is much used, the stalks of the 
inner leaves, rendered ciisp and tender by blanching, serving as a salad. Five varieties 
are esteemed there. Townsend, ' in his tour through Spain mentions that in some parts 
of that country they never use rennet for cheese but substitute the down of this plant 
from which they make an infusion. In the present day, the flowers of cardoon are care- 
fully dried and used for the same purpose. McMahon ' includes it in his list of American 
esculents in 1806 and says " it has been a long time used for culinary purposes, such as 
for salads, soups and stewing." Thorbum i" includes it in his seed catalogs of 1828 and 
1882. In the Banda Oriental, says Darwin," very many, probably several hundred, square 
miles are covered by one mass of these prickly plants and are impenetrable by man or 
beast. Over the undulating plains where these great beds occur, nothing else can now live. 

'MueUer, F. 1880. 

Torrey Pacific R. R. Rpl. 4:92. 1856. 

' Bigelow, J. M. Pacific R. R. Rpt. 4:9. 1856. 

Targioni-Tozzetti Journ. Hort. Soc. Lond. 142. 1854. 
' Pliny lib. 19, c. 43. 

Ruellius iVo<. 5<i>p. 643. 1536. 

' Matthiolus Comment. 322. 1558. 

Glasspoole, H. G. Ohio State Bd. Agr. Rpt. 536. 1875. 

McMahon, B. Amer. Card. Col. 581. 1806. 
"> Thorbum Cat. 1828. 1882. 

"Darwin, C. Voy. H. M. S. Beagle 119. 1845. 


Vilmorin ' describes five varieties : the Cardon de Tours, the Cardon plein inerme, 
the Cardon d'Espagne, the Cardon Puvis, and the Cardon d cotes rouges. 

The first of these, the Cardon de Tours, is very spiny and we may reasonably believe 
it tc be the sort figured by Matthiolus,^ 1598, under the name of Carduus aculeatus. It 
is named in French works on gardening in 1824, 1826 and 1829.^ Its English name is 
Prickly-Solid cardoon; in Spain it is called Cardo espinoso. It holds first place in the 
estimation of the market gardeners of Tours and Paris. 

The Cfjfdon plein inerme is scarcely spiny, is a little larger than the preceding but 
otherwise closely resembles 'it. J. Bauhin * had never seen spineless cardoons. It is 
spoken of in 1824 in French books on gardening. It is called, in England, Smooth-Solid 
cardoon and has also names in Germany, Italy and Spain. 

The Cardon d'Espagne is very large and not spiny and is principally grown in the 
southern portions of Europe. We may resonably speculate that this is the sort named by 
Pliny as coming from Cordoba. Cardons d'Espagne have their cultivation described in 
Le Jardinier Solitaire, 161 2. A " Spanish cardoon " is described by Townsend ' in England, 
1726, and the same name is used by McMahon * in America, 1806. This is the Cynara 
integrifolia of Vahl. 

The Cardon Puvis, or Artichoke-leaved, is spineless and is grown largely in the 
vicinity of Lyons, France. It finds mention in the French books on gardening of 1824 
and 1829, as previously enumerated. 

The Cardon d cotes rouges, or Red-stemmed, is so named from having the ribs tinged 
with red. It is called a recent sort by Burr in 1863. 

From a botanical point of view we have two types in these plants, the armed and the 
tmarmed; but these characters are by no means to be considered as very constant, as in 
the Smooth-Solid we have an intermediate form. From an olerictiltural point of view, 
we have but one type throughout but a greater or less perfection. A better acquaintance 
with the wild forms would, doubtless, show to us the prototypes of the variety differences 
as existing in nature. 


The artichoke is a cultivated form of cardoon. To the ancient Romans, it was known 
only in the shape of cardoon. It seems quite certain that there is no description in 
Dioscorides and Theophrastus, among the Greeks, nor in Colvmiella, Palladius and Pliny, 
among the Romans, but that can with better grace be referred to the cardoon than to 
the artichoke. To the writers of the sixteenth century, the artichoke and its uses were 
well known. Le Jardinier Solitaire, an anonymous work published in 161 2, recommends 
three varieties for the garden. In Italy, the first record of the artichoke cultivated for 
the receptacle of the flowers was at Naples, in the beginning or middle of the fifteenth 

' Vilmorin, Les Pis. Potag. 59, 60. 1883. 
' Matthiolus 0/>era 496. 1598. 
' PiroUe L'Hort, Franc. 1824. 
'Bauhin, J. Hist. PI. 50. 1651. 
' Townsend Seedsman 29. 1726. 
McMahon, B. Amer. Card. Cat. 581. 1806. 


century. It was thence carried to Florence in 1466 and at Venice, Ermolao Barbaro 
who died as late as 1493, knew of only a single plant grown as a novelty in a private garden, 
although it soon after became a staple article of food over a great part of the peninsula. 
In France, three varieties are commonly grown. It seems to have been unknown in 
England, says Booth,' until introduced from Italy in 1 548 and is even now but little grown 
there, yet in France it is highly esteemed. In the United States, in 1806, McMahon* 
mentions two species, C. scolymus, or French, and C. hortensis, or Globe. Of the second, 
he mentions two varieties. In 1818, the artichoke is mentioned by Gardiner and Hepburn 
and also by John Randolph ' of Virginia; in 1828, by Fessenden; * and in 1832 by Bridge- 
man,' who names two kinds. In 1828, Thorbum ' offers in his catalog the seeds of the 
Green Globe and in 1882 of the French Green Globe and the Large Paris. The parts 
used are the lower parts of the leaves or scales of the caljoc and the fleshy receptacles of 
the flowers freed from the bristles and seed down. In France, where it is much esteemed, 
the tender, central leaf-stalk is blanched and eaten like cardoons. 

The most prominent distinction between varieties as grown in the garden, is the 
presence or absence of spines. Although J. Bauhin,' 1651, says that seed from the same 
plant may produce both sorts, probably this comes from cross-fertilization between the 
kinds, and the absence or presence of spines is a true distinction. Pragus describes both 
forms in 1552, as do the majority of succeeding writers. 

A second division is made from the form of the heads, the conical-headed and the 


Of the varieties sufficiently described by Vilmorin, four belong to this class and 
they are all spiny. This form seems to constitute the French artichoke of English writers. 
The following synonymy seems justifiable: 

Scolymus. Trag. 866. 1552. cutnic. 

Carduus, vulgo Carciofi. I. Matth. 322. 1558. 

Carduus aculeatus. Cam. Epit. 438. 1586. cum ic; Matth. ed. of 1598. 496. cum ic. 

Thistle, or Prickly Artichoke. Lyte's Dod. 603. 1586. 

Cinara sylvestris. Ger. 291. 1597. fig. 

Carduus sive Scolymus sativus, spinosos. Bauh. J. 3:48. 1651. cum ic. 

Artichokes, Violet. Quintyne 187; 1693; 178. 1704. 

Conical-headed Green French. Mawe 1778. 

French Artichoke. Mill. Diet. 1807; Amer. Gard. Books 1806, 1819, 1828, 1832, etc. 

Vert de Provence. Vilm. 16. 1883. 

De Roscojff. Vilm. 1. c. 

De Saint Laud oblong. Vilm. 1. c. 

Sucre de Genes. Vilm. 1. c. 

Booth, W.B. Trees. Bot. 1:372. 1870. 
'McMahon, B. Amer. Gard. Cat. 196. 1806, 
'Randolph, J. Treat. Gard. 1818. 

* Fessenden New Amer. Gard. 18. 1828. 

' Bridgeman Young Gard. Asst. ^i. 1857. 

Thorbiirn Co/. 1828. 
'Bauhjn, J. Hist. PI. y.i\&. 1651. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 229 


To this fonn belong two of Vilmorin's varieties and various other varieties as 
described by other writers. The synonymy which seems to apply is: 
Scolymus. Fuch. 792. 1542. cum ic. 
Cardui alterum genus. Trag. 866. 1552. 
Carduus, vulgo Carciofi. II. Matth. 322. 1558. 

CarduMf non aculeatus. Cam. Epit. ^^y. 1586. cmw z'c; Matth. 497. 1598. cum ic. 
Right artichoke. Lyte's Dod. 603. 1586. 
Cinara maxima ex Anglia delata. Lob. Icon. 2: 3. 1591. 
Cinara maxima alba. Ger. 991. 1597. fig. 
Cinara maxima anglica. Ger. l.'c. 
Green or White. Quintyne 187. 1593; 178. 1704. 
Red. Quintyne 1. c. 

Globular-headed Red Dutch. Mawe 1778. 

Globe Artichoke. Mill. Diet. 1807; Amer. Gard. Books 1806, 1819, 1828, etc. 
Gros vert de Loon. Vilm. 1883. 
Violet de Provence. Vilm. 1. c. 

The color of the heads also found mention in the early writers. In the first division, 
the green is mentioned by Tragus, 1552; by Mawe, 1778; and by Miller's Dictionary, 
1807; the purple by Qmntyne, 1693. In the Globe class, the white is named by Gerarde, 
1597; and by Quintyne, 1693; and the red by Gerarde, 1597; by Quintyne, 1693; and by 
Mawe, 1778; and Parkinson, 1629, named the red and the white. 

The so-called wild plants of the herbalists seem to offer like variations to those we 
have noted in the cultivated forms, but the difficulty of identification renders it inexpedient 
to state a fixed conclusion. The heads are certainly no larger now than they were 250 
years ago, for the Hortus Eystettensis figures one 15 inches in diameter. The long period 
during which the larger part of the present varieties have been known seems to justify 
the belief that modern origination has not been frequent. Le Jardinier Solitaire, 1612, 
describes early varieties, le blanc, le rouge and le violet. Worlidge, 1683, says there are 
several kinds, and he names the tender and the hardy sort. McMahon names the French 
and two varieties of the Globe in America in 1806. In 1824, in France, there were the 
blanc, rouge, violet and the gros vert de Laon. Petit 1826, adds sucre de gines to the list. 
Noisette, 1829, adds the camus de Brittany. 

The name given by Ruellius > to the artichoke in France, 1536, is articols, from the 
Italian articoclos. He says it comes from arcocum of the Ligiirians, cocali signifying the 
cone of the pine. The Romans call it carchiophos. The plant and the name came to 
France from Italy. 
C. integrifolia Vahl. Spanish cardoon. 

Spain. The plants are of large size, the midribs being very succulent and solid.* 

Cjrnoglossum sp.? Boragineae. hound's tongue. 

Himalayas. Hooker ' says one species is used as a potherb. 

'Ruellius Nat. Slirp. 644. 1536. 

' Mclntxish, C. Book Gard. 2:130. 1855. 

Hooker, J. D. Ilimal. Journ. 2:68. 1854. 


Cynometra cauliflora Linn. Leguminosae. nam-nam. 

East Indies and Malays. The fruit in shape resembles a kidney. It is about three 
inches long and the outside is very rough. It is seldom eaten raw but, fried with batter, 
it makes a good fritter. Wight ' says the fruit is much esteemed in the Eastern Islands. 

Cjrperus bulbosus Vahl. Cyperaceae. 

Africa and East Indies. Drury * says the roots are used as flour in times of scarcity 
in India and are eaten roasted or boiled, tasting like potatoes. Royle' says they are 
C. esculentus Linn, chufa. earth almond, zulu nuts. 

South Europe and north Africa; introduced in America and now runs wild on the 
banks of the Delaware and other rivers from Pennsylvania to Carolina. The roots are 
very sweet and are eaten by children.'* The chufa was distributed from the United States 
Patent Office in 1854 and has received a spasmodic culture in gardens. It is much culti- 
vated in southern Europe, Asia and Africa, becoming of importance at Valence, in Galicia, 
and in the environs of Rosetta and Damietta, Egypt.' In Hungary, it is grown for the 
seeds, to be used as a coffee substitute,' but in general for its tubers which are sweet, 
nutty and palatable. These bulbs, says Bryant,' are greatly esteemed in Italy and some 
parts of Germany and are frequently brought to table by way of dessert. At Constan- 
tinople, the tubers appear in the markets and are eaten raw or made into a conserve.* 
Gerarde, 1633, speaks of their extensive use in Italy, and of their being hawked about the 
streets and, at Verona, eaten as dainties.' They now appear in the English markets 
under the name of Zulu nuts.'" The chufa must also have been esteemed in ancient 
times, for tubers have been found in Egyptian tombs of the twelfth dynastj', or from 
2200 to 2400 years before Christ. '' Notwithstanding the long continued culture of this 
plant, there are no varieties described. 
C. papyrus Linn, papyrus. 

Sicily, Syria and tropical Africa. This plant is the ancient papyrus. Hogg '^ says 
it was used as food by the ancients, who chewed it either raw, boiled or roasted, for the 
sake of its sweet juice. 
C. rotundus Linn, nut grass. 

Cosmopolitan. The tubers are eaten by the North American Indians." 

' Wight, R. llluslr. Ind. Bot. 1:196. 1840. 

' Drury, H. Usejid Pis. Ind. 173. 1873. 

' Royle, J. F. lUustr. Bot. Himal. 1:414. 1839. 

* Pursh, F. Fl. Amer. Septent. 1:52. 1814. 
' Heuze P/i. .4/m. 2:551. 1873. 

Loudon, J. C. Enc. Agr. 98. 1866. 
' Bryant Fl. Diet. 29. 1783. 

Wakh, R. Trans. Hort. So:. Lond. 6:50. 1826. 

Gerarde, J. Herb. 2,2. 1633. 
^"Gard. Chron. 17: 838. 1882. 
" Schweinfurth in Nature 314. 1883. 
" Drury, H. Usefid Pis. Ind. 173. 1873. 
" Havard, V. Torr. Bot. Club Bui. 22:115. 1 895. 


Cyphiasp.? Campanulaceae. 

South Africa. The Hottentots are said to eat the tuberous roots of at least one 
species of these herbaceous, twining plants.^ 

C. digitata Wild. 

South Africa. The roots are bulbous, esculent, and fleshy.^ 

Cyphomandra hartwegi Sendt. Solanaceae. 

New Gfftnda. The berry is reddish, about the size of a pigeon's egg and is two-celled. 
It appears to be the fruit sold in the markets of Lima, where it is commonly used for cooking 
in lieu of the ordinary tomato, the flavor of which it resembles. Tweddie says it is used 
in Buenos Aires.' 

Cytisus scoparius Link. Leguminosae, broom, scotch broom. 

Middle Europe. Before the introduction of hops, says Johnson,^ broom tops were 
often used to communicate a slightly bitter flavor to beer. The yoimg flower-buds are 
occasionally pickled and used as a substitute for capers. The seeds, when roasted, are 
used as a coffee substitute in France. 

Dacrydium cupressinum Soland. Coniferae. imou pine, red pine. rimu. 

A lofty tree of New Zealand. The fleshy cup of the nut is eatable, and a beverage 
like spruce-beer is made from its young shoots.* 

Dahlia variabilis Desf. Compositae. dahlia. 

Mexico. The dahlia was first introduced into Spain in 1787, and three specimens 
reached Paris in 1802.* Its petals may be used in salads. It was first cultivated for its 
tubers but these were found to be uneatable. 

Daphne oleoides Schreb. Thymelaeaceae. daphne. 

Europe and Asia Minor. The berries are eaten but are said to' cause nausea and 
vomiting. On the Sutlej a spirit is distilled from them." 

Dasylirion tezanum Scheele. Liliaceae. 

Texas. The bases of the leaves and the young stems are full of nutritious pulp 
which supplies, when cooked, a useful and palatable food.* 

Datiu'a metel Linn. Solanaceae. downy thornapple. 

American tropics. This species grows abundantly along the Colorado River in 
Arizona. The Mohaves gather the leaves and roots, bruise and mix them with water 
and then let the mixture stand several hours after which the liquid is drawn off. The 

' Treas. Bot. 1:374. 1870. 

'Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 3:718. 1834. 

' Miers, J. Illustr. So. Amer. Pis. 1:39. 1840. 

* Johnson, C. P. Useful Pis. Gl. Brit. 70. 1862. 
'Smith, J. Dom. Bot. 35i. 1888. 

Bushman Journ. Agr. 2:30. 1831. 
' Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 384. 1876. 

Havard, V. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 517. 1885. 

232 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

product is a highly narcotic drink producing a stupefying effect which it is not easy to 
temove. The Mohaves will often drink this nauseating liqviid, as they are fond of any 
kind of intoxication.* 

D. sanguines Ruiz & Pav. 

South America. The Peruvians prepare an intoxicating beverage from the seeds, 
which induces stupefaction and furious delirium if partaken of in large quantities.' The 
Arabs of central Africa are said by Burton ' to dry the leaves, the flowers and the rind 
of the rootlets, the latter being considered the strongest preparation, and smoke them 
in a common bowl or in a waterpipe. It is esteemed by them a sovereign remedy for 
asthma and influenza. 

Daucus carota Linn. Umbelliferae. carrot. 

Europe and the adjoining portions of Asia and introduced in North and South America, 
China and Cochin China. The root, says Don,^ is slender, aromatic and sweetish. The 
roots are employed in the Hebrides as an article of food, being eaten raw, and are collected 
by the young women for distribution as dainties among their acquaintances on Simdays 
and at their dances. This wild plant is the original of the cultivated carrot, for, by culti- 
vation and selection, Vihnorin-Andrieux obtained in the space of three years roots as 
fleshy and as large as those of the garden carrot from the thin, wiry roots of the wild species. 
Carrots are now cultivated throughout Eiu'ope and in Paris are a most popular vegetable. 
In some regions, sugar has been made from them but its manufacture was not found profit- 
able. In Germany, a substitute for coffee has been made of carrots chopped up into small 
pieces and browned.' In Sweden, carrots grow as high as latitude 66 to 67 north. In 
Asia, the carrots of the Mahratta and Mysore countries are considered to be of especially 
fine quality. 

The carrot and the parsnip, if known to them, seem to have been confoimded in the 
description by the ancients, and we find little evidence that the cultivated carrot was 
known to the Greek writers, to whom the wild carrot was certainly known. ^ The ancient 
writers usimlly gave prominence to the medical efficacy of herbs; and if our supposition 
is correct that their carrots were of the wild form, we have evidence of the existence of 
the yellow and red roots in nature, the prototypes of these colors now found in oiu- culti- 
vated varieties. Pliny ' says: " They ctiltivate a plant in Syria like staphylinos, the 
wild carrot, which some call gingidium, yet more slender and more bitter, and of the same 
properties, which is eaten cooked or raw, and is of great service as a stomachic; also a fourth 
kind, resembling a pastinac asomewhat, called by us Gallicam, but by the Greeks daucon." 
This comparison with a parsnip and also the name is suggestive of the cultivated carrot. 
Galen, a Greek physician of the second century, implies cultivation of the carrot when he 

'U. S. D. A. Rpt. 423. 1870. 

2 Masters, M. T. Treas. Bot. 1:386. 1870. 

' Ibid. 

*Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 3:354. 1834. 

'Johnson, C. P. Useful Pis. Gt. Brit. 120. 1862. 

' Theophrastus itist. PL Bodaeus Ed. 11 19, H22. 1644. 

' Pliny lib. 20, c. 16; lib. 19, c. 27. 


says the root of the wild carrot is less fit to be eaten than that of the domestic' In the 
thirteenth century, however, Albertus Magnus treats of the plants under field 
culture, garden culture, orchard culture and vineyard cultiire, and yet, while naming 
the parsnip, makes no mention of the carrot if the word pastinaca really means the pars- 
nip. One may believe, however, that the pastinaca of Albertus Magnus is the carrot 
for, in the sixteenth century, Ammonius ^ gives the name for the carrot pastenei, as applying 
to Pastinaca sativa and agrestis. Barbarus, who died in 1493, and Virgil' both describe 
the carrot under the name pastinaca; and Apicius,^ a writer on cookery in the third century, 
gives directions for preparing the Carota sen pastinaca, which can apply only to the carrot. 
Dioscorides ' uses the word carota as applying to Pastinaca silvestris in the first century. 
Columella and Palladius ^ both mention the pastinaca as a garden plant but say nothing 
that cannot better apply to the carrot than to the parsnip. Macer Floridus *' ' also treats 
of what may be the carrot under pastinaca and says no roots afford better food. 

Hence, we believe that the carrot was cultivated by the ancients but was not a very 
general food-plant and did not attain the modem appreciation; that the word pastinaca, 
or cariotam, or carota, in those times was applied to both the cultivated and the wild form; 
and we suspect that the word Gallicam, used by Pliny in the first century, indicates that 
the cultivated root reached Italy from France, where now it is in such exaggerated esteem. 

The siasron of Dioscorides and the siser of Columella and Pliny may have been a form 
of the carrot but we can attain no certainty from the descriptions. The fact that the 
grouping of the roots which occurs in the skirret, into which authors translate siser, is not 
mentioned by the ancients a distinction almost too important to be overlooked and 
that the short carrot was called siser by botanists of the sixteenth century, are argtmients 
in favor of siser being a carrot. On the other hand, we should scarcely expect a distinction 
being made between pastinaca and siser, were both as similar in the plant as are the two 
forms of carrot at present. 

The carrot is now foimd under cultivation and as an escape throughout a large portion 
of the world. In China, it is noticed in the Yuan djoiasty, as brought from western Asia, 
1280-1368,' and is classed as a kitchen vegetable in the sixteenth, seventeenth and eigh- 
teenth centuries by various Chinese authors."' '^ In India, the carrot is said, to 
have come first from Persia and is now cultivated in abundance in the Mahratta and 
Mysore countries." The carrot is enumerated among the edible plants of Japan by 

' Matthiolus Opera 570. 1598. 
'Ammonius Afed. i/er6. 186. 1539. 
' Dioscorides Ruellius Ed. 174. 1529. 

* Apicius lib. 3, c. 21. 

Dioscorides Ruelius Ed. 174. 1529. 

' Columella lib. 11, c. 3. 

' Palladius c. 24. 

Macer Floridus Vir. Herb. L. 1284, Sillig Ed. 1832. 

Macer Floridus Herb. Virt. Pictorius Ed. 95. 1581. 
" Bretschneider, E. On Study ij. 1870. 

" Bretschneider, E. Bot. Sin. 59, 83, 85. 1882. 
Smith. F. P. Contrib. Mat. Med. China 51. 1871. 
"Ainslie, W. Mat. Ind. 1:57. 1826. 


Thunberg ' and earlier by Kaempfer.* The kind now described by a Japanese authority ' 
is an inch and a half in diameter at the crown, nearly two feet and a half long, and of a 
high color. The carrot is now cultivated in the Mauritius, where also it has become 
spontaneous. It is recorded in Arabia by Forskal * and was seen growing both the 
yellow and the red by Rauwolf at Aleppo in the sixteenth century.' In Europe, 
its culture was mentioned by nearly all of the herbalists and by writers on gardening sub- 
jects, the red or purple kind finding mention by Ruellius,' 1536. In England, the yellow 
and dark red, both long forms, are noticed by Gerarde,' 1597, and the species is supposed 
to have been introduced by the Dutch in 1558. In the Surveyors' Dialogue, 1604, it is 
stated that carrot roots are then grown in England and sometimes by farmers.* In the 
New World, carrots are mentioned at Margarita Island by Hawkins, 1565 ' (and this 
implies that they were well known in England at this date) ; are mentioned in Brazil, 1647 ;*" 
in Virginia, 1609 " and 1648; '^ and in Massachusetts, 1629.'' In 1779, carrots were 
among the Indian foods destroyed by General Sullivan near Geneva, New York." So 
fond of carrots are the Flathead Indians, of Oregon, that the children cannot forbear 
stealing them from the fields, although honest as regards other articles. '^ 

Types of Carrots. 
The types of modem carrot are the tap-rooted and the premorse-rooted with a number 
of subtypes, which are very distinct in appearance. The synonymy, in part, is as below: 


The Long, Taper-Pointed Forms. 

Pastinaca saliva prima. Fuch. 682. 1542. 

Moren. Roeszl. 106. 1550. 

Staphylinus. Trag. 442. 1552. 

Carota. Cam. Epit. 509. 1586 (very highly improved) ; Matth. 549. 1598. 

Pastinaca sativa Diosc. Daucus Theophrasti. Lob. Icon. 1:720. 1591. 

Pastinaca sativa tenuifolia. Ger. 872. 1597. 

Pastinaca sativa rubens. Dod. 678. 1616. 

Long yellows, red, and whites of modern culture. 

' Thunberg Fl. Jap. 117, xxxiii. 1784. 

Kaempfer, E. Amoen. S22. 1712. 
'Amer.Hort. Sept. 9, 1886. 
*FoTskal Fl. Aeg. Arab, xciii. 1775. 

* Gronovious Fl. Orient. 22. 1755. 
Ruellius Nat. Stirp. 699. 1536. 
'Gerarde, J. Herb. S72. 1597. 

Card. Chron. 346. 1853. 

' Hawkins, Sir John. Second Voy. Hakl. Soc. Ed. 57:27. 1878. 
'" Churchill CoW. Fny. 2:132. 1732. 

^^ True Decl. Fa. 13. 1610. Force Coll. Tracts 3 : 1844. 
" Per}. Desc. Va. 4. 1649. Force Coll. Tracts 2: 1838. 
" Higginson Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll. ist ser. 1:118. 1806. 
" Conover, G. S. Early Hist. Geneva. 47. 1879. 
" Pacific R. R. Rpt. 1:295. 1855. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 235 


The Half-Long, Taper-Pointed Forms. 

Pastinaca saliva altera. Fuch. 683. 1542. 

Siser. Matth. Comment. 242. 1558; Pin. 147. 1561. 

Siser alterum. Cam. Epit. 22 "j. 1586. 

Carota. Dur. C. 95. 1617. 

Blanche des Vosges. Vilm. 70. 1883. 

Danvers Half-long of American gardens. 

Premorse-Rooted Forms. 

The premorse forms offer a number of subtypes which are very distinct, some being 
nearly spherical, others cylindrical, and yet others tapering, but all ending abruptly at the 
base, the tap-root starting from a flat, or nearly flat, surface. This appearance seems 
to be modem. 

The spherical. The earliest mention of this type is in France in 1824, 1826 and 
1829, as the Courte de Pollande.^, -, '. It is figured by Decaisne and Naudin,* and, in a 
more improved form, by Viknorin in 1883. 

The cylindrical. The carrots of this type are remarkably distinct and have foi types 
the Carentan and the Coreless of Viknorin. The first was in American seed-catalogs 
in 1878. 

The tapering. A number of varieties belong to this class, of which the Early Horn 
is the type. This was mentioned for American gardens by McMahon,^ 1806, and by 
succeeding authors. 

In view of the confusion in early times in the naming of the carrot, it is desirable 
to offer a list of the names used by various authors, with the dates. The first, or long 
carrot, was called in England, carot, Lyte, 1586: In France, carota, Ruel., 1536; carottes, 
pastenades, Pin., 1561; pastenade jaune, pastenade rouge, Lyte, 1586; carotte, racine jaune, 
Ger., 1597: In Germany, Pastenei, Ammon., 1539; Pastiney Pastinachen, Fuch., 1542; 
geel Ruben, rohte Ruben, weissen Ruben, Trag., iss'2\Mohren, Rosz., 1550; Moren, Pin., 
1561; gelbe Ruben, weissen Ruben, RauwoU, 1582; rot Mohren, weisse Mohren, Cam., 1586: 
In Dutch, geel peen, pooten, geel mostilen, caroten, Lyte, 1586: In Italy, carota, Pin., 1561; 
carota and carotola. Cam., 1586; pastinaca, Ger., 1597; Dod., 1616: In Spain, canahoria, 
Ger., 1^97; and pastenagues, cenoura, Dod., 1616. 

The half -long, taper-pointed carrot was called siser by Matthiolus in 1 5 58 : In France, 
carottes blanche. Pin. 1561; but his other names applicable to the skirret are the chervy, 
giroles or carottes blanches. Cam. Epit. 1586: In Germany, Gierlin or Girgellin, Cam. 
1586: In Italy, carota bianca. Cam. 1586; carotta, carocola, Dur. C. 1617: In Spain, 
chirivias. Camerarius, 1586, says they were planted in gardens and even in fields 
throughout Germany and Bohemia. 

' PiroUe L'Hort. Franc. 1824. 

^ Petit Did. Jard. 1826. 

Noisette Man. Jard. 1829. 

* Decaisne and Naudin Man. Jard. 4:125. 

' McMahon, B. Amer. Card. Cal. 313. 1806. 

236 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

The various forms of the carrot have probably their prototypes in nature but as yet 
the evidence is a little deficient. We may suspect the general resemblance of the Altringham 
to the Japanese variety, already mentioned, to be somewhat more than accidental and 
to signify the original introduction of this variety from Japan. We have, in the attempts 
at amelioration, noted the appearance of forms of types similar to those under cultivation. 
The presiunptive evidence is in favor of the view that all cultivated types are removes 
from nature, not new originations by man ; yet the proof is not as decisive as could be wished.' 

D. gingidium Linn. 

Europe and north Africa. This is the gingidium of the ancients, according to Sprengel. 
" There is,' saith Galen, great increase of gingidium in Syria, and it is eaten. . . . 
Diascorides doth also write the same: this pote herbe, (saith he) is eaten raw, sodden, 
and preserved with great good to the stomacke."' 

Debregeasia edulis Wedd. Urticaceae. 

Japan. The plant is called janatsi-itsigo or toon itsigo. Its berries are edible.* 

Decaisnea insignis Hook. f. & Thoms. Berberideae. 

Himalayas. The fruit is of a pale yellow color and is full of a white, juicy pulp that 
is very sweet and pleasant; the fruit is eagerly sought after by the Lepchas.* 

Dendrobium speciosum Sm. Orchideae. rock-lily. 

Australia. This orchid, fotmd growing upon rocks, has large pseudo-bulbs, the size 
of cuciunbers, which are said to be eaten by the natives.* 

Dendrocalamus hamiltonii Nees & Am. Gramineae. 

Himalayas. This stately bamboo is called poo by the Lepchas and wak by the 
Mechis in Sikkim. The young shoots are boiled and eaten.' 

Desmoncus prunifer Poepp. Palmae. 
Peru. The acid-sweet fruit is edible.* 

Detarium senegalense J. F. Gmel. Leguminosae. dattock. 

Tropical Africa. The fruits are about the size of an apricot. Underneath the thin 
outer covering there is a quantity of green, farinaceous, edible pulp intermi.xed with 
stringy fibres that proceed from the inner and bony covering which encloses the single 
seed. There are two varieties; one bitter, the other sweet. The latter is sold in the 
markets and is prized by the negroes.' 

' Proc. Soc. Prom. Agr. Set. 68. 1886. 

' Sprengel Hist. 1 : 1 64. 1 8 1 7. 

Gerarde, J. Herb. 2nd Ed. 1042. 1633 or 1636. 

'Mueller, F. Sel. Ph. 150. 1891. 

Hooker, J. D. Illustr. Himal. Ph. Plate X. 1855. 

Smith, J. Dom. Bot. 1%^. 1871. 

'Brandis, D. Forest Fl. syo. 1876; 

' Seemann, B. Pop. Hist, of Palms 188. 1856. 

Black, A. A. Treoi. So/. 1:396. 1870. 


Dialium guineese Willd. L^guminosae. vtelvet tamarind. 

Tropical Africa. The pod, about the size and form of a filbert, is covered with a black, 
velvety down, while the farinaceous pulp, which sturounds the seeds, has an agreeably- 
acid taste and is commonly eaten. ' 

D. indum Linn, tamarind plum. 

Java. The plant has a delicious pulp, resembling that of the tamarind but not quite 
so acid.^ 

D. ovoideum Thw. 

Ceylon. The fruits are sold in the bazaars. They have an agreeable, acid flavor.' 

Dicypellium caryophyllatum Nees. Laurineae. 

Tropical America. The bark furnishes clove cassia.'' It is called by French colonists 
bois de rose; in Carib, licari kanaliJ" 

Diefifenbachia seguine Schott. Aroideae. dumb cane. 

Tropical America. A wholesome starch is prepared from the stem, although the 
juice of the plant is so excessively acrid as to cause the mouth of any one biting it f o swell 
and thus to prevent articulation for several days.' 

Digera arvensis Forsk. Amarantaceae. 

Asia and tropical Africa. A very common, procumbent shrub of India, frequent 
in cultivated ground. The leaves and tender tops are used by the natives in their curries.' 

Dillenia indica Linn. Dilleniaceae. 

Tropical Asia. The subacid, mucilaginous fruit, the size of an orange, is eaten in the 
Eastern Archipelago. The fleshy leaves of the calyx v/hich surrounds the ripe fruit have 
an agreeable, acid taste and are eaten raw or cooked, or made into sherbets, or serve 
for jellies in India. They are commonly used in curries. The large amount of fiber they 
contain is objectionable. This is the chulta of India. ^ In the Philippines, the juice of 
the fruit serves as vinegar. 

D. pentagyna Roxb. 

East Indies. The flower-buds and young fruits have a pleasant, acid flavor and are 
eaten raw or cooked in Oudh and central India. The ripe fruits are also eaten. 

D. scabrella Roxb. sandpaper tree. 

Himalayan region. The fleshy leaves of the calyx have a pleasantly acid taste and 

' Black, A. A. Treas. Bot. 1:397. 1870. {D. aculifolium) 


Masters, M. T. Treai. So/. 1:405. 1870. 

' Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 674. 1879. 

Smith, A. Treas. Bot. 1:406. 1870. 

' Wight, R. /con. P/i. 2:732. 1843. (Desmochaeta muricata) 

' Firminger, T. A. C. Card. Ind. 211. 1874. (Q.speciosa) 


are used in curries.' In Burma, the green fruit is brought to the bazaars and is considered 
a favorite vegetable.' 

D. serrata Thunb. 

Malay. The fruit is the size of an orange and has a sweetish, acid taste.' It is eaten 
in the Eastern Archipelago. 

Dimorphandra mora Benth. & Hook. f. Leguminosae. 

A gigantic timber-tree of British Guiana. The seeds, says Brown,* are used by the 
natives as food, being boiled, grated, and then mixed with cassava meal, giving it a brown 
color but a pleasant and sweetish taste. The seeds of another species are likewise used. 

Dioon edule Lindl. Cycadaceae. 

Mexico. The seeds yield a starch used as arrowroot.' 

Dioscorea. Dioscoreaceae. yams. 


Under the general name of yams the large, fleshy, tuberous roots of several species 
of Dioscorea are cultivated in tropical and subtropical countries. Many varieties 
known only in cultivation are described as species by some authors. In the Fiji Islands 
alone, says Milne,* there are upwards of 50 varieties, some growing to an enormous 
size, occasionally weighing from 50 to 80 pounds but the general average is from two to 
eight pounds. In Australia, according to Drummond,' there is a native yam which affords 
the principal vegetable food of the natives. 

D. aculeata Linn, birch-rind yam. goa potato. 

Tropical Asia. This yam is said to be a native of tropical, eastern Asia, and is cul- 
tivated in the Indian Archipelago, the Pacific islands and the West Indies. The root 
is of a sweetish taste and Dr. Seemann ' regarded it as one of the finest esculent roots of 
the globe. It is cultivated in India ^ and the tubers are dug, in the cold season, in the 
forests and sold in the bazaars. 1 A variety cultivated at Caracas has a very delicious 
taste," though Lunan,'^ at Jamaica, says this yam is slightly bitter. This yam is said by 
Seemann, at Viti, never to flower or fruit. 

D. alata Linn, white yam. 

Tropical Asia. This plant is ctiltivated in the tropics of the whole earth, linger *' 

iWallich P;. ^iia/. 1:21. Tab. 22. 1830. 

'Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 112. 1879. {D. scabia) 

Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 1:7s. 1831. 

* Brown, C. B. Camp Life Brit. Guiana 383. 1876. (Mora excelsa) 
' Lindley, J. Bot. Reg. Misc. 59. 1843. 

Milne, W. Bot. Soc. Edinb. 6:263. i860. 
' Hooker, W. J. Journ. Bot. 2:355. 1840. 
'Mueller, F. 5e/. P/j. 153. 1891. 

' Roxburgh, W. Hort. Beng. 72. 1814. 
' Drury, H. Useful Pis. Ind. 183. 1873. 
"Mueller, F. Sel. Pis. 153. 1891. 
" Lunan, J. flor/. /am. 2:309, 310. 1814. 
"Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rbt. 310. 1859. 


says the Indian Archipelago and the southern portions of the Indian continent is the 
starting point of this yam, thence it was carried first to the eastern coast of Africa, next 
to the west coast and thence to America, whence the names yam and igname are 
derived from the negroes. In the negro dahect of Guinea, the word yam means " to eat." 
This is the species most generally cultivated in the Indian Archipelago, the small islands 
of the Pacific and the Indian continent. ^ It is universally cultivated in the Carnatic 
region.^ There are several varieties in Jamaica, where it is called white yam.' 

D. atropurpurea Roxb. Malacca yam. Rangoon yam. 

Siamese cotintries. The Malacca yam is cultivated in India and is known in Cal- 
cutta as the rangoon yam.* It is called in Burma myouk-nee and is cultivated.* 

D. bulbifera Linn, air potato. 

Tropical Asia. Less cultivated than many others, this yam is found wild in the 
Indian Archipelago, upon the Indian continent as far as SiUiet and Nepal to Madagascar.* 
Grant ' found it in central Africa. The bulbs are like the Brazil-nut in size and shape 
cut I'ke a potato when vmripe and are very good boiled. Schweinfurth ' says it is called 
nyitti and the bulbs which protrude from the axils of the leaves, in shape like a great 
Brazil-nut, resemble a potato in taste and bulk. In the Samoan and Tonga group of 
islands, the root is not considered edible. In India, the flowers and roots are eaten by 
the poorer classes, the very bitter root being soaked in lye to extract the bitterness, but 
a variety occurs which is naturally sweet.' In Jamaica, it is cultivated by the negroes for 
the bulbs of the stem.'" It was seen in a garden at Mobile, Alabama, by Wm. Bartram," 
about 1733, under cultivation for its edible roots. 

D. cayenensis Lam. 

Tropical South America. The root is edible. 

D. daemona Roxb. 

East Indies. The plant is called kywae and its very acrid root is eaten by the Karens 
in times of scarcity.'^ 

D. decaisneana Carr. 

China. The root is edible and was introduced into France as a garden plant but 
is now forgotten, although it is perhaps valuable." 

> De CandoUe, A. Geog. Bot. 821. 1855. 

Wight, R. Icon. Pis. 3: PI. 810. No date. 

'Lunan, J. Hort. Jam. 2:30^. 1814. 

Firminger, T. A. C. Card. Ind. 122. 1874. 

' Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. -ji^. 1879. 

De Candolle, A. Geog. Bot. 2:821. 1855. 

' Speke, J. H. Journ. Disc. Source Nile ^84. 1864. 

' Schweinfurth, G. Heart. Afr. i:2$i. 1874. (Helmia bulbifera) 

' Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 416. 1879. 
'"Lunan, J. Hort. Jam. 2:2,10. 1814. 
" Hist. Mass. Hart. Soc. 27. 1880. 
"Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 589. 1879. 
" Bon Jard. 51 .^. 1882. 


D. deltoidea Wall. 

East Indies. This species occurs both wild and cultivated in the Indian Archipelago;* 
its roots are eaten. 

D. divaricata Blanco. Chinese potato. Chinese yam. cinnamon vine. yam. 

Philippine Islands, China and everywhere cultivated in several varieties. This yam 
was received in France in 1851 from Shanghai, and was introduced into the United States, 
in 1855, by the Patent Office Department. It has not fulfilled expectation in the United 
States and is now grown principally as an ornamental climber. It was observed in Japan ' 
by Thunberg.' 

D. fasciculata Roxb. yam. 

Tropical eastern Asia. This species is cultivated largely about Calcutta, and a starch 
is made from its tubers.' Firminger says this is a very distinct kind of yam, the tubers 
about the size, form and color of large kidney potatoes; when well cooked, it has a greater 
resemblance in mealiness, and flavor to the potato than any other yam he knows of. It 
is much cultivated in the Philippines by the natives and is much esteemed.' 

D. globosa Roxb. yam. 

East Indies. This species is much cultivated in India as yielding the best kind of 
yam and is much esteemed both by Europeans and natives.' Roxburgh ' says it is the 
most esteemed yam in Bengal, but Firminger * thinks it not equal in quality to other 
varieties. In Burma, Mason ' says it is the best of the white-rooted kinds. 
D. hastifolia Nees. yam. 

Australia. The tubers are largely consumed by the aborigines for food, and this 
is the only plant on which they bestow any kind of cultivation. 1 

D. japonica Thunb. 

Japan. The roots, cut into slices and boiled, have a very pleasant taste." 
D. ntunmularia Lam. tivolo yam. 

Moluccas. This yam has cylindrical roots as thick as an arm and of excellent 

D. oppositifolia Linn. yam. 

East Indies. This is one of the edible yams." 

' De CandoUe, A. Geog. Bol. 2:821. 1855. 

' Thunberg, C. P. Fl. Jap. 150. 1784. 

Drury, H. Useful Pis. Ind. 183. 1873. 

* Firminger, T. A. C. Card. Ind. 122. 1874. 

> Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 865. 1879. (D. tugui) 

Drury, H. Useful Pis. Ind. 183. 1873. 

'Mueller, F. Sel. Pis. 15^. 1891. 

' Firminger, T. A. C. Card. Ind. 121. 1874. 

Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 862. 1879. 
"Mueller, F. Sel. Pis. 154. 1891. 
" Thunberg, C. P. Trav. y. 84. 1796. 
" Mueller, F. Sel. Pis. 155. 1891. 
" Ibid. 


D. pentaphylla Linn. yam. 

Tropical Asia. In India, this yam is common in jungles and is found in the South 
Sea Islands. Wight ' has never seen it cultivated in India, although the natives dig the 
tubers to eat. It is cultivated in Amboina and sometimes in Viti.^ In India, the male 
flowers are sold in the bazaars and eaten as greens.' The tubers are eaten in Viti * and 
Hawaii.* It is a good yam.* Graham ' says the tubers are dreadfully nauseous and 
intensely bitter even after being boiled. They are put into toddy to render it more 
potent, as they have intoxicating properties, and a few slices are sufficient. In China, 
the " nauseous tubers are sometimes cooked and eaten." * 

D. piperifolia Hiunb. & Bonpl. 

South America. This species has edible roots.' 

D. purpurea Roxb. pondi cherry sweet potato. 

East Indies. The Pondicherry sweet potato is known only in a cultivated state, '" 
and was brought to India from the Mauritius, where it is much grown. The tuber is 
of a dull, crimson-red outside and of a glistening white within. 

D. quinqueloba Thimb. yam. 

Japan. This species is an edible yam of Japan." 

D. rubella Roxb. yam. 

East Indies. This is a common but very excellent yam of India, as good perhaps as 
any in cultivation. The tuber is of great size, crimson-red on the outside and of a glisten- 
ing white within. 

D. sativa Linn. yam. 

Tropics. Pickering '' states that this species is fotmd in tropical America and is 
cultivated by the Waraus of the delta of the Orinoco. The word igname was heard by 
Vespucius on the coast of Para and was fotmd by Cabral, in 1500, applied in Brazil to a 
root from which bread was made. This yam was carried by European colonists to the 
Malayan Archipelago. Its roots, says Seemann,'' are acrid and require to be soaked 
before boiling. Browne '* says it is cultivated in the southern United States for its large, 
flattened and sometimes palmated roots, which are boiled, roasted and eaten like the 

'Wight, R. Icon. Pis. 3:814. No date. 
'Seemann, B. Fl. Viti. 308. 1865-73. 
Drury, H. Useful Pis. Ind. 183. 1873. 
Seemann, B. Fl. Viti. 108. 1865-73. 
' Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. /[i6. 1879. 
Mueller, F. Sel. Pis. 155. 1891. 
'Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 729. 1879. 
Smith, F. P. Contrib. Mat. Med. China 86. 1871. 
Mueller, F. Sel. Pis. 1^$. 1891. 
"> Drury, H. Useful Pis. Ind. 183. 1873. 
"Mueller, P. Sel. Pis. 1^^. 1891. 
"Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. Ti^. 1879. 
"Seemann, B. Fl. Viti. 307. 1865-73. 
U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 389. 1854. 


D. spicata Roth. 

East Indies. It has edible roots.* 

D. tomentosa Koen. doyala yam. 

East Indies. This is the Doyala yam of India.* 

D. trifida Linn. Indian yam. 

Guiana and Central America. This species is cultivated as an edible yam.' 

D. triloba Lam. yam. 

Guiana. This is the smallest and most delicate of the yams grown in Jamaica. It 
seldom exceeds eight or nine inches in length and two or three in diameter and is generally 
smaller. The roots have a pleasant, sweetish taste, very agreeable to most palates.^ 

Diospjrros chloroxylon Roxb. Ebenaceae. 

East Indies. This Indian tree has a cherry-like fruit which is very palatable.' The 
fruit is sweetish, clammy and subastringent but edible.' 

D. decandra Lour. 

Cochin China. The berry is large, nearly globular, pulpy, yellowish when ripe; its 
taste is sweet and austere, combined with a disagreeable smell. It is, however, sold in 
the markets and eaten.'' 

D. discolor Willd. mangosteen. 

Philippine Islands. This species is commonly oiltivated in many islands of the 
East and has also been introduced into the West Indies. The fruit is like a large quince 
and in some places is called mangosteen. Its flavor is agreeable. The fruit of this tree 
is brown, with a pink-colored, fleshy rind, the pulp firm and white and the flavor agreeable. 
It is cultivated in the Isle of France for its fruit.' 

D. dodecandra Lour. 

Cochin China. The berry is pale, with a sweetish, astringent, edible and pleasant 

D. ebenum Koen. east indian ebony. 
This plant bears an edible fruit." 

D. embryopteris Pers. 

East Indies. The fruit of this tree of India is not imlike a russet apple, pulpy, of 

Mueller, F. Sd. Ph. i^S- 1891. 

'Mueller, P. Sel. Ph. !=,(>. 1891. 


* Lunan, J. Hort. Jam. 2:309. 1814. 

'Roxburgh, W. Pis. Coram. 1:2,^. 1795. 

' Royle, J. F. Illustr. Bot. Himal. 1:262. 1839. 

' Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 4:39. 1838. 

Smith, J. Diet. Econ. Pis. 2^^. 1882. (D. mabola) 

"Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 4:40. 1838. (D. mabola) 
' Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 4:41. 1838. 
"Unger, F. U.S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 339. 1859. (D. ebanaster) 


unattractive yellow color and covered with a rust-colored farina. It is occasionally eaten 
but is not palatable." It is eaten by the natives. ^ 

D. kaki Linn, date plum. Japanese persimmon, kaki. keg-fig. 

Japan. This plant has been cultivated in Japan for a long period and has produced 
many varieties, some of which are seedless. The fruit, in general, is as large as an ordinary 
apple, of a bright color, and contains a semi-transparent pulp. The tree is cultivated in 
India and in China and was seen in Japan by Thunberg,^ 1776. It was introduced into 
the United^States from Japan by the Perry expedition and one of these trees is still grow- 
ing at Washington. About 1864, others were imported; in 1877, 5000 plants in ten vaiie- 
ties were brought to America. This persimmon is now grown in California, Georgia 
and elsewhere. The fruit is described as delicious by all who have eaten the best 

D. lanceaefolia Roxb. 

East India. This is an eastern fruit, said by Kotschy * to have a taste similar to 

D. lotus Linn, false lote-tree. 

Temperate Asia. The fruit is the size of a cherry, yellow when ripe, sweet with 
astringency.^ The sweetish fruit is much prized by the Afghan tribes, who eat it fresh 
or dried * and use it in sherbets. 

D. melanoxylon Roxb. coromandel ebony. 

East Indies and Ceylon. The yellow fruit is about one to one and one-half inches 
through, with soft, sweet, slightly astringent flesh, which is eaten and is refreshing.^ 

D. obtusifolia Willd. 

South America. This is the sapota negro, with small, black, edible fruit.* 

D. pentamera Woods & F. Muell. gray plum. 

Eastern tropical Australia. The fruits, which are produced in great abundance, are 
eaten by the aborigines.' 

D. pilosanthera Blanco. 

Philippines. The fruit of this tree is eaten."" 

D. tetraspenna Sw. wattle tree. 

Jamaica. The fruit is eaten by negroes."" 

lAinslie, W. Mat. Ind. 2:27%. 1826. 
Drary, H. Useful Pis. Ini. 195. 1873. 
Thunberg, C. P. Fl. Jap. 157. 1784. 

* Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 344. 1859. 
Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 4:38. 1838. 

Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 298. 1874. 
' Brandis, D. Forest FL 296. 1874. 

> Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 4:39. 1838. 

Black, A. A. Treas. Bot. 1:223. 1870. 
" Pickering, C. Chron. Hist, of Pis. 917. 1879. 
" Lunan, J. Hort. Jam. 2:318. 1814. 


D. texana Scheele. black persimmon. 

Mexico. This is the black persimmon of the Americans and the sapote-pieto of 
the Mexicans of western Texas. The black, cherry-like fruit is melting and very 

D. tomentosa Roxb. ebony. 

East Indies. The sweetish, clammy and subastringent fruit of this plant is eaten. 

D. toposia Buch.-Ham. 

East Indies. The fruit of this species is sweetish, clammy, and subastringent but 

D. virginiana Linn, persimmon. 

North America, fovmd wild from the 42nd parallel to Texas, often attaining the size 
of a large tree. This plant is the persimmon, piakmine, or pessimmon of America, called 
by the Louisiana natives ougoufle. Loaves made of the substance of prunes " like imto 
brickes, also plummes of the making and bigness of nuts and have three or foiu" stones 
in them " were seen by DeSoto on the Mississippi. It is called mespilorum by LeMoyne 
in Florida; " mespila unfit to eat until soft and tender " by Hariot on the Roanoke; pes- 
simmens by Strachey on the James River; and medlars on the Hudson by the remonstrants 
against the policy of Stuyvesant.' The fruit is pltmi-like, about an inch in diameter, 
exceedingly astringent when green, yellow when ripe, and sweet and edible after exposure 
to frost. Porcher ^ says the fruit, when matured, is very sweet and pleasant to the taste 
and yields on distillation, after fermentation, a quantity of spirits. A beer is made of it. 
Mixed with flour, a pleasant bread may be prepared. Occasional varieties are found 
with fruit double the size of the ordinary kind. The best persimmons ripen soft and 
sweet, having a clear, thin, transparent skin without any roughness. Flint, ^ in his 
Western States, says when the small, blue persimmon is thoroughly ripened, it is even 
sweeter than the fig and is a delicious fruit. It is sometimes cultivated in America and 
is also to be found in some gardens in Europe. 

Dipladenia tenuifolia A. DC. Apocynaceae. 

Brazil. This plant is called by the inhabitants of Sertao, Brazil, cauhy, and the 
tuberous root, which is the size and color of a large, black turnip-radish, is eaten by 
them when cooked and is said to be very palatable; in the raw state it tastes not xmlike a 

Diplazium esculentum. Polypodioceae. 

This fern, according to Royle,'' is employed as food in the Himalayas. 

1 Lindenheimer U. S. D. A. Rpt. 166. 1875. 
'Royle, J. P. Illustr. Bot. Himal. 1:262. 1839. 
Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 770. 1879. 

* Porcher, F. P. Res. So. Fields, Forests 424. 1869. 
'Flint, T. West. States ^.^i. 1828. 

Gardner, G. Trav. Braz. 179. 1846^ 

' Royle, J. F. Illustr. Bot. Himal. 1:429. 1839. 


Diplothemiiun maritimum Mart. Palmae. coast palm. 

A palm of Brazil. The fruit, an ovate or obovate drupe, is yellow and has a fibrous, 
acid-sweet flesh, which is eaten by the Indians.' 

Diposis bulbocastanum DC. Umbelliferae. 
Chile. The tubers are edible. ^ 

Dobera roxburghii Planch. Salvadoraceae. 

East Indies and South Africa. This is a large tree called in Yemen dober; ' the fruit 
is eaten. 

Dolichandrone stipulata Benth. & Hook. f. Bignoniaceae. 

Burma. The flowers, according to Mason,^ are brought to market for food. 

Dolichos biflorus Linn. Leguminosae. horse grain. 

Old World tropics. This is the horse grain of the East Indies. The bean occurs 
in white, brown and black. The seeds are boiled in India for the horses, and the liquor 
that remains is used by the lower class of servants in their own food.* There are varieties 
with gray and black seeds; the natives use the seeds in their curries.^ 

D. hastatus Loitr. 

East Africa. This plant is cultivated on the east coast of Africa and the seeds are 
eaten by the natives.' 

D. lablab Linn, bonavista bean, hyacinth bean, lablab. 

Tropics of India and China. A number of varieties of this bean are ciiltivated in 
Asiatic coimtries for the pulse and the tender pods. There is a great diversity in the 
color of the flowers, size and shape of pod and color of seeds. Roxburgh * describes var. 
rectum, pods straight, seeds reddish, flowers white, large; called pauch-seem: Yar. falcatum 
minus, pods falcate, size of the little finger, flowers white, largish; called baghonuko-seem: 
Var. falcatum majus, pods falcate, flowers purple; called dood-pituli-seem: Var. gladiatum 
fiore albo, pods gladiate-clavate, length of the little finger, flowers white; called sada-jamai- 
puli-seem: Var. gladiatum flore purpurea, called pituli-jamai-puli-seem: Var. macrocarpum, 
the largest of all, pods six to eight inches long, seeds black with a white eye, flowers red; 
called gychi-seem. 

A great number of synonyms which have been assigned to this species is indicative 
of the variable character of the plant. In India, where it is much cultivated, four eatable 
varieties which are offered for sale in the bazaars during the cold season, are thus described 

Seemann, B. Pop. Hist. Palms 190. 1856. 

* Mueller, P. Set. Pis. Z58. 1891. 

' Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 390. 1879. {D. glabra) 

Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 112. 1879. {Bignonia stipulata) 
Elliott, W. Bot. Soc. Edinb. 7:293. 1863. {D. uniflorus) 

Drury, H. Useful Pis. Ind. 186. 1873. 
'Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 2:358. 1832. 

' Firminger, T. A. C. Card. Ind. 150. 1874. 

246 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

by Roxbxirgh:' Var. albiflorum, the shevet-seem, flowers white, smallish, cultivated in 
gardens as a pole bean; the tender pods are eaten, the seeds never; the plant has a 
disagreeable smell: Var. rubiflorum, the jeea-seem, flowers red, cultivated and much 
esteemed by the natives: Var. purpurascens, the goordal-seem, a large variety with large, 
purple flowers: Var. purpureum, the ruk-to-seem, stem and large flowers purple, the pods 
deep purple. Wight ' calls the species a very valuable pulse generally esteemed by all 
classes of natives and very extensively cultivated in Mysore. In Jamaica, it is called the 
bonavista-bean and is ciiltivated in most parts of the country. The bean is a wholesome, 
palatable food and is in general use.' On the east coast of Africa, the leaves are dried 
and made into a spinach.* 

D. sesquipedalis Linn, asparagus bean, yard-long bean. 

South America. This bean was first described by Linnaeus,^ 1763. It reached 
England in 1781.' Linnaeus gives its habitat as America and Jacquin received it from 
the West Indies. Martens ' considers it as a synonym of Dolichos sinensis Linn. Loureiro's' 
description of D. sinensis certainly applies well to the asparagus bean, and Loureiro * 
thinks the D. sesquipedalis of Linnaeus the same. He refers to Rumphius's Amboina, 
1.9, c. 22, tab. 134, as representing his plant, and this work, published in 1750, antedates 
the description of Linnaeus. Probably this is an East Indian plant, introduced into the 
West Indies. 

The name, asparagus bean, comes from the use of the green pods as a vegetable, and 
a tender, asparagus-like dish it is. The name at Naples, fagiolo e maccarone, conveys the 
same idea. The pods grow very long, oftentimes two feet in length, hence the name, 
yard-long bean, often used. The asparagus, or yard-long, bean is mentioned for Ameri- 
can gardens in 1828 ' and probably was introduced earlier. It is mentioned for French 
gardens under the name of haricot asperge in 1829.'" There are no varieties known to oui 
seedsmen, but Vilmorin offers one, the Dolique de Cuba.^^ 

D. sphaerospermus DC. black-eyed pea. 

Jamaica. This is the black-eyed pea of the Barbados.*^ It is a native of Jamaica, 
and the seeds are sweet and as good for food as any of the kidney beans. 

D. umbellatus Thunb. 

Japan. The seeds and pods are used in the preparation of a starch and meal." There 

' Firminger, T. A. C. Card. Ind. 149. 1874. 

Wight, R. Illustr. Ind. Bot. I .192. 1840. (Lablab vulgaris) 

' Long Hist. Jam. 3:785. 1774. 

*Speke, J. H. Journ. Disc. Source Nile 567. 1864. {LaUab vulgaris) 

' Linnaeus 5/). //. 1019. 1763. 

' Martyn Miller Card. Diet. 1807. 

' Martens Gartenbohnen 100. 1869. 

' Loureiro Ft. Cochin. 436. 1790. 

' Fessenden New Amer. Card. 36. 1828. 

" Noisette Man. Jard. 1829. 

" Thorbum Cat. 1828. 

"Don, G. Hist. tHchl. Pis. 2:s6o. 1832. 

Card. Chron. 25:458. 1886. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 247 

are several varieties of this plant under culture; some of them are pole beans, others 

Doryanthes excelsa Correa. Amaryllideae. giant lily. 

Australia. A liliaceous plant 24 feet high of which the stem is roasted and eaten 

by the Australians.^ 

Dovyalis zizyphoides E. Mey. Bixineae. 

South Africa. The red berries are edible.' 

Dracaena draco Linn. Liliaceae. dragon-tree. 

Canary Islands. The dragon tree furnished dragons-blood once considerably exported 
from the Canaries. At Porto Santo, one of the Madeira Islands, Cada Mosto in 1454 
found the tree yielding " a kind of fruit, like to our cherries but yellow, which grows ripe 
in March and is of a most exquisite taste." * 

Dracontium pol3T)hyllum Linn. Aroideae. 

South America. The roots serve as food to the natives of the Pacific isles.* . 

Dracontomelon sylvestre Blume. Anacardiaceae. 

Borneo. This species is planted at Rewa, Fiji Islands. Pickering, in Races of Man, 
mentions the fruit under the name canarium and says it is sour and edible. 

Dregea volubilis Benth. Asclepiadeae. 

East Indies. " I have been informed," says Ainslie,' " that the leaves are amongst 
those which are occasionally eaten as greens by the natives of lower India but I am doubtful 
of this, considering the general character of the genus." 

Drimys aromatica F. Muell. Magnoliaceae. pepper tree. 

Australia. The ripe fruit is black. Hooker * says, and the whole plant is highly 
aromatic and pungent, hence its seeds and berries are sometimes used as pepper. 

D. winteri Forst. new granada winter-bark. 

South America. The bark of the variety montana is used in Brazil as a seasoning.' 

Drosera rotundifolia Linn. Droseraceae. lustwort. sundew. 

Northern regions. The round-leaved sundew is said by Figuer '" to be acrid and 
caustic, and in Italy a liquor called rossoli is distilled from its juices. It curdles milk. 

' Georgeson Amer. Card. 14:84. 1893. 

'Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 56^. 1879. 

Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. i:2()2. 1831. {Flactmrtia rhamnoides) 

*Gen. Coll. Voy. Portugese ^o. 1789. 

De CandoUe, A. Ceog. Bat. 2:827. 1855. 

Gray, A. Bot. U. S. Explor. Exped. 375. 1854. 
'Ainslie, W. Mat. Ind. 2:155. 1826. (Asclepias volubilis) 

Hooker, W. J. Journ. Bot. 2:404. 1840. {Tasmania aromatica) 
Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 1:80. 1831. (D. granalensis) 
"Figuier Veg. World 405. 1867. 

248 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

Dryas octopetala Linn. Rosaceae. mountain avens. 

Northern temperate and arctic regions. In Iceland, the leaves of this plant are used 
as a substitute for tea.' 

Duguetia longifolia Baill. Anonaceae. 

Guiana, Peru and Trinidad. The fruit is nearly round, as big as a Reinette apple, 
the surface divided by reticulated divisions, the skin thin, and the red, delicate, viscous 
flesh excellent and very agreeable.* It is very much prized by the Caribs.' 

Durio oxleyanus Griff. Malvaceae. 

Malay Islands. This is probably the form of the durian from which the cioltivated 
species has originated.^ 

D. zibethinus Murr. durian. 

Malayan Archipelago. Accounts of this far-famed fruit had reached Europe as 
early as 1640, as Parkinson^ mentions it. The fruit is of the size of a man's head and 
the seed, with its enveloping pulp, about the size of a hen's egg. The pulp is a pure white, 
resembling blanc mange and as delicious in taste as the finest cream. The odor is, how- 
ever, intolerable. Wallace ' says that to eat durians is a sensation worth a voyage to 
the East to experience. The tmripe fruit is used as a vegetable. Bayard Taylor ^ says: 
" Of all fruits, at first the most intolerable but said by those who have smothered their 
prejudices, to be of all fruits, at last, the most indispensable. When it is brought to you 
at first, you clamor till it is removed; if there are durians in the next room to you, you 
cannot sleep. Chloride of lime and disinfectants seem to be its necessary remedy. To 
eat it, seems to be the sacrifice of self respect; but endure it for a while, with closed nostrils, 
taste it once or twice, and you will cry for durians thenceforth, even I blush to write 
it even before the glorious mongosteen." 

Durville utilia Bory. Algae. 

This seaweed is employed in soups in Chile.* 

Dysoxylum spectabile Hook. f. Meliaceae. 

A tree of New Zealand, called by the inhabitants kohe, or wahahe. Its leaves have 
a bitter taste and are employed as a substitute for hops.' 

Echinocactus hamatocanthus Muehlenpf. Cactaceae. 

Mexico. The ripe fruit is red and " as delicious as that of the strawberry cactus." i" 

' Buysraan, M. Card. Chron. 26:810. 1886. 

'Lindley, J. Trans. Horl. Soc. Land. $: 101. 1824. {Anona longifolia) 
' Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpl. 351. 1859. {Anona longijolia) 
< Masters, M. T. Treaj. Bo^ 2:1290. 1876. 
' Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 816. 1879. 
Wallace, A. R. Malay Arch. 85, 86. 1869. 
' Taylor, B. Siam 193. 1892. 
' Berkeley, M. J. Treas. Bol. i'.t,'/. 1870. 
Smith, A. Treds. Bot. 1:570. 1870. 
Havard, V. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3:^65. 1896. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 249 

E. horizonthalonius Lem. 

Mexico. This species furnishes fruits which are sliced, candied and sold as 

E. longihamatus Gal. 

Mexico. Fruit red, edible and of good quality.^ 

E. viridescens Nutt. 

CalifoKiia. The fruit is of the shape and taste of a gooseberry.' 

E. wislizeni Engelm. 

Western North America. This cactus is called by the Mexicans visnada, or biznacha. 
The seeds are small and black and when parched and pulverized, make good gruel and 
even bread. The pulp of the fruit is rather sour and is not much eaten. Travellers, in 
passing through the cactus wastes, often resort to this plant to quench their thirst, its 
interior containing a soft, white, watery substance of sUghtly acid taste, which is rather 
pleasant when chewed. Pieces of this, soaked in a sirup or sugar and dried, are as good 
as candied citron, which they resemble in taste and substance. This plant, in some of 
its preparations, furnishes a favorite food to the Yabapais and Apache Indians of Arizona.^ 

Echinophora spinosa Linn. Umbelliferae. prickly samphire, sea parsnip. 

Europe. The roots of prickly samphire are eatable, with the flavor of parsnips, and 
the young leaves make excellent pickles. 

Eclipta erecta Lihn. Compositae. 

Cosmopolitan tropics. About Bombay, this plant, a common weed, is sometimes 
eaten by the natives as a potherb.* 

Ehretia acuminata R. Br. Boragineae. 

Asia and Australian tropics. The drupe is red-orange, or nearly black when ripe, 
as large as a small pea. The unripe fruit is pickled in India. When ripe it is insipidly 
sweet and is eaten.* 

E. eUiptica DC. 

Texas and Mexico. This plant is a small tree with fruit the size of a large pea, yellow, 
with a thin, edible pulp.' 

E. laevis Roxb. 

Asia and Australian tropics. The inner bark, in times of famine, is mixed with flour 
and eaten. The fruit is tasteless but is eaten.' 

' Havard, V. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3:360. 1896. 

Havard, V. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 520. 1885. 

'Engelmann Bo/. WorA^ 191. 1887. 

*U. S. D. A. Rpt. 417. 1870. Fig. 

' Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 700. 1879. (E. prostrata) 

Brandis, D. Forest PL 340. 1874. (E. serrata) 

' Torrey, J. Bot. U. S. Mex. Bound. Surv. 2:136. 1859. 

Brandis, D. Forest Ft. 340. 1874. 


E. tinifolia Linn, bastard cherry. 

West Indies. The berries are the size of a currant and are frequently eaten.* 

Elaeagnus angustifolia Linn. Elaeagnaceae. oleaster, wild olive. 

Europe and northern Asia. The wild olive is a tree mainly cultivated for its fruit, 
which, in general, is acid and eatable. In Greece, it is sweetish-acid and mealy when 
ripe.' The fruit is commonly sold in the markets of Constantinople. It abounds in a 
dry, mealy, saccharine substance which is sweet and pleasant.' The fruit is eaten in 
Nepal; it is cultivated in Thibet; and in Persia appears as dessert under the name of 
zinzeyd. A spirit is distilled from the fruit in Yarkand.^ 

E. argentea Pursh. silverberry. 

North America. About Hudson's Bay this shrub produces a dry, farinaceous, edible 
drupe about the size of a small cherry.' 

E. latifolia Linn, oleaster, wild olive. 

Tropical Asia. The fruit is olive-shaped and larger than an olive. It is eaten in 
Nepal ' and the mountains of Hindustan and Siam. The oleaster, or wild olive, has a 
fruit the size and form of a damson, has a stone in the center and when ripe is of a pale 
red or cherry color. It is very acrid and though not generally considered an edible fruit 
in India, yet, when cooked and sweetened with sugar, makes a very agreeable compote.' 
Brandis ' says the acid, somewhat astringent fruit is eaten. It is abundant on the Neil- 
gherries, says Wight," and the fruit is edible and also makes a good tart. 

E. perrottetii Schlecht. Philippine oleaster. 

Philippine Islands. The fruit of the Philippine oleaster has the taste of the best 

E. umbellata Thunb. 

Japan. The small, succulent fruit is eaten in India." 

Elaeis guineensis Jacq. Palmae. macaw-fat. oil palm. 

Tropical Africa and introduced to tropical America. The bright yellow drupe with 
shiny, purple-black point, though nauseous to the taste, is eaten in Africa. Mawezi, 
or palm oil, of the consistency of honey, is rudely extracted from this palm and despite 
its flavor, is universally used in cooking. This palm is also tapped for toddy.'' Palm 

' Lunan, J. Hort. Jam. i:6i. 1814. 

'Brandis, D. Forest Fl. ^go. 1874. 

Walsh, R. Trans. Hort. Soc. Land. 6:36. 1826. 

* Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 390. 1874. 

'Nuttall, T. Gen. No. Amer. Ph. i:<)-j. 1818. 

Royle, J. F. lUustr. Bot. Himal. 1:323. 1839. 

' Firminger, T. A. C. Card. Ind. 182. 1874. 

' Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 390. 1874. 

Wight, R. Icon. Pis. $: V\. 1856. 1852. 

' Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 343. 1859. 

"Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 2,90. 1876. 

" Burton, R. F. Lake Reg. Cent. Afr. 316. i860. 


chop, a dish prepared at Angola from the fresh nut, is pronounced most excellent by Mon- 
tiero,' who also describes the fresh wine as delicious. Lunan ^ says the roasted nuts taste 
very much like the outside fat of roasted mutton, and that the negroes are fond of the 
oil which sometimes makes an ingredient in their foods. Hartt ' says this palm is the 
dendes of Brazil, the caiauhe of the Amazons, and that the oil is much used for culinary 

Elaeocarpus dentatus Vahl. Tiliaceae. 

New Zealand. The pulp surrounding the stone of the fruit is eatable, and in India 
the fruits are either used in curries or pickled like olives.* 

E. floribimdus Blimie. 

Tropical Asia. The fruit is an article of food.' In India, the fruit, called in Bengal 
julpai, of the size and shape of an olive, is pickled. * 

E. munroii Mast. 

East Indies. The olive-sized fruit is eaten by the natives.' 

Elaeodendron glaucum Pers. Celastrineae. ceylon tea. 

Tropical Asia. This plant has been introduced from Ceylon under the name of 
Ceylon tea.' 

E. orientale Jacq. olive-wood. 

Mauritius Islands, Madagascar and Burma, where it is called let-pet-hen. Its leaves 
are used by the natives for tea." 

E. sphaerophylliun Presl. 

South Africa. The drupaceous fruits are edible.'" 

Eleocharis tuberosa Schult. Cyperaceae. water-chestnut. 

East Indies. This plant is grown in southern China for its roots, for which there 
is a great demand in all Chinese towns." Royle '^ says it is the pi-isi of the Chinese and 
that the round, turnip-shaped tubers are eaten. Loudon '' calls it the water-chestnut 
and says it is grown in tanks by the Chinese for the tubers. Ainslie " says the root is 

' Montiero Angola, River Congo 1:96, 97. 1875. 

Lunan, J. Hart. Jam. 2:26. 1814. 
' Hartt Ceog. Braz. 270. 1870. 

Smith, A. Treai. 5o/. 1:444. 1870. (E. hinau) 

'Lindley, J. Trans. Hort. Soc. Land. 5:120. 1824. (. serratus) 

Brandis, D. Forest Fl. ^. 1874. (E. serratus) 

' Dyer, W. T. Treas. Bot. 2:1318. 1876. (Monocera munroii) 
'Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 2:12. 1832. 

Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 590. 1879. 
WBaillon, H. Hist. Pis. 6:27. 1880. 
"Fortune, R. Warid. China $07. 1847. 

"Royle, J. F. Illustr. Bot. Himal. 1:413, 414. 1839. 

" Loudon, J. C. Enc. Agr. 158. 1866. (Scirpus tuberosus) 

" Ainslie, W. Mat. Ind. 2:242. 1826. {Scirpus tuberosus) 

252 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

in high estimation either for the pot or as a medicine. This rush can be subjected to regular 
cultivation in ponds, says Mueller,' for the sake of its edible, wholesome tubers. It is 
largely cultivated all over China. The tuber is sweet and juicy with a chestnut flavor 
and is universally used as food. A kind of arrowroot is made from it.^ 

Elettaria cardamomum Maton. Scitamhieae. ceylon cardamom. 

East Indies. From time immemorial, great numbers of the natives have derived 
a livelihood from the cultivation of this plant. The fruit is used as an aromatic in medicine 
throughout the East Indies and is largely consumed as a condiment. It furnishes the 
Ceylon cardamom and the large cardamom of Guibourt mentioned in his history of drugs. 
It is cultivated in Crete.* 

Eleusine aegj^jtiaca Desf. Gramineae. eleusine. 

Cosmopolitan tropics and subtropics. This grass grows most abundantly on waste 
ground, also on the flat roofs of the Arab houses in Unganyembe. The natives gather 
the ears, dry them in the sun, beat out the grain on the rocks, grind and make a stir-about 
of it.^ Its grain is used in southern India. It has a small seed, covered in part with a 
bearded husk through which the shining seed is seen. 

E. coracana Gaertn. eleusine. natchnee. ragee. 

South America, East Indies and Egypt. This grass is cultivated on a large scale 
in many tropical coimtries. It is the most productive of all the Indian cereals, says Elliott,* 
and is the staple grain of the Mysore country. In Sikkim, says Hooker,' the seeds are 
fermented to make a drink called nturwa. On the Coromandel coast, writes Ainslie,' 
it is a useful and most valuable grain, which is eaten and prized by the natives. The 
grain is of the size of a mustard seed and is dark in color; it is either made into cakes, or 
is eaten as a porridge; it is pleasant to the taste and in its nature aperient. It is enumerated 
by Thunberg ' among the edible plants of Japan. Grant " found this grass cultivated 
everywhere along his route through central Africa. Its flour, if soaked for a night in 
water, makes a very fair unleavened bread. A coarse beer, tasting pleasantly bitter, 
is also made from this grain mixed with that of durra. Schweinfurth '" says it is called 
telahoon by the Arabians, by the Abyssinians tocusso and is grown only in the poorest soils. 
It has a disagreeable taste and makes only a wretched sort of pop. It has been grown 
in small quantities at the Michigan Agricultural College." 

' Mueller, F. Sel. Pis. 226. 1891. (JHeleocharis tuberose) 
' Smith, P. P. Contrib. Mat. Med. China 92. 1871. 

Masters, M. T. Treas. Bol. 1:446. 1870. 

* Speke, J. H. Journ. Disc. Source Nile 587. 1864. 
' Elliott, W. Bot. Soc. Edinb. 7:288. 1863. 

Hooker, J. D. Journ. Hart. Soc. Lond. 23. 1852. 

' Ainslie, W. Mat. Ind. 1:2^$. 1826. (Cynosurus coracanus) 

* Thunberg, C. P. Fl. Jap. xl. 1784. (Cynosurus coracanus) 
' Speke, J. H. Journ. Disc. Source Nile 587. 1864. 

"> Schweinfurth, G. Heart AJr. 1:248. 1874. 
" Beal, W. J. Rur. N. Y. Nov. 2, 1878. 


E. tocussa Fresen. 

Abyssinia. This plant furnishes a bread com and is called dagussa.' Parkyns,^ 
who ate of the bread in Abyssinia, says its taste is unpleasant as it leaves a gritty, sandy 
taste in the mouth and passes through the stomach with but little change. Its native 
coxintry is given by Unger as the East Indies. 

Elymus arenarius Linn. Gramineae. lyme grass, rancheria grass. 

Europe and western North America. The seed of this grass is threshed out and eaten 
by the Digger Indians.' It is indigenous to France and is used as an ornamental plant 
in gardens.^ 

Embelia nagushia D. Don. Myrsineae. 

Himalayan region. The fruits are eaten in Sikkim as well as the leaves, which are 
sour to the taste.' 

E. ribes Burm. f. 

Tropical Asia. In Silhet, the berries are collected and used to adulterate black 

Emilia sonchifolia DC. Compositae. 

Asia and tropical Africa. The leaves are eaten raw in salads in China.' Its leaves 
are eaten raw in salads, according to Miuray.' In France, it is grown in flower gardens." 

Empetrum nignmi Linn. Empetraceae. crakeberry. crowberry. monox. 

Arctic and subarctic climates. The berries are eaten by the Scotch and Russian 
peasantry. The fruits are black, about the size of juniper berries, of a firm, fleshy sub- 
stance and are insipid in taste.'" They are consimied in a ripe or dry state by the Indians 
of the Northwest, are eaten by the Tuski of Alaska " and are gathered in autumn by the 
western Eskimo and frozen for winter food.'* 

Encephalartos caffer Miq. Cycadaceae. hottentot bread-fruit, kaffir bread. 

South Africa. The interior of the trunk and the center of the ripe female cones con- 
tain a spongy, farinaceous pith, made use of by the Kaffirs as food." On the female cone, 

' Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 306. 1859. 
' Parkyns, M. Life Abyss. i:t,o?,. 1856. 

Newberry Pacific R. R. Rpt. 6:92. 1857. 

Vilmorin Fl. PI. Ter. 362. 1870. 3rd Ed. 

Hooker, J. D. Treas. Bot. 1:276. 1870. {Choripetalum undulatum) 

Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 284. 1874. 

' Drury, H. Useful Pis. Ind. 196. 1873. 

Ainslie, W. Mat. Ind. 2:213. 1826. 

Vilmorin Fl. PI. Ter. 186. 1870. 3rd Ed. {Cacalia sonchifolia) 
"Johns, C. A. Treoi. Bot. 1:449. 1870. 
" Dall, W. H. Alaska 379. 1897. 
" Seemann, B. Anlhrop. Journ. i'.coAn. 1865. 
" Masters, M. T. Treoi. Bo/. 1:450. 1870. 


seeds as large as unshelled Jordan almonds are contained between the scales, and are sur- 
rounded with a reddish pulp, which is good to eat.' Barrow * says it is used by the Kaffirs 
as food. The stem, when stripped of its leaves, resembles a large pineapple. The Kaffirs 
bury it for some months in the ground, then pound it, and extract a quantity of farinaceous 
matter of the nature of sago. This sago is a favorite food with the natives and is not 
unacceptable to the Dutch settlers when better food cannot be had. 

Enhalus koeoigii Rich. Hydrocharideae. sea fruit. 

Svmiatra. The fruits are called berak laut, or sea fruit. The seeds are slightly fari- 
naceous and taste like chestnuts soaked in salt water. This fruit is roimd, hairy and 
generally much covered with mud.' 

Enhydra paludosa DC. Compositae. 

East Indies, Malay and Australia. The leaves of this water plant are eaten by the 
natives as a vegetable.'' It is the kingeka of Bengal. 

Entada scandens Benth. Leguminosae. sword bean. 

Tropical shores from India to the Polynesian Islands. The seeds are flat and brown 
and are eaten cooked ^ like chestnuts in Simiatra and Java,^ and the pods furnish food 
in the West Indies.' In Jamaica, Lunan * says the beans, after being long soaked in 
water, are boiled and eaten by some negroes. 

E. wahlbergia Harv. 

South Africa. In central Africa, the bitter roots are eaten.' 

Enteromorpha compressa (Linn.) Grev. Algae. 
This is one of the edible seaweeds of Japan. 

Ephedra distachya Linn. Gnetaceae. sea grape. 

China and south Russia. The fruit is eaten by the Russian peasants and by the 
wandering hordes of Great Tartary.^* The fruit is eaten by the Chinese and is mucilaginous, 
with a slightly acid or pungent flavor." The fruit is ovoid, succulent, sweet, pale or 
bright red when ripe. It is eaten in some places, as on the Sutlej.** 

' Thunberg, C. P. rrof. 2:66. 1796. (Zamia caffra) 
'Ainslie, W. il/o/. /nd. 1:363. 1826. 
'Hooker, W. J. Lond. Journ. Bot. 7:165. 1855. 

* Dutt, U. C. Mat. Med. Hindus 185. 1877. 
Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 168. 1874. 

Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 775. 1879. 
' Ibid. 

Lunan, J. Hort. Jam. 1:127. 1814. 

' Schweinfurth, G. Heart A fr. 1:268. 1874. 

' Balfour, J. H. Treas. Bot. 1:454. 1870. 

" Smith, F. P. Contrib. Mat. Med. China 93. 1871. 

"Brandis, D. F<frest Fl. 501. 1874. 


Epilobium angustifolium Linn. Onagrarieae. fire weed, willow-herb. 

Northern climates. In England, says Johnson,^ the leaves are much used for the 
adulteration of tea. The leaves form a wholesome vegetable when boiled, and the young 
shoots make a good substitute for asparagus. The people of Kamchatka, says Lightfoot,^ 
eat the young shoots which creep under the ground and they brew a sort of ale from the 
dried pith. Richardson ' says the young leaves, imder the name of I'herbe fret, are used 
by the Canadian voyagers as a potherb. 

E. latifolium Linn. 

Northern and arctic regions. This species furnishes a vegetable of poor quality 
for northern Asia and Iceland.* 

E. tetragonum Linn, square-stemmed willow-herb. 

Eturope. This plant is used as a vegetable in Iceland and northern Asia.^ 

Equisetum fluviatile Liim. Equisetaceae. horsetail, joint grass, scrub grass. 

Evirope and adjoining Asia. The starch contained in the tubers of the rhizome is 
nutritious, according to Lindley.* This is the plant which was eaten by the Romans 
under the name equisetum. Coles, in his Adam in Eden, speaking of horsetails, says, 
" the yoimg heads are dressed by some like asparagus, or being boyled are often bestrewed 
with flower and fried to be eaten." 

E. hyemale Linn, dutch rush, horsetail, scouring rush, shave grass. 
Northern climates. Lindley ' says, it serves as food in time of famine. 

Eremurus spectabilis Bieb. Liliaceae. 

Asia Minor and Persia. In May and Jime the young shoots are sold as a vegetable 
in the villages of the Caucasus, Kurdistan and Crimea. The flavor is intermediate between 
spinach and purslane and is by no means a disagreeable vegetable.' 

Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. Rosaceae. Japanese plum, loquat. 

A fruit tree indigenous in Japan and China and much cultivated in India. The 
loquat was first made known by Kempfer in 1690. It was brought to Europe by the 
French in 1784 and in 1787 was imported from Canton to Kew. It has not fruited at 
Paris in the open air but is successfully cultivated in the south of France, and its fruit is 
common in the markets of Toulon. At Malta, it succeeds admirably. In Florida, it is 
spoken of as if well known under the name of Japanese pltim in 1867, ripening its fruit 
in February and March. In the Gixlf States, it is said to do well, the fruit is the size of 
a large plimi, juicy, subacid, refreshing, and altogether delightful and unique in flavor 

' Johnson, C. P. Useful Pis. Gt. Brit. 10^. 1862. 

s Lightfoot, J. Fl. Scot. J .197- 1789- 

' Hooker, W. J. Fl. Bor. Amer. 1:205. 1840. 

* Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 359. 1859. 
' Ibid. 

Lindley, J. Med. Econ. Bot. 22. 1849. 
' Ibid. 

'Calvert, H. Card. Chron. $> i855- 

256 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

and quality.' In China the tree grows as far north as Fuhchau but 'does not produce 
as good fruit as in Canton. It is a more acid fruit than the apple and serves for cooking 
rather than as a table fruit. It resembles the medlar but is superior to it in flavor and size. 

Eriodendron anfractuosum DC. Malvaceae, cabbage-wood, ceiba. 

Asia and tropical Africa. The fruit is eaten in India sometimes cooked and some- 
times raw.^ At Celebes, the seeds are eaten.' 

Erioglossum edule Blimie. Sapindaceae. 

A shrub or small tree of Java and the islands of the Indian Archipelago. The fruit 
is edible.* A cider is made in Java from the pericarp of the fruit.' 

Erisma japura Spruce. Vochysiaceae. japura. 

Brazil. The kernel of the red fruit is pleasant eating both raw and boiled. By a 
process of boiling and leaving in running water for several weeks, and then poimding in 
a mortar, it is made into a sort of butter, which is eaten with fish and game, being mixed 
in the gravy. People who can get over its vile smell, which is never lost, find it exceedingly 

Erodium cicutariiun L'Herit. Geraniaceae. pin grass, storksbill. wild musk. 

Europe and introduced into America. This plant, when young, is gathered and cooked, 
or eaten raw by the Blackfeet, Shoshone and Digger Indians. Fremont ' saw it thus 
used, and R. Brown ' says it is the pin grass of the Californians of which the stem is edible. 

E. jacquinianum Fisch. 

In Egypt, the tubercles are eaten.* 

Eruca sativa Mill. Cruciferae. rocket. 

Mediterranean region and western Asia. Rocket is called " a good salat-herbe " 
by Gerarde, and Don i" says the leaves and tender stalks form an agreeable salad. Syme " 
says it is used in southern Europe as a salad. It is cultivated for its leaves and stalks 
which are used as a salad. Walsh ^^ says, it is a fetid, offensive plant but is highly esteemed 
by the Greeks and Turks, who prefer it to any other salad. It was cultivated by the 
ancient Romans. Albertus Magnus," in the thirteenth centtiry, speaks of it in gardens; 

' Redmond, D. Amer. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 56. 1875. {MespUus japonica) 

Baillon, H. Hist. Pis. 4:116. 1875. 

Ainslie, W. A/a/. /nd. 2:96. 1826. 

Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 108. 1876. 

'Baillon, H. Hist. Pis. y. 387. 1878. (Pancovia edulis) 

Black, A. A. Trees. Bot. 1:464. 1870. 

' Fremont Explor. Exp^d. 243. 1845. 

Brown, R. So/. 5oc. Edi'nJ. 9:385. 1868. 

'Baillon, H. Hist. Pis. %: 32. 1878. (E. hirtum) 

'"Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 1:53. 1831. 

" Syme, J. T. Treas. Bot. 1:465. 1870. 

"Walsh, R. Trans. Horl. Soc. Lond. 6:$i. 1826. {Brassica eruca) 

" Albertus Magnus Veg. Jessen Ed. 507. 1867. 


SO also does Ruellius,* 1536, who uses nearly the present French name, roqueta. In 1586, 
Camerarius^ says it is planted most abundantly in gardens. In 1726, Townsend' says 
it is not now very common in English gardens, and in 1807 Miller's Dictionary * says it 
has been long rejected. Rocket was in American gardens in 1854 or earlier ^ and is yet 
included by Vilmorin ^ among European vegetables. 

Eryngium maritimum Linn. Umbelliferae. sea eryngo. sea holly, sea-holm. 

Asia Minor and the seashores along the Mediterranean and Atlantic as far as Den- 
mark. The yormg, tender shoots, when blanched, may be eaten like asparagus. The 
roots are candied and sold as candied eryngo. When boiled or roasted, the roots resemble 
chestnuts and are palatable and nutritious.' 

Erythrina indica Lam. Leguminosae. coral tree. 

Tropical Asia and Australia. This is a small tree commonly cultivated for supporting 
the weak stems of the pepper plant. In Ceylon the young, tender leaves are eaten in 

Erythronium dens-canis Linn. Liliaceae. dog's-tooth violet. 

Europe and northern Asia. The Tartars collect and dry the bulbs and boil them 
with milk or broth. ^ 

E. grandifiorum Pursh. dog's-tooth violet. 

Interior Oregon. The roots of this plant are eaten by some Indians.*" 

Erythroxylum coca Lam. Lineae. coca, spadic. 

A shrub of the Peruvian Andes cultivated from early times for its leaves which are 
used as a masticatory." This use of the leaves under the name, coca, is common throughout 
the greater part of Peru, Quito, New Granada, and also on the banks of the Rio Negro, 
where it is known as spadic. It forms an artide of commerce among the Indians and 
is largely cultivated in Bolivia. These leaves contain an alkaloid analogous to thein and 
exert, when chewed, a stimulant action. 

Eschscholzia sp.? Papaveraceae. 

China. This plant is grown in gardens and is used as a potherb or condiment.''' 

' Ruellius Nat. Stir p. 513. 1536. 

* Caraerarius />i/. 306. 1586. 

' Townsend Seedsman 18. 1726. 

* Martyn Miller Card. Did. 1807. 

' Brown U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 377. 1854. (Brassica eruca) 

Vilmorin Les Pis. Potag. 541. 1883. 

' Smith, J. Diet. Econ. Pis. 373. 1882. 

'Smith, A. Treas. Bot. 1:468. 1870. 

Gmelin PI. Sibir. 1:39. 1747. 

1" Brown, R. Bot. Soc. Edinb. 9:380. 1868. 

" Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 799. 1879. 

Smith, F. P. Contrib. Mat. Med. China 94. 1871. 


258 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

Escobedia scabrifolia Ruiz & Pav. Scrophularineae. 

Tropical America. The roots are said to be used for coloring gravies.' 

Eucalyptus dumosa A. Curxn. Myrtaceae. mallee. 

Australia. A manna called lerp is produced upon the leaves, which the natives use 
for food. It is said to be a secretion from an insect. 

E. gtumii Hook. f. cider tree. 

Australia. This plant yields a cool, refreshing liquid from woimds made in the 
bark during spring.^ 

E. oleosa F. Muell. mallee. 

Australia. The water drained from the roots is clear and good and is used by the 
natives of Queensland when no other water is obtainable.' 

E. terminalis F. Muell. 

Australia. Manna is procured from the leaves and small branches.* 

Eucheuna speciosum Berk. Algae, jelly plant. 

This is the jelly plant of Australia and is one of the best species for making jelly, 
size and cement. 

Euclea pseudebenus E. Mey. Ebenaceae. 

South Africa. The fleshy, glaucous, brownish fruits, the size of a pea, are sweet 
and slightly astringent and are eaten by the natives of South Africa under the name 

E. undulata Thunb. 

South Africa. The small, black berry is edible.' This is the guarri bush of South 
Africa. The sweet berries are eaten by the Hottentots or, bruised and fermented, they 
yield a vinegar.' 

Eugenia acris Wight & Am. Myrtaceae. wild clove. 

East Indies and West Indies. In Jamaica, the aromatic, astringent leaves are 
often used in sauce and the berries for culinary purposes.' In Hindustan, it is called 

E. apiculata DC. 

Chile. The fruit is eaten.'" 

' Spruce Card. Chron. 17:20. 1882. 
'Smith, A. Treas. Bot. 1:472. 1870. 

Palmer, E. Journ. Roy. Soc. New So. Wales 17:106. 1884. 

Palmer, E. Journ. Roy. Soc. New So. Wales 17:98. 1884. 
^ Card. Chron. 584. 1875. 

Mueller, F. Sel. Pis. 192. 1891. 

' Thunberg, C. P. Trav. 1:202. 1795. 
Lunan, J. Hart. Jam. i:y6. 1814. (Myrtus c-cris) 
Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 609. 1879. 
'" Baillon, H. Hist. Pis. 6:3.(7. 1880. 


E. aquea Biinn. f. 

A tree of India, called lal jumrool. The fruit is the size of a small apple, is of a waxy 
appearance and of somewhat aromatic taste but is hardly eatable. There are two varie- 
ties, a white and a pale rose-colored fruit.' 

E. amottiana Wight. 

East Indies. The fruit is eaten by the natives of India, though, owing to its 
astringency, it is by no means palatable. ^ 

E. arrabidae Berg. 

Brazil. The berries are eaten.* 

E. brasiliensis Lam. brazil cherry. 

Brazil. This species furnishes an edible fruit.'' It is grown under the name of Brazil 
cherry in the Public Gardens of Jamaica.* 

E. caryophyllata Thunb. clove. 

The clove tree is a handsome evergreen, native of the Moluccas. It was introduced 
to the Mauritius in 1770, thence to Cayenne in 1773; to Zanzibar about the end of the 
century ^ and to Jamaica in 1789.' The cloves of commerce are the unexpanded flower- 
buds. Cloves were known to the ancient Greek and Roman writers. They were brought 
from the far East to Ceylon in the days of Cosmas Indicopleustes, in the first half of the 
sixth century, and were known in the Mediterranean countries to Paulus Aegineta, A. D. 
634.' Clove stalks were an article of import into Eiu-ope during the Middle Ages. Clove 
leaves were imported into Palestine in the twelfth century and were sold at Frankfort 
in Germany about 1450. The stalks are still an object of trade from Zanzibar, where 
they are called by the natives vikunia; they are tolerably aromatic, and are used for 
adulterating ground cloves.* For many years, the Dutch exercised a strict monopoly in 
the growth of this spice, by restricting its cultivation to the island of Amboina and even 
extirpating all but a limited number of the trees, but they are now grown in the West 
Indies and elsewhere. 

E. catinga Baill. 

Guiana. The fruit is eaten.'" 

E. cauliflora Berg. 

Brazil. The jacbuticaba grows wild in the woods of the south of Brazil and is also 
cultivated in most of the gardens in the diamond and gold districts. The fruit is 

' Firminger, T. A. C. Card. Ind. 266. 1874. (Jambosa aquea) 
Wight, R. Icon. Pis. 3 : PI. 999. No date. 
' Baillon, H. Hist. Pis. 6:347. 1880. 
Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 349. 1859. 
' Morris Rpt. Pub. Card. Jam. 35. 1880. 
' Fluckiger and Hanbury Pharm. 249. 1879. 
' Morris Rpt. Pub. Card. Jam. 35. 1880. 

' Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 574. 1879. (Caryophyllus aromaticus) 
' Fluckiger and Hanbury Pharm. 254, 255. 1879. 
Baillon, H. Hist. Pis. 6:344. 1880. 

26o sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

black, about the size of a Green Gage plum, of a pulpy consistency and very refreshing.' 
Unger ' says the fruit is of the size of an Oxheart cherry and under the tender, black 
epidermis there is a white, soft and even juicy flesh in which are two or three seeds. 
It is inferior in taste to our cherry. In Brazil, it is much esteemed. It has been planted 
in the Antilles and even introduced into the East Indies. 

E. cordifolia Wight. 

Ceylon. The fruit is an inch in diameter.' 
E. darwinii Hook. f. 

Chile. The fruits are eaten.'' 

. dichotoma DC. 

North America and West Indies. The small, edible fruit is of an agreeable, aromatic 

E. disticha DC. wild coffee. 

Jamaica. The -fruit is eaten in the Antilles. ' 
E. djouat Perr. 

Philippine Islands. It yields an edible fruit.' 
E. dulcis Berg. 

Brazil. The berries are eaten.* 

E. dysenterica DC. 

Brazil. This is an excellent dessert fruit. 
E. edulis Benth. & Hook. f. 

Brazil. The berries are eaten. 
E. floribunda West. 

Santa Cruz. The fruit is edible.* 

E. formosa Cambess. 

Brazil. The berries are eaten.*" 

E. fragrans Willd. zebra-wood. 

West Indies. The fruit is eaten in the Antilles." 

E. guabiju Berg. 

Region of Argentina. The berries are eaten in Brazil.'^ 

' Gardner Trav. Braz. 343. 1846. 

2 Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 349. 1859. 

'Mueller, F. Sel. Pis. 1^2. 1891. 

* Baillon, H. Hist. Pis. 6:347. 1880. 
'Sargent U. S. Census g:i8. 1884. 
Baillon, H. Hist. Pis. 6:347. 1880. 

' Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 336. 1859. 
'Baillon, H. Hist. Pis. 6:347. 1880. 

Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 349. 1859. 
" Baillon, H. Hist. Pis. 6:347. 1880. 

" Ibid. 


E. inocarpa DC. 

Brazil. The fruit is about the size of a plum, with a fibrous, acid-sweet flesh.' 

E. itacolumensis Berg. 

Brazil. The berries are eaten.^ 
E. jambolana Lam. black plu.m. jambolan. jambolan plum, jambool. jambu. 


Asia and Australian tropics. This tree yields in India, says Dutt,' an abundant crop 
of subacid, edible fruits. In some places, the fruit attains the size of a pigeon egg and 
is of superior quality. Brandis * says the fruit has a harsh but sweetish flavor, somewhat 
astringent and acid, and is much eaten by the natives of India. Firminger ^ compares 
it to a damson in appearance and to a radish in taste. 
E. jambos Linn, malabar plum, rose apple. 

Tropical eastern Asia. The tree is cultivated in many parts of India for its fruit, 
which is of the size of a small apple, with a delicate, rose-water perfxune but dry and 
hardly worth eating.' It can hardly be considered eatable, being of a poor flavor and of 
a dry, pithy consistency ' but is made into preserves.* The tree was introduced into 
Jamaica in 1762. The rind, says Lunan, has a sweetish, watery taste, with a flavor like 
roses but it is not in much esteem as a fruit.'" It was introduced into Florida by 
C. Codrington," Jacksonville, before 1877. 
E. javanica Lam. jambosa. jumrool. 

A moderate-sized tree of the islands of the Indian Archipelago. The fruit is the size 
of a small apple, pure white, shining, wax-like and has a raw, watery, insipid taste. It is 
hardly fit to be eaten.'^ 

E. ligustrina Miq. 

Brazil. The berries are eaten in Brazil. 
E. lineata DC. guava berry. 

West Indies. A small tree of Tortola. The fruit is small and excellent for dessert. 
It is also used for a preserve and forms a favorite cordial." 
E. longipes Berg. 

Florida. The small, red fruit with the flavor of cranberries is edible." 

'Baillon, H. Hist. Pis. 6: $47. i88o. 

' Ibid. 

' Dutt, U. C. Mat. Med. Hindus 164. 1877. 

Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 234. 1874. 

' Firminger, T. A. C. Card. Ind. 264. 1874. {Syzygium jambolanum) 

Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 233. 1874. 

' Firminger, T. A. C. Card. Ind. 265. 1874. {Jambosa vulgaris) 

Smith, J. Dom. Bot. 371. 1871. 

' Lunan, J. Hort. Jam. 2:127. 1814. 

' Ibid. 

^^ Amer. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 66. 1877. (Jambosa vulgaris) 

" Firminger, T. A. C. Gard. Ind. 266. 1874. {Jambosa alba) 

" Smith, J. Diet. Econ. Pis. 202. 1882. 

Sargent U. S. Census 9:89. 1884. 

262 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

E. luschnathiana Klotzsch. 

Brazil. The berries are eaten. 

E. mabaeoides Wight. 

Ceylon. The fruit is the size of a small cherry. 

E. macrocarpa Roxb. 

East Indies, where it is called chalta-jamb. The fruit is eaten by the natives.' 

E. makapa Mer. et Lens (?). jambosine. 

This tree is cultivated in the Mauritius under several varieties. The fruit is pear- 
shaped and edible.^ The jambosine was introduced into Florida at Jacksonville before 
E. malaccensis Linn, jambos. large-fruited rose apple, malay apple, rose 


A tree of the Moluccas, cultivated in the Indian Archipelago, Pacific islands, China 
and India. " The fruit," says Capt. Cook, at Batavia, " is of a deep red color and an oval 
shape; the largest, which are always the best, are not bigger than a small apple; they 
are pleasant and cooling, though they have not much flavor." Rheede says the fruit 
is of the size and shape of a moderate pear, white with a blush of red, of a very agreeable, 
vinous taste and smell. Firminger * says the fruit is of the size and form of a very small 
apple, perfectly smooth, of a pure, translucent white, with a beautiful blush of crimson 
and that some persons eat it but it is not worth eating. Seemann * says that it is quince- 
shaped, with an apple-like smell and delicate flavor. In 1839, a specimen of the fruit 
grown under glass at Cambridge, Massachusetts, was exhibited at the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society's exhibition * and the fruit was pronounced most delicious, partaking 
of the fragrance of the rose with the sweetness of the peach. The flowers are preserved 
by the Dutch at Amboina and are frequently eaten as a salad.' 

E. mjrrobalana DC. 

Brazil. The berries are eaten in Brazil.* 

E. nhanica Cambess. 

Brazil. The berries are used as a table fruit.* 

E. oblata Roxb. 

East Indies. It is called goolam and is cultivated for its fruit." 

-Wight, R. Icon. Pis. 2: PI. 612. 1843. 

'Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 336. 1859. (Jambosa makapa) 

' Amer. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 66. 1877. {Jambosa makapa) 

* Firminger, T. A. C. Card. Ind. 265. 1874. {Jambosa malaccensis) 
'Seemann, B. Fl. Viti. 77. 1865-73. 

Hist. Mass. Hart. Soc. 249. 1880. 

' Andrews Bot. Reposit. 7:458. 1797. 
Baillon, H. Hist. Pis. 6:347. 1880. 
Mueller, F. Sel. Pis. J93. 1891. 
'= Wight, R. Icon. Pis. 2: PI. 622. 1843. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 263 

E. operculata Roxb. 

Tropical Asia. The fruit is round, of the size and appearance of small, black cherries 
and is very generally eaten in Chittagong.' The fruit is eaten.^ 

E. pisiformis Cambess. 

Brazil. The berries are eaten.' 

E. pitanga Kiaersk. pitanga. 

Brazil. Hartt * says its refreshingly acid, red fruit is eaten. 

E. procera Poir. ironwood. 

Santo Domingo and south Florida, where it is called ironwood. The round berry, 
the size of a pepper, is edible.* 

E. pseudopsidium Jacq. 

Martinique. The fruit is edible and is held in considerable esteem in the West 

E. pulchella Roxb. 

Moluccas. It bears a fruit like the black currant.^ 

E. piunila Gardn. 

Brazil. The berries are eaten in Gioiana.' 

E. Piriformis Cambess. 

Brazil. The fruit is the size of a pear.* 

E. rariflora Benth. 

Fiji Islands. The fruit resembles a cherry in size and shape and is edible, i" 

E. revoluta Wight. 

East Indies. The berries are an inch in diameter." 

E. richii A. Gray. 

Pacific islands. In Viti, the agreeably-smelling fruit is eaten. '^ 

E. suborbicularis Benth. 

Australia. The fruit is large, red, with small stone and is eaten when ripe.'' 

> Wight, R. Icon. Pis. 2: PI. 615. 1843. 

Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 235. 1874, 

BaiUon, H. Hist. Pis. 6:347. 1880. 

* Hartt Geog. Braz. 59. 1870. 

' Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 2:855. 1832. 


' Wight, R. Icon. Pis. 2: PI. 628. 1843. 

BaiUon, H. Hist. Pis. 6:347. 1880. 

Mueller, P. Sel. Pis. 193. 1891. 

'"Seemann, B. Fl. Viti. 79. 1865-73. 

"Mueller, F. Sel. Pis. 193. 1891. 

"Seemann, B. Fl. Viti. 7S. 1865-73. 

" Palmer, E. Journ. Roy. Soc. New So. Wales 17:98. iS 

264 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

E. supraaxillaris Spring, tala. 

Southern Brazil. The fniit is large and edible.* 

E. temu Hcxik. & Am. 

Chile. The fnoit is eaten.' 

E. uniflora Linn, brazil cherry, cayenne cherry, pitanga. Surinam cherry. 

Tropical America, where it is called pitanga. In India, this species appears to be 
cultivated under the names of Brazil cherry and cherry of Cayenne. The fruit of 
this large shrub is about the size of a button and is considered agreeable by the 

E. zeyheri Harv. 

South Africa. The berries are the size of a cherry and are edible.* 

Eulophia campestris Wall. Orchideae. salep. 

East Indies. This plant furnishes the salep collected in Cashmere.* 

E. herbacea Lindl. salep. 

East Indies. This species furnishes the salep of the Indian bazaars known as saleb 

Euonymus japonicus Linn. f. Celastrineae. Japanese spindle tree. 

China and Japan. In China, the leaves of this tree are eaten when young.' 

Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl. Compositae. 

Tropical America. An infusion of the leaves has an agreeable and somewhat spicy 
taste and is a good diet drink. Dyer says the plant is now chiefly cultivated at the island 
of Bourbon, for the purpose of being dried and sent to France, where it is used as a tea 

Euphorbia balsamifera Ait. Euphorbiaceae. balsam spurge. 

Canary Islands. Its juice is thickened to a jelly and eaten by the natives.' 

E. canariensis Linn. 

Canary Islands. The natives of Teneriffe are in the habit of removing the bark 
and then sucking the inner portion of the stem to quench their thirst. 

E. edulis Lour. 

Cochin China. It is mentioned as a potherb.'" 

'Mueller, F. Sel. Pis. 193. 1891. 

'Baillon, H. Hist. Pis. 6:i47- 1880. 

' Firminger, T. A. C. Card. Ind. 264. 1874. (E. michelii) 

* Mueller, F. Sel. Pis. 194. 1891. 
'Archer, T.C. Profit. Pis. 85. 1865. 

Fluckiger and Hanbury Pharm. 655. 1879. 

' Smith, F. P. Contrib. Mat. Med. China 94. 1 87 1. 

'Ainslie, W. Mat. Ind. 2:$$. 1826. 

Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 467. 1879. I 

'> Masters, M. T. Treas. Bot. 1:477. 1870. 


E. lathsrris Linn, caper spurge. 

Southern Europe. The seeds are used as a substitute for capers 1 but, says Johnson,^ 
they are extremely acrid and require long steeping in salt and water and afterwards in 

Euphoria informis Poir. Sapindaceae. 

Cochin China. Its fruit is eaten in China.' 

Euiyale ferox Salisb. Nymphaeceae. gorgon. prickly water-lily. 

East India and China. This aquatic plant is frequently cultivated in India and 
China for its floury seeds. In China, it is said to have been in cultivation for upwards 
of 3000 years.^ The fruit is round, soft, pulpy and the size of a small orange; it contains 
from 8 to 15 round, black seeds as large as peas, which are eaten roasted. The pulp is 
also eaten. Smith * says, in China, it is much cultivated for the stems, rhizomes and 
seeds, all of which contain much starch and are eaten. 

Euterpe edulis Mart. Palmae. assai palm. 

Tropical America. The long, terminal bud of this Brazilian palm is pronounced by 
Gardner * equal to asparagus in flavor when cooked. 

E. montana R. Grab. 

Islands of New Spain. The terminal leaf-bud is used as a cabbage.^ 

E. oleracea Mart, assai palm. 

Brazil. Bates ' says the fruit forms a universal article of diet in all parts of Brazil. 
It is the size of a cherry, round and contains but a small portion of pulp, which is made, 
with the addition of water, into a thick, violet-colored beverage. Mrs. Agassiz ^ pro- 
noimces this diet drink as very good, eaten with sugar and farina of the mandioc. The 
terminal leaf-bud is used as a cabbage.^" 

Eutrema wasabi Maxim. Cruciferae. Japanese horseradish. 

Japan. This is Japanese horseradish, which grows wild on the coast and is culti- 
vated in small quantities, rasped and eaten with fish. The best roots are cultivated only 
in clear spring water running down the moimtain valleys. 

Evemia prunastri Linn. Lichenes. ach. 

Northern Europe, America and Asia. This lichen was observed by Sibthorp and 

Loudon, J. C. Hort.eSg. i860. 

2 Johnson, C. P. Useful Ph. Ct. Brit. 226. 1862. 

' Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 1 :6yo. 1831. {Nephelium informe) 

< Hooker, J. D. Himal. Journ. 2:25s. 1854. 

'Smith, P.P. Contrib. Mat. Med. China 75. 1871. 

Gardner, G. Trav. Braz. 396. 1846. 

'Seemann, B. Pop. Hist. Palms 206. 1856. 

Bates, H. W. Nat. Amaz. 647. Humboldt Z,t6r. Set. 1879. 

' Agassiz Journ. Braz. 140. 1868. 

"Seemann, B. Pop. Hist. Palms 206. 1856. 

266 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

Bory on the branches of plum and other trees throughout Greece and around Constan- 
tinople. According to Forskal, it is imported in shiploads from Greece into Egypt and 
mixed in bread. According to Lindley, it has a peculiar power of imbibing and retaining 

E;:ocarpus cupressiformis Labill. Santalaceae. Australian currants. 
Australia. The fruit is eaten and is made into preserves.' 

Fagopyrum cymosum Meissn. Polygonaceae. perennial buckwheat. 

Himalayas and China. This is a common Himalayan plant which forms an excellent 
spinach and is called pullop-bi.^ It occurs also in China.* The plant seeds badly and 
hence is not valued as a cereal. 

F. esculentum Moench. brank. buckwheat., notch-seeded buckwheat. 

Europe and northern Asia. Buckwheat seems to have been unknown to the Greeks 
and Romans. It grows wild in Nepal, China and Siberia and is supposed to have been 
brought to Europe at the beginning of the sixteenth century from northern Asia. Accord- 
ing to Buckman,' it is mentioned in a German Bible printed in 1522. It is mentioned 
by Tragus,* 1552, as cultivated in the Odenwald under the name of heydenkorn. Caesal- 
pinus,' 1583, describes it as cultivated, probably in Italy imder the name oi formentone 
aliis sarcsinum. Dodoenaeus,' 161 6, says it was much cultivated in Germany and Bra- 
bant. It must have secured early admittance to America, for samples of American growth 
were sent to Holland by the colony of Manhattan Island as early as 1626. It is at present 
cultivated in the United States as a field crop, as also in northern Europe, in China, 
Japan and elsewhere. Eraser' found large fields of it at 11,405 feet elevation near the 
temple of Milun in the Himalayas. In northern India and Ceylon, it is of recent intro- 
duction and its cultivation is confined to narrow limits. Notch-seeded buckwheat is a 
native of the moimtainous districts of China and Nepal, where it is cultivated for its seeds.'" 

F. tataricum Gaertn. Tartarian buckwheat. 

Europe and northern Asia. Tartarian buckwheat is of the same origin as buckwheat, 
though it is much less widely distributed and was introduced at a much later period into 
Europe.!' It has been cultivated from time immemorial in Nepal and on the confines 
of China. 

Fagus ferruginea Ait. Cupuliferae. American beech. 

North America. The nuts are esteemed delicious and are found in season in the 

' Sibthorp, J. Fl. Craecae 2:314. 1813. (Borrera prunasiri) 
' Smith, A. Treas. Bot. 2:674. 1870. (Leptomeria acerba) 
' Hooker, J. D. Ilimal. Journ. 2:$j. 1854. (Polygonum cymosum) 
< Mueller, F. Sel. Ph. 196. 1891. 

'Pickering, C. Ceog. Distrib. Ans. Pis. 1:137. 1863-1876. 
De CandoUe, A. Geog. Boi. 2:953. 1855. (Polygonum fagopyrum) 
' Ibid. 
> Ibid. 

Fraser fine. Bri/. 17:630. 1859. 8th Ed. 
"Mueller, F. Sel. Pis. 124. 1880. 
" Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 306, 307. 1859. (Polygonum tataricum) 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 267 

Boston markets. Porcher ' says the young leaves are used by the common people of 
the South as a potherb. In Maine, the buds are eaten by the Indians. 

F. sylvatica Linn. European beech. 

Europe. In Hanover, the oil of the nut is used as a salad oil and as a substitute for 
butter.2 In France, the nuts are roasted and serve as a substitute for coffee.' Sawdust 
of beech wood is boiled in water, baked and then mixed with flour to form the material 
for bread io- Norway and Sweden.* 

Farsetia clypeata R. Br. Cruciferae. 

Southern Etirope and the Orient. This plant has the same properties as the cresses.' 

Fedia comucopiae Gaertn. Valerianeae. horn-of-plenty. valerian. 

Mediterranean region. According to Robinson,' this species is grown in France as 
a salad plant. It is also grown in flower gardens.' 

Feronia elephantum Correa. Rutaceae. elephant apple, wood apple.' 

East Indies. The fruit is of the size of a large apple and is covered with a hard, gray, 
scabrous, woody rind. The pulp is universally eaten on the coast of Coromandel.' The 
interior of the fruit, says Firminger ' is filled with a brown, soft, mealy substance, rather 
acid and smelling of rancid butter. Brandis ^^ says a jelly is made of it in India, and 
Wight " says that this very pleasant jelly resembles black-currant jelly. Dutt ^^ says 
it is cultivated in India for its fruit, the pulp of which is eaten and made into a chatni. 

Ferula assa-foetida Linn. Umbelliferae. asafetida. food-of-the-gods. 

Persia and Afghanistan. Asafetida is called food-of-the-gods by the Persians, who 
hold the juice in high esteem as a condiment,'' eat the leaves as greens and the root when 
roasted. Gerarde " says it is reported to be eaten in Apulia. The young shoots and heads 
are considered by the Khirgls as a great delicacy. The fetid odor disappears on boiling. '^ 

F. longifolia Fisch. 

South Russia. The aromatic, long roots are esteemed as a vegetable.'^ 

' Porcher, F. P. Res. So. Fields, Forests 275. 1869. {F. americana) 
Hooker, W. J. Lond. Journ. Bot. T.184. 1855. 
' Loudon, J. C. Arb. Frut. Brit. 3:1963. 1854. 
< Church, A. H. Food 71. 1887. 
'BaUlon, H. Hist. Pis. 3:225. 1874. 

Robinson, W. Parks, Card. Paris 504. 1878. 

' Vilmorin F/. P/. Ter. 11 79. 1870. 3rd Ed. {Valeriana comucopiae) 

Lindley, J. Trans. Hort. Soc. Lond. 5:118. 1824. 
Firminger, T. A. C. Card. Ind. 218. 1874. 

' Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 57. 1874. 

" Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 370. 1879. 

" Dutt, U. C. Mat. Med. Hindus i^i. 1877. 

"Smith, J. Diet. Econ. Pis. 26. 1882. 

" Gerarde, J. Herb. 2nd Ed. 1057. 1633 or 36. 

"Schuyler rrAitan 1:228. 1876. 

"MueUer, F. Sel. Pis. igg. 1891. 

268 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

F. narthez Boiss. asafetida. 

Baltistan. Kaempfer says that in Afghanistan and Khorassan there are two varie- 
ties, one called Kama-i-gawi, which is grazed by cattle and used as a potherb and the 
other called Katna-i-anguza, which affords the asafetida of commerce. Among the 
Mohammedan and Hindu population of India, the gum is generally used as a condiment 
and, in regions where the plant grows, the fresh leaves are cooked as an article of diet.' 

Ficus aspera Forst. f. Fig. Urticaceae. tongue fig. 

Islands of New Hebrides. This is a tropical species of fig whose fruit may be eaten.' 

F. benghalensis Linn, banyan. 

East Indies and African tropics. The sweetish fruit of the banyan is eaten in India 
in times of scarcity. 

F. brassii R. Br. 

A shrub of Sierra' Leone. It bears an edible fruit about as large as that of the white 
Ischia fig.' 

F. carica Linn. fig. 

Europe, Orient and Africa. The fig is indigenous, says Unger,* in Syria, Persia, 
Asia Minor, Greece and north Africa and has been cultivated in these countries from 
time immemorial and even as far as southern Germany. The fig had its place as a fruit 
tree in the garden of Alcinous. According to one Grecian tradition, Dionysius Sycetes 
was the discoverer of the fig tree; according to another, Demeter brought the first fig tree 
to Greece; a third tradition states that the fig tree grew up from the thunderbolt of 
Jupiter. The fig is mentioned by Athenaeus, Colvmiella and Macrobius, and six varieties 
were known in Italy in the time of Cato. Pliny enumerates 29 sorts in his time. At 
the present time, no less than 40 varieties are entmierated for Sicily by Dr. Presl. The 
fig tree is enimierated among the fruit trees of Charlemagne. It was carried to England 
in 1525 or 1548 by Cardinal Pole.^ Cortez carried the fig tree to Mexico in 1560,' and 
figs are mentioned as cultivated in Virginia in 1669 ' and were observed growing out of 
the ruins of Frederica, Georgia, by Wm. Bartram,' about 1773, and at Pearl Island near 
New Orleans. Downing ^ describes 1 5 varieties as the most desirable sorts for this 
country and says the fig reached here in 1790. 

F. cooperi Hort. 

Tropical America. The purple fruit, at the Department of Agriculture Conservatory, 
February 16, 1880, was edible but was not very attractive.'" 

' Fluckiger and Hanbury Pharm. 283. 1879. 
= Unger. F. U. S. Pal. Off. Rpt. 332. 1859. 
' Sabine, J. Trans. Hort. Soc. Land. 5:448. 1824. 

* Unger, F. V. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 331. 1859. 
' Thompson, R. Treas. Bot. 1:493. 1870. 

Unger, F. U S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 331. 1859. 

'Shrigley. N. True Rel. Va., Md. 5. 1669. Force Coll. Tracts. 3 : 1844. 
Bartram, W. Hist. Mass. Hort. Soc. 27. 1880. 
' Downing, A. J. Fr. Fr. Trees Amer. 2^1. 1857. 
' Sturtevant, Dr. Visit to Wash. Feb. 16, 1880. 


r. cunia Buch.-Ham. 

Tropical Asia. The fruit is eaten.* 

F. erecta Thunb. 

Himalayas, China and Japan. In Japan, the small figs are sometimes eaten.* 

F. forskalaei Vahl. 

Tropical Arabia. The fruit is not agreeable but is eaten. 

F. glomerata Roxb. 

A large tree of tropical eastern Asia. The ripe fruit is eaten. In times of scarcity, 
the vmripe fruit is pounded, mixed with flour and made into cakes.' In the Konckans, 
the natives sometimes eat the fruit which outwardly resembles the common fig.* The 
fruit is edible but insipid and is usually found full of insects. In Cebu, in times of drought, 
the inhabitants have no other resources for water than cutting the root.' 

F. granatum Forst. f. 

New Hebrides. A tropical species with fruit that is eaten.' 

F. heterophylla Linn. f. 

Tropical Asia. The fruit is eaten by the natives of India.' 

F. hirta Vahl. 

Tropical Asia and Malay. The fruit is eaten by the natives of India.' 

F. infectoria Roxb. 

Tropical Asia and Malay. The fruit, in racemes, is nearly round, of a reddish color 
when ripe, and about the size of a small plum. It is eaten by the common people.' 

F. palmata Forsk. 

Tropical Asia, Arabia and East Indies. In the hills of India, this fig is eaten largely 
and is succulent, sweet and pleasant.^" 

F. persica Boiss. 

A shrub found wild about Shiraz, Persia. The fruit is edible but not very palatable." 

F. religiosa Linn, peepul. sacred fig. 

East Indies. In central India, the young leaf-buds are eaten as a vegetable by the 
Hill Tribes in times of scarcity.'^ 

Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 421. 1874. 

Thunberg, C. P. Trav. y.62. 1796. 

'Brandis, D. Forest Fl. ^22. 1874. 

< Pickering, C. Chrnn. Hist. Pis. 414. 1879. 


Unger, F. U. S. Pal. Off. Rpl. 332. 1859. 

'Royle, J. F. Illustr. Bot. Himal. 1:337. 1839. 


Ainslie, W. Mat. Incl. 2:30. 1826. 
"Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 419. 1876. 

" Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 332- I859- 
"Brandis, D. Fore.'st Fl. 415. 1876. 


F. roxburghii Wall. 

Burnm and Himalayan regions. The fruit is eaten by the natives in their curries.' 

F. nunphii Blume. 

Himalayan regions and Malay. This is a large tree cultivated in the Darrang dis- 
trict of Assam for rearing the lakh insect. The fruit is eaten.* 

F. sur Forsk. 

Mountains of Yemen. The fruit is edible.' 

F. sycomorus Linn, asses fig. sycomore. 

North Africa. The fruit is somewhat aromatic and is brought to the markets at 
Cairo and is eaten throughout the entire East.^ The figs are sweet and delicate. They 
were selected by the ancient Egyptians as the fruit given by the goddess Netpe to those 
who were worthy of admission to the regions of eternal happiness.' 

Flacourtia cataphracta Roxb. Bixineae. puneala plum. 

East Indies. The puneala plum is a fruit of India, better in flavor than a sloe but 
inferior to a poor plimi. It makes an excellent stew.' 

F. inermis Roxb. looy-looy. 

Moluccas. This species is cultivated in the Moluccas for its pleasant, edible fruit. 
It is a little tree bearing a berry of reddish-purple color, the size of a small cherry and 
has five angles.' The reddish-purple berries are of a pleasant, acid taste; they are called 
tomi-tomi in India.* The fruit, called by the Malays koorkup, though rather too acid to 
be eaten raw, is esteemed for tarts and pies.' In Ceylon, it is called by the natives lorn 
lowi; by the English looy-looy. The fruit makes an excellent jelly, resembling and as 
good as currant jelly, and is also used for tarts.'" 

F. montana J. Grah. 

East Indies. It is called attuck ka jhar. The fruit, the size of a crab apple, is eaten 
by the natives." 

F. ramontchi L'Herit. batoko plum. Madagascar plum. 

East Indies, Malay and Madagascar. The fruit is of the size of a plum, of a sharp 
but sweetish taste.'- It is common in the jungles of India. The fruit, when fully ripe, is 

' Wight, R. Icon. Pis. 2: PI. 673. 1843. {F. macrophylla) 

2 Brandis, t). Forest Fl. ^ly . 1874. (F. cordifolia) 

" Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Ph. 366. 1879. 

Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 344. 1859. 

' Figuier Veg. World 343. 1867. 

' Firminger, T. A. C. Card. Ind. 197. 1874. 

' Roxburgh, W. Pis. Corom. Coast 3:16. i8iq. 

' Firminger, T. A. C. Card. Ind. 197. 1874. 

'Hooker, W. J. Bot. Misc. 1:289. 1830. 
" Hooker, W. J. Journ. Bot. 2:226. 1840. 
" Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 743. 1879. (F. rrenata) 
''Smith, J. Diet. Econ. Pis. 331. 1882. 


of a pleasant acid taste and very refreshing.^ At Bombay, the fruit is eaten but is by 
no means good.- The fruit is eaten.' 

F. sepiaria Roxb. 

East Indies and Malay. In Coromandel, the berries are sold in the market.'' The 
fruit has a pleasant, acid taste and is ver\' refreshing.* At Bombay, its berries are eaten.' 

Flagellaria indica Linn. Flagellarieae. 

Tropical shores from Africa to the Samoan Islands. In Fiji, the ears of this plant 
are eaten. 'i> 

Flemingia tuberosa Dalzell. Leguminosae. 

East Indies. The tubers are said to be edible.' 

F. vestita Benth. flemingia. 

Himalayan region. This prostrate plant is cultivated in many parts of northwest 
India for the sake of its edible, tuberous roots, which are neariy elliptical and about an 
inch long.* 

Fluggea leucopyrus Willd. Euphorbiaceae. 

East Indies. The small, round, whitish- colored fruit is a little bitter to the taste 
but is eaten in India by the poor.^" 

F. microcarpa Blume. 

Old World tropics. The fruit, a white, globose, dehiscent berry, one-sixth inch in 
diameter, is eaten." The berries are eaten by the natives of eastern tropical Africa.'^ 

Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Umbelliferae. fennel, finochio. 

Europe. Fennel was cultivated by the Romans as a garden herb and was so much 
used in the kitchen that there were few meats seasoned, or vinegar sauces served without 
it." It was used as a condiment by our English forefathers. The plant is a native of 
temperate Europe and Asia. It is now largely cultivated in central Europe, Saxony, 
Franconia and Wurtemburg, in the south of France, in Italy, in India and in China. 
Fennel was included among American garden herbs by McMahon," 1806. Darwin '^ found 

Wight, R. lUustr. Ind. Bot. 1:37. 1840. 
' Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. 692. 1879. 
Brandis, D. Forest Fl. iS. 1874. 

* Roxburgh, W. Pis. Coram. Coast 1:48. 1795 
Wight, R. Illustr. Ind. Bot. 1:37. 1840. 
Pickering, C. Ckron. Hist. Pis. 725. 1879. 

' Seemann, B. Fl. Viti. 31$. 1865-73. 

Mueller,?. Sel. Pis. 207. 1891. 

Black, A. A. Treas. Bot. i-.^gg. 1870. 
'"AinsHe, W. Afa/. 7nd. 2:449. 1826. 
"Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 415. 1874. 
" Black, A. A. Treai. Bo/. 1:501. 1870. (F. abyssinica) 
' Mcintosh, C. Book Card. 2:5. 1855. 

" McMahon, B. Amer. Card. Cal. 583. 1806. (A nethum foeniculum) 
Darwin, C. Voy. H. M. S. Beagle 119. 1884. 


it growing wild in the neighborhood of Buenos Aires, Monti video and other towns. The 
leaves are used in sauces, the stalks eaten in salads, and the seeds are employed in con- 
iectionery and for flavoring liquors. Fennel is constantly mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon 
medical recipes which date as early, at least, as the eleventh century. The diffusion 
of the plant in central Europe was stimulated by Charlemagne, who enjoined its cultiva- 
tion on the imperial farms. Fennel shoots, fennel water and fennel seed are all men- 
tioned in an ancient record of Spanish agriculture of 961 A. D.' There are three different 
forms recognized, all believed to belong to the common species. 

Bitter Fennel. 
In 1863, Burr ^ describes a common and a dark-leaved form; in 1586, Lyte's Dodoens' 
Herball describes in like manner two varieties. This is the common wild sort, hardy and 
often spontaneous as an escape from gardens. Bitter fennel is the Anethum foeniculum 
Linn., 1763, and the Foeniculum of Camerarius,' 1586. Sometimes, but rarely, the leaves 
are used for seasoning but the plant is grown chiefly for its seeds which are largely used 
in flavoring liquors. Bitter fennel appears to be the common fennel or finckle of Ray, 
1686, and the foennel and Jyncle of Turner, 1538. 

Sweet Fennel. 

This form is cultivated more frequently as a garden plant than the preceding, and 
its seeds are also an object of commerce. As the plant grows old, the fruits of each suc- 
ceeding season gradually change in shape and diminish in size, until, at the end of four 
or five years, they are hardly to be distinguished from those of the bitter fennel. This 
curious fact was noted by Tabemaemontanus, 1588, and was systematically proved by 
Guibort, 1869.'' This kind has, however, remained distinct from an early date. It is 
described by Albertus Magnus ^ in the thirteenth century and by Charlemagne in the 
ninth. It is mentioned throughout Europe, in Asia, and in America as an aromatic, 
garden herb. The famous carosella, so extensively used in Naples, scarcely known in 
any other place, is referred by authors to F. piperitum DC. The plant is used while in 
the state of running to bloom; the stems, fresh and tender, are broken and served raw, still 
enclosed in the expanded leaf -stalks. This use is, perhaps, referred to by Amatus Lusi- 
tanus,'' 1554, when, in speaking of finocchio, he says the swollen stalk is collected and 
said to be eaten. 


This form is very distinct in its broad leaf-stalks, which, overlapping each other at 
the base of the stem, form a bulbous enlargement, firm, white and sweet inside. This 

' Fliickiger and Hanbury Pharm. 308. 1879. 

Burr, F. Field, Card. Veg. ^o. 1863. 

' Dodoens jfferft. 305. 1586. Lyte Ed. 

* Fluckiger and Hanbury Pharm. 308. 1879. 

' Albertus Magnus Beg. Jessen Ed. 517. 1867. 

'Vilmorin Veg. Card. 2^6. 1885. 

' Dioscorides Amatus Lusitanus Ed. 338. 1554. 


seems to be the finochi, or Italian fennel, stated by Switzer,' 1729, to have but recently 
been introduced to English cultvire and yet rare in 1765.- The first distinct mention is 
by Mawe,' 1778, under the name of Azorian Dwarf or finocchio. It is again described 
in a very perfect form by Bryant/ 1783, under the name of Sweet Azorian fennel. Accord- 
ing to Miller's Dictionary, 1807, it is the F. azoricum Miller, 1737. Ray, 1686, uses the 
name Foeniculum duke azoricum, but his description is hardly svifficient. Finocchio is 
described for American gardens in 1806.^ It does not seem to have entered general cul- 
ture except in Italy. The type of this fennel seems to be figured by J. Bauhin, 165 1, and 
by Chabraeus, 1677, under the name Foeniculum rotundum flore alho. 

Fragaria. Rosaceae. strawberry. 

The Latin word for the strawberry, Fraga, has given name to the botanical genus 
Fragaria, which includes our edible species. Ruellius, 1536, says the French word fresas 
was applied to the fruit on account of the excellent sweetness of its odor, adore suavissimum, 
and taste; in 1554, this was spelled /rayse^ by Amatus Lusitanicus, but the modem word 
/raise appeared in the iovm. f raises, in Fuchsius, 1542, and Estienne, 1545. The Italian 
fraghe and fragole, as used by Matthiolus, 1571, and fragola as used by Zvingerus 1696, 
and the modem Italians, appear to have come directly from the Latin; while the Spanish 
fresa and fresera must have had the same immediate origin as the French. Some of the 
ancient commentators and botanists seem to have derived the Latin name from fragrans, 
sweet-smelling, for Turner in his Libellus, 1538, says "fragum non jragrum {ut quidam 
scioli scribunt)," and Amatus Lusitanicus, 1554, writes fragra. The latter quotes Servius, 
a grammarian of the fifteenth century, as calling the fruit terrestria mora, earth mul- 
berry, (or, following Dorstenius who wrote in 1540, "fructus terrae et mora terrestria)," 
whence the Spanish and Portuguese murangaos, (the modem Portuguese moranguoiro) . 
The manner of the fruit-bearing, near the ground, seems to have been the character of 
the plant more generally observed, however, than that of the fruit, for we have Virgil's 
verse, " humi nascentia fraga," child of the soil, and Pliny's epithet, "terrestribus fragis," 
ground strawberry, as distinguishing from the Arbutus unedo Linn, or strawberry tree, 
as also the modem vernacular appellations, such as the Belgian eertbesien, Danish jordbeer, 
German erdbeere, Netherland aerdbesie, while even the English strawberry, the Anglo- 
Saxon streowberie, spelled in modem fashion by Turner in 1538, is said to have been derived 
from the spreading nature of the nmners of the plant, and to have come originally from 
the observed strewed, anciently strawed, condition of the stems, and reading as if written 
strawedberry plant. It was called straeberry by Lidgate in the fifteenth century. 

The classical history of the strawberry can be written very shortly. Virgil refers 
to the " humi nascentia fraga " in his third Eclogue; Ovid to the "arbuleos fructus mon- 
tanaque fraga " in his Metamorphoses, book I, v. 104, as furnishing a food of the golden 

' Switzer Raising Veg. 1 729. 

' Stevenson Card. Kal. 46. 1765. 

* Mawe and Abercrombie Univ. Card. Bot. 1778. (Anethum azoricum) 

* Bryant Fl. Diet. 53. 1783. 

* Ray Hist. PI. 458. 1686. 

* McMahon, B. Amer. Card. Cat. 199. 1806. 


age and again in the 13th book, " mollia fraga;" and Pliny mentions the plant by n^me in 
his lib. xxi, c. 50, and separates the ground strawberry from the arbutus tree in his lib. 
XV, c. 28. The fruit is not mentioned in the cook-book ascribed to Apicius Coelius, an 
author supposed to have lived about A. D. 230. The Greeks seem to have had no knowl- 
edge of the plant or fruit ; at least there is no word in their writings which commentators 
have agreed in interpreting as applying to the strawberry. Nicolaus Myripsicus, an 
author of the tenth century, uses the word phragouli, and Forskal, in the eighteenth century, 
found the word phraouli in use for the strawberry by the Greeks about Belgrade. Fraas 
gives the latter word for the modem Greek, and Sibthorp the word kovkoumaria, which 
resembles the ancient Greek komaros or komaron, applied to the arbutus tree, whose fruit 
has a superficial resemblance to the strawberry. 

Neither the strawberry nor its cultivation is mentioned by Ibnal-awam, an author 
of the tenth century, unusually full and complete in his treatment of garden, orchard, 
and field products, nor by Albertus Magnus, who died A. D. 1280. It is not mentioned 
in The Forme of Cury, a roll of ancient English cookery compiled about A. D. 1390 by two 
master cooks of King Richard II; nor in Ancient Cookery, a recipe book of 1381; nor at 
the Inthronization Feast of George Neville, Archbishop of York, in 1504. The fruit 
was, however, known in London in the time of Henry VI, for in a poem by John Lidgate, 
who died about 1483, we find 

" Then unto London I dyde me hye. 

Of all the land it bearyeth the pryse ; 
' Gode pescode,' one began to cry 

' Strabery rype, and cherrys in the ryse.' " 

The strawberry is figured fairly well in the Ortus Sanitatis, 1511, c. 188, but th^re is 
no mention of culture. Ruellius, however, 1536, speaks of it as growing wild in shady 
situations, says gardens furnish a larger fruit, and mentions even a white variety. 
Fuchsius, 1542, also speaks of the larger garden variety, and Estinne, 1545, (perhaps also 
in his first edition of the De Re Hortensi, 1535), says strawberries are used as delicacies 
on the table, with sugar and cream, or wine, and that they are of the size of a hazelnut; 
he says the plants bear most palatable fruit, red, especially when they are fully ripe; 
that some grow on the mountains and woods, and are wild, but that some cultivated 
ones are so odorous that nothing can be more so, and that these are larger, and some are 
white, others red, yet others are both red and white. 

Cultivated strawberries are also noted by many authors of the sixteenth century, as 
by Mizaldus, 1560; Pena and Lobel in 1571; and in 1586 Lyte's Dodoens records, " they 
be also much planted in gardens." Porta, 1592, regards them as among the delicacies of 
the garden and the delights of the palate. Hyll, 1593, says " they be much eaten at all 
men's tables," and that " they will grow in gardens unto the bigness of a mulberry." Le 
Jardinier Solitaire, 1612, gives directions for planting, and Parkinson, 1629, notes a 
number of varieties. As to size, Dorstenius, 1540, speaks of them as of the size of a hazel- 
nut; Bauhin, 1596, as being double the size of the wild; the Hortus Eystettensis, 1613, 
figiu-es berries one and three-eighths inches in diameter; Parkinson, in 1629, as " neere 


five inches about;" Plat, 1653, as two inches about in bigness; Vaillant, 1727, as an inch 
and sometimes more in diameter. It remained for Frezier, who discovered Fragaria 
chiloensis, and brought it to Europe in 17 12, to describe fruit as of the size of a walnut, 
sometimes as large as an egg; and Burbridge, a recent writer, says that in the Equatorial 
Andes, in the province of Ambato, there are strawberries growing wild, equal in size and 
flavor to some of our best varieties. 

The strawberry plant is variable in nature, and it seems probable that the type of 
all the vari^ies noted under cultivation may be found in the wild plant, if diligently 
sought for. In the Maine fields there are plants of Fragaria vesca with roundish, as well 
as elongated fruit; of Fragaria virginiana with roundish berries and elongated berries, 
with berries having a distinct neck and those not necked; of a deep red, scarlet, and palish 
color; with large fruit and small fruit; with large growth and small growth, according to 
the fertility of the soil. 

As to color of fruit, white strawberries, to be referred to Fragaria vesca, are mentioned 
by Ruellius, 1536, and by a host of following writers. Peck has found white berries of 
this species about Skaneateles, New York. A white-fruited variety of F. virginiana is 
noted by Dewey as abundant in the eastern portion of Berkshire County, Massachusetts. 
Molina records that the Chile strawberry, Fragaria chiloensis, in Chile has red, white, and 
yellow-fruited varieties, and Frezier, who introduced the species to Europe in 1 7 1 2 , calls 
the fruit pale red. Gmelin in his Flora Sibirica, 1768, mentions three varieties of Fragaria 
vesca; one with a larger flower and fruit, one with white fruit; a third with winged petioles 
and berries an inch long. This last variety seems to answer to those forms of strawberry 
plants occasionally found among the seedlings at the New York Agricultural Experiment 
Station, which have extra leaflets upon the stem of the petiole. Five-leaved strawberry 
plants are noted by many of the early writers; an account of such plants may also be 
found in the Report of the New York Agricultural Experiment Station for 1877. 

Variegated-leaved forms are named by Toumefort, 17 19, and a niunber of varieties 
by Mawe in 1778. Such forms were also noted among the seedling Alpines at the New 
York Station in 1887. Don, in his History of Dichlamydeous Plants, 1832, describes 
Fragaria vesca as varying into red, white, and black fruit, as without runners, as double 
flowered, as with stamens transformed into flowers, as without petals and with foliaceous 
sepals; F. majaufea Duch., as varying into green, red, and purple fruit; F. breslingea Duch., 
as having varieties with usually five-lobed leaves; F. elatior as possessing a curled-leaved 
form; F. grandiflora as furnishing a variegated-leaved form; and F. chiloensis as having 
red-fleshed and white-fleshed fruit. Among the variations to be also noted is that of 
losing all its leaves in winter ascribed to the F. viridis Weston, and the twice-bearing habit 
of the Alpines, F. vesca Linn., var. a. 

The earliest cultivated variety with a distinct nomenclature seems to be the Le 
Chapiron, of the Gallobelgians, a variety with a large, pale-colored berry, so named by 
Lobel, in 1576, and called by him Chapiton in the index to his Icones, 1591. (The Capiton 
of Toumefort, 17 19, seems to correspond to the modem Hautbois class.) The name, 
Le Capiton, occurs also in the Hortus Regius Parisiis, 1665. It is quite probable that 
the Caprons mentioned by Quintinye in 1672, are the same or a similar variety, as both 
kinds are to be referred to Fragaria elatior Ehrh. 

276 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

The first mention of the cultivation of the various classes of the strawberry may 
.best be placed vmder the titles of the ascribed species, in part neglecting probable 
synonjTTiy and neglecting all introductions not preceding the nineteenth century. 
1536. Frf5a5 (red and white). Ruell. 5/tVp. 598. 1536.^ Fragariavesca Linn. 
1542. Fragaria major. Fnch. Hist. 854. 15421808. 1551; 931. 1555. 
1545. Fraises. Estienne De Re Hort. 88. 1545. L'Agric. ;$. 1570. 
1560. Fraga (red and white). Mizald. Secret. 104. 1560. 
1576. Fragaria and Fragra majora alba. Gallobelgis des Chapirons. Lob. Ofo. 396. 1576. 

(See 1613.) 
1583. Fragaria a.nd Fraga alterum genus. Dod. Pentpt. 660. 15831671. 1616. 
1586. Fraga alba. Cam. E pit. j 66. 1 586.= Fragaria vcsca Linn. var. 
1586. Strawberries. Lyte's Dodoens 93. 1586.^ Fragaria vesca Linn. 
1592. Fragole (red and white). Porta. Villae. 748. 1592.= Fragaria vesca Linn. 

1596. Fructa duplo majore vulgari. Bauh. Phytopin. 6$^. 1596. 

1597. Another sort, . . . fruite greene when it is ripe. Ger. Herb. 845. 1597.= Fm- 

garia vesca var. a. Mill. Diet. 
1597. Fragaria and Fraga. Ger. Herb. 845. isgy.^ Fragaria vesca Linn. Mill. Did. 
1597. Fragaria and Fraga subalba. Ger. Herb. 844. 1597.= Fragaria vesca Linn., var. a, 

Mill. Did. 

161 2. Fraisiers. Le Jard. Solit. 2,82. 161 2. 

1613. Caperonnier unisexe. Le Caperon. Fraise-abricot. Fraise-Jramboise. Hautboy. 

Chapetons, Lob. Duch. in Lam. Enc. 1786. (See 1576.) =Fragan'a da/wr Ehrh. 
F raise capron framboise Vilm. 

1620. Fragaria virginiana. Don. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 2:542. (See 1623, 1629, 1633.) 
According to Sprengel, fig. 8 in the Hortus Eystettensis 1613, is this species. 

1623. Fraga acque magna ac in Anglia in Virginia crescunt. Bauh. Pin. 326. 1623. 
(See 1620.) 

1623. Fragaria jrudu parvi pruni magnitudini. Bauh. Pin. 326. 1623.= Fragaria 

1629. From Brussels. Park. Par. 528. 1629. Caperonnier royal f (8661770.) 

1629. Greene Strawberry. Park. Par. 528. 1629. See Breslinge d'Angleterre. Prob- 
ably the Green, of Downing Fruits 685. i866.=(?) Fragaria elatior. 

1629. White Strawberry. Park. Par. 528. 1629. 

1629. Bohemia Strawberry. Park. Par. 528. 1629.^ Fragaria vesca Linn., var. b, 
Mill. Did. 

1629. Virginia. Park. Par. 528. 1629. (See 1620, 1623.) = Fragaria Wrgiwiana Ehrh. 

1529. Qitoimio de Virginia. Fraisier ecarlate. Duch. in Lam. Enc.= Fragaria vir- 
giniana Ehrh. Fraisier ecarlate de virginie Vilm. 

1629. Breslinge d'Angleterre. Fraisier vert. Duch. in Lam. Enc. The Greene Straw- 
berry of Park. Par. 528. 1629.^ Fragaria elatior f 

1633. Canadana pariter insolitae magnitudinis fraga adrepsit. Ferrarius Cj<//. 379. 1633. 
(See 1620.) = Fragaria virginiana Ehrh. 

1640. Fraisier double et couronne. Fraisier a trocliet. Duch. in Lam. Enc. ^ Fragaria 
vesca Linn., var. e, Don. See Blackw. t. 77, f. 3. 

1651. Fragaria ferens fragar rubra et alba. Bauh. J. Hw/. 2:395. i6$i.= Fragaria vesca. 
var. b. Willd. Sp. 2:iogi.= F. frudu albo. Bauh. Pin. 326. 1623. 

1653. Strawberries from the woods. Plat. Card. Eden. 38, 93. 1653.= Fragaria vesca 

1655. Fraisier fressant. Fraisier de Montreuil. Le Caption. H. R. P. 1665. Toum. 
1 7 19. Duch. in Lam. Enc.= Fragaria vesca Linn. Fraise de Montreuil Vilm. 


1680. Fragaria Anglica duplici petalorum serie. Mor. Hist. 2, 186. 1680. (See 1640.) 
1686. Fragaria hortensis major. Mor. Hist. s. 2, t. 19, f. i.= f Fragaria vesca Linn, van b, 

Mill. Diet. 
1693. Caprons. Quint. Comp. Card. 146. 1693. 
1 7 12. Frxitiller. Fraisier du Chili. Duch. in Lam. Enc. Fragaria Chiloense. Pers. Syn. 

2, 53. Carried to England in 1727. Mill. Diet. iSo-j .= Fragaria Chiloensis 

Duch. Fraisier du Chili vrai Vilm. 
1722. Bradley, in his Observations this year, names the White Wood, Scariet Wood, and 

1726. Fragaria fructn parvi prunimagnittidine. Fragafructu magna. Eyst. 1612,. Rupp. 

Jen. 86. i"] 26.= Fragaria elaiior Willd. Sp. 2:1091. 
1739. Fragaria hortensis fructu maxima. Weimn. /com. t. 514, f. d. 1^28.= ? Fragaria 

1742. Fragaria fructu rotunda suavissimo flore duplici. Zann. Hist. 112. 1742. (See 

1640, 1680.) 
1742. Fragaria hispidis. C. B. 327. Tertium fragariae genus. Trag. 500. Mapp. Alsat. 

no. 1^42.= Fragaria collina. Willd. 5^. 2:1093. 
1744. Fragaria vulgaris. C. T. 326. Morandi 9, t. 7, ic. 3. 1744..= Fragaria vesca Linn. 

Willd. Sp. 2:1091. 
1748. Fraisier buisson. Fraisier sans coulant. Duch. in Lam. Enc.= Fraisier des Alpes 

sans filets. Vilm. L^5 Pis. Potag. 222. 1883.:^ Fmgana a/^wa Pers. van 
1757. Fragaria hortensis fructu inajore. Zinn. Co/. 138. 1757. 
1759. Fragaria grandiflora. Don. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 2:542. 
1762. Fragaria vesca, b pratensis. Linn. Sp. 709. 1^62.^ Fragaria elatior. Willd. Sp. 

1762. Quoimios de Harlem. Fraisier Ananas. Duch. in Lam. Enc.= Fragaria grandi- 
flora Ehrh. Fraisier Ananas. Vilm. (See 1759.) 

1764. Fragaria semperflorens. Duch. in Lam. Enc. = Fraisier des Alpes, Fragaria alpina 

Pers. A red and a white variety among others described by Viknorin Les Pis. 
Potag. 221. 1883. 

1765. Stevenson, in his Gardeners' Kalendar of this year, names the American, Coped 

White, Green, Scarlet, Long Red, Dutch, English Garden, Polonian, and Wood. 

1765. Breslinge de Suide. Fraisier Brugnon. Duch. in Lam. Enc. = Fragaria elatior 

Willd.^F. vesca var. pratensis Linn. (See 1762.) Cited by Linnaeus in Fl. 
Lap. 1737. 

1766. Majaufe de Provence. Duch. in Lam. Enc. Fraisier de Bargemont, observed in the 

year 1583 by Caesalpinus = Fragarm collina Ehrh. var., according to Vilmorin. 

1766. Breslinge d'Allemagne. Duch. in Lam. Enc. ^ Fragaria collina Ehrh. Fraisier 
etoile. Vilm. 

1768. Breslinge de Bourgogne. Fraisier Marteau. Duch. in Lam. iinc. 

1770. Le Caperonnier Royal. Duch. in Lam. mc.= Probably the Prolific or Conical. 
Downing Frwf/s 680. 1866. {See 162^.)-= Fragaria elatior.. 

1770. Quoimio de Clagny. Duch. in Lam. Enc. 

1772. Fragaria Virginiana campestre. Bryant Fl. Diet. 163. 1783. 

1778. Mawe and Abercrombie in their Universal Gardener of this year, name: Wood 
strawberries, red-fruited, white, greenish, pineapple-tasted, double-blossomed, 
with gold-striped leaves, with silver-striped leaves. Virginian: Common scar- 
let, roundish-leaved large scarlet, striped-leaved scarlet. Hautboy or Musky: 
Oval-fruited, globular-fruited, pine-shaped, green-fruited, red-blossomed, white- 
striped leaved, yellow-striped leaved. Chili: Round pale red, oblong pale red, 
round scarlet Carolina, white. Alpine or Monthly: Scarlet-red, white. 

278 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

1786. Quoimio de Bath. Fraisier de Bath. Duch. in Lam. Enc.= Fragaria grandifiora 

Ehrh. Don. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 2:545. 
1786. Quoimio de Carolina. Fraisier de Carolina. Duch. in Lam. Enc.= Fragaria 

grandifiora Ehrh. Frasier Ananas. Vilm. 
1 786. Quoimio de Cantorberie. Fraiser-Quoimo. Duch. in Lam. Enc.= Fragaria chiloensis. 

Don. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 2:545. 
1786. Fragaria sylvestris. Duch. in Lam. Enc.= Fragaria vulgaris. C. B. i623.= F. 

sylvestris vel montana. Cam. Epit. 765. 1586. (See 1653.) Probably the same 

as Fresas, Ruell. 15^6.= Fragaria vesca Linn. 
1786. Fragaria minor. Duch. in Lam. mc.= Fragaria wsca Linn. var. c. Don. 
1790. Fragaria W5ca (China). Lour. Coc/tinc/i. 325. 1790. 
1798. Fragaria collina Ehrh. Don. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 2:542. (See 1766.) 

We hence find the following as the dates of the mention of the species under cultiva- 
tion, the synonyms taken from Steudel.- 

Fragaria vesca Linn. 1536, 1586, 1592, 1597, 1629, 1640, 1651, 1653, 1655, 1680, 

1742, 1744, 1786. 
Fragaria elatior Ehrh.^ F. vesca var. pratensis Liim. 1576, 1613, 1623, 1629, 1726, 

1739, 1762, 1765, 1770. 
Fragaria virginiana Ehrh. 1620, 1623, 1627, 1633, 1772. 
Fragaria chiloensis Ehrh.^F. vesca var. chiloensis Linn. 17 12, 1786. 
Fragaria collina Ehrh.= F. hispida Duch. 1742, 1766, 1798. {Fragaria alpina 

Pers.) 1748, 1764. 
Fragaria grandifiora Ehrh.= F. ananassa Duch.= F. vesca var. ananas Ait. 1759, 

1762, 1786. 

Although this outline, confessedly imperfect, shows that strawberry culture had 
received some attention preceding the present century, and that a considerable number 
of varieties had been secured, yet it is in modem times that through the growing of seed- 
lings, and the facilities for reaping a reward for alleged improvements, varieties have 
become overwhelming in ntimber. In remote times, even towards the dose of the last 
century, growers were wont to seek their suppUes from the woods and fields; now the 
nurseryman is applied to. This increase in varieties may best be indicated by giving 
in tabular form the mmiber of varieties that have been mentioned by garden writers of 

various dates. 

Kinds Named. 

1545. Estienne De Re Hortensi 2 

1612. Le Jardinier Solitaire i 

1629. Parkinson Paradisus 6 

1680. Morison Hist 8 

1692. Quintinye Complete Gardener 3 

1719. Toumefort Inst 10 

1765. Stevenson Card. Kal 9 

1771. Miller Diet 8 

1778. Mawe Card 23 

1786. Duch. in Lam. Enc 25 

1807. Miller's Diet 8 

1824. Pirolle L'Hort. Franc 14 

1826. Petit Du Jard. Petit 10 


Kinds Named. 

1829. Noisette Man. Jard 28 

1832. Don Hist. Dichl. Pis 112 

1856. Downing Fruits, Fruit Trees oj America 36 

1865. Pardee Strawberry Culture 42 

1866. Downing Fruits, Fruit Trees of America 106 

1867. Fuller Small Fruit Culturist 248 

1869. Knox Fruit Farm and Nursery Cat 15 

1870. Jvlerrick Strawberry Culture 813 

1877. Gregg Fruit Culture 42 

1883. Vilmorin Les Plantes Potagkres 58 

1885. Thomas Fruit Culturist 135 

1887. American Pomological Society 41 

The modem varieties under American culture have usually large berries with more 
or less stmken seeds, with the trusses lower than the leaves, and seem to belong mostly 
to the species represented in nature by Fragaria virginiana, although they are supposed 
hybridizations with Fragaria chiloensis, and, in the higher-flavored class, with Fragaria 
elatior. Certain it is that, in growing seedlings from our improved varieties, reversions 
often occur to varieties referable to the Hautbois and Chilean sorts, from which hybrid- 
ization can be inferred. One notes as of common occurrence that seedlings from high- 
flavored varieties are very likely to furnish some plants of the Hautbois class, and even 
scarcely, if at all, distinguishable from named varieties of the Hautbois with which there 
has been opportunity for close comparison. From large-berried varieties of diminished 
flavor, and which occasionally throw hollowed berries, the reversion occasionally produces 
plants unmistakably of the Chilean type. In other cases we have noticed reversions to 
forms of Fragaria vesca. 

These circumstances all lead towards establishing the mingled parentage of our 
varieties imder cultivation, and render the classification of cultivated varieties somewhat 
difficult. Vilmorin seems to have separated varieties into natural groupings under the 
headings: Wood strawberries, Fragaria vesca Linn.; Alpine strawberries, Fragaria alpina 
Pers.; Short-runnered Fragaria collina Ehrh. ; Hautbois, Fragaria elatior Ehrh.; Scarlet, 
Fragaria virginiana Ehrh.; Chile, Fragaria chiloensis Duch.; Pineapple, Fragaria 
grandiflora Ehrh., and Hybrid {Fragaria hybrida) f Under the latter distribution, 
to which he does not venture the Latin nomenclatvu-e, he does not recognize sxifficient 
identity of character for general description, but one may well believe that an extended 
acquaintance with varieties will enable a description to be formulated which will make 
of this group a species by convenience, or, otherwise expressed, a historical species, with 
a number of subspecies (for convenience) which shall simplify the question of arrange- 
ment and which will enable us to secure a quicker identification of varieties. 

The changes which have been produced, or have appeared tmder cultivation, seem 
comparatively few. i. Increased size of plant. Yet in nature we find variability in this 
respect, arising from greater or less fertility or favoring character of the soil and exposure. 
This increase of size seems also in a measure to have become hereditary. 2. Increased 
size of berry. In nature we find variability in this respect. All analogical reasoning 
justifies the belief that this gain may arise through heredity influenced by long series 









of selections. 3. Firmness of berry. Present knowledge does not admit of assigning a 
cause for this feature, unless it has been gained through hybridization. 4. Flavor. This 
seems to be the direct sequence of hybridization, in its more marked aspects; in its lesser 
aspects it does not seem to exceed that which occurs between natural varieties. 5. Aspect. 
This seems to have been acquired through the action of hybridization, when the influence 
of one parent appears to have become predominant. The whole subject of the influences 
noted and to be ascribed to hybridization must be left for further study. 

As an appendix it may be of service to furnish a list of figures of the strawberry plant 
which antedate the present century. 

According to Sprengel the strawberry is not represented upon the monuments of 
ancient Egypt or Greece. Figures occur as in the following list : 
1484. Fragaria. Herbarius maguntae c. Ixiii. 

Jacobus de Dondis Aggregator practicus. (According to Sprengel.) 
Ortus Sanit. c. 188. 
Brunf. 40. 
Dorst., Bot. 131. 
Fragaria major et minor. Fuch. 853; ib., 1551, 808. 
Fragaria. Roszl., Kreut. 153. 
Trag. Stirp. 500. 
Pinaeus Hist. 480. 
Matth. Comment. 651. 
Matth. Compend. 686. 
Fragaria andfraga. Lob. Obs. 396. 
Fraga altera. Dod. Pempt. 661. 
Fragaria and fraga. Dod. Pempt. 661. 
Fragaria. Cam. Epit. 765. 
Fragaria. Dalechamp Hist. 614. 
Fragaria. I. Tabern. Kreut. 429. 
Fragum album. II. Tabem. Kreut. 429. 
Fragum. Trijolium fragifertim. Tabem. /com. 118. 
Fragum album. Tabem. Icon. 119. 
Fragaria and fragu. Lob. /con. 697. 
Fragaria and fragu major subalbida. Lob. Icon. 697. 
Fragaria and fraga. Ger. Herb. 844. 
Fragaria and fraga subalba. Ger. Herb. 844. 
Fragaria fructu albo. Matth. Comment. 721. 
Fragum. I. Tabem. Kreut. 353. 
Fragaria album. II. Tabem. Kreut. 354. 
Fraga fructu magno. Eyst. Vem. ord. 7, fol. 8, p. i. 
Fraga fructo albo. Eyst. Vem. ord. 7, fol. 8, p. 2. 
Fraga fructu rubra. Eyst. Vem. ord. 7, fol. 8, p. 2. 
Fraga altera. Dod. Pempt. 672. 
Fragaria and fraga. Dod. Pempt. 672. 
Fragaria. Cast. Dur. 192. 
Fraga vulgaris. Park. Par. 527, f. 6. 
Fraga bohemica maxima. Park. Par. 527, f. 7. 
Fraga aculeata. Park. Par. 527, t. 8. 
Fragdria ferens fraga rubra et alba. Bauh. J. //j5<. 2:3194. 
Fragaria vel fraga alba. Sweert. Flor. t. 2, f. 7. 


1654. Fragaria velfraga maxima. Sweert. Flor. t. 2, f. 8. 

1654. Fragaria vel fraga media: Sweert. Flor. t. 2, f. 9. 

1677. Fragaria. Fraga. Chabr. Sciag. 169. 

1680. Fragaria hortensis major. Mor. Hist. Ox. S. 2, t. 19, f. i. 

1680. Fragaria sylvestris. Alor. Hist. Ox. S. 2, t. 19, f. 2. 

1696. Fragaria. Zwing. Theat. Bot. 864. 

1696. Fraga alba. Zwing. Theat. Bot. 865. 

1 7 14. Fragaria flore pleno fructu rubello. Barrel. 7co. 89. 

1 7 14. ^fragaria spinoso fructu. Barrel. Icon. n. 90. 

1739. Fragaria vulgaris. Weinm. Iconog. t. 514, f. c (col.). 

1739. Fragaria hortensis Jrncto maxima. Weinm. Iconog. t. 514, f. d (col.). 

1742. Fragaria arborea confiore herbaceo. Zanon. ffisi. t. 78. 

. 1744. Fragaria vulgaris. Morandi t. 7, f. 3. 

1749. Fragaria. Blackw. Herb. t. 77 (col.). 

1760. Fragaria. Ludw. Ect. t. 136 (col.). 

1774. Fragaria chiloensis. Dillen. Elth. t. 120, f. 146. 

F. chiloensis Duchesne, garden strawberry, pine strawberry. 

Western shores of the New World. This is a dioecious strawberry, bearing very large 
fruit and called in Chile quelghen.'- The best quality of fruit, according to Molina,^ came 
from the Chilean provinces of Puchacay and Huilquilemu. The plant was carried by 
Frezier in 17 12 from Conception to Europe and from Europe was carried to the West 
Indies.' Prince * describes the Large Scarlet Chile as imported to this country from Lima, 
about 1820, and the Montevideo, about 1840, and 14 other varieties originating from this 

F. collina Ehrh. green strawberry. 

Europe and northern Asia. The fruits are greenish, tinged with red, of a musky, 
rich, pineapple flavor. Prince enumerates fovir varieties as cultivated.* 

F. elatior Ehrh. hautbois strawberry. 

Europe. The French call this class of strawberries caprons. The fruit has a musky 
flavor which many persons esteem.* Prince ' describes eight varieties in cultivation. 

F. vesca Linn, alpine strawberry, perpetual strawberry, wood strawberry. 

Temperate regions. Previous to 1629, the date of the introduction of the Virginian 

strawberry, this was the species generally gathered in Europe and the fruit referred to 

by Shakespeare: 

" My lord of Ely, when I was last in Holbom, 

I saw good strawberries in your garden there." 
This species is mentioned by Virgil, Ovid and Pliny as a wild plant. Lyte,* in his trans- 

' Pickering, C. 

Chron. Hist. 


892. 18; 

2 Ibid. 

' Ibid. 

* Prince U. S. 

Pat. Of. Rpt. 



< Prince U. S. 

Pal. Off. Rpt. 



Thompson, H. Treas. Bot. 

1:504. 1870, 

'Prince U.S. 

Pat. Off. Rpt. 



Dodoens Her6. 1578. Lyte Ed 

282 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

lation of Dodoens' Herball, refers to it as growing wild in 1578 and first appearing in an 
. improved variety in cultivation about 1660. A. De Candolle,' however, states that it 
was cultivated in the mediaeval period. Gray ' says it is indigenous in the United States, 
particularly northward. In Scandinavia, it ripens beyond 70.' Prince * enumerates 10 
varieties of the Wood, and 1 5 varieties of the Alpine, under cultivation. In 1 766, Duchesne 
says, " The King of England was understood to have received the first seed from Turin." 
It was such a rarity that a pinch of seed sold for a guinea. 

F. virginiana Duchesne, scarlet strawberry. Virginia strawberry. 

Eastern North America. Called by the New England Indians wuitahimneash. The 
Indians bruised this strawberry with meal in a mortar and made bread. This fruit was 
mentioned by Edward Winslow^ in Massachusetts in 1621. The settlers on the ship 
Arabella, at Salem, June 12, 1630, went ashore and regaled themselves with strawberries.* 
Wood,' in his New England Prospects, say^ strawberries were in abimdance, " verie large 
ones, some being two inches about." Roger Williams ' says " this berry is the wonder 
of all the fruits growing naturally in these parts. It is of itself excellent; so that one of 
the chiefest doctors of England was wont to say, that God could have made, but God 
never did make, a better berry. In some parts where the Indians have planted, I have 
many times seen as many as would fill a good ship, within few miles compass." This 
fruit was first mentioned in England, by Parkinson, " 1629, but it was a himdred years 
or more afterwards before attention began to be paid to improved seedlings. Hovey's 
Seedling was originated in America in 1834. Prince, in 1861, gives a descriptive list of 
87 varieties which he refers to this species. 

Frankenia portulacaefolia Spreng. Frankeniaceae. sea heath. 

St. Helena Islands. One of the few plants indigenous in the Island of St. Helena 
but now, J. Smith '" says, believed to be extinct. Balfoiu" " says the leaves were used in 
St. Helena as a substitute for tea. 

Fraxinus excelsior Linn. Oleaceae. ash. 

Temperate regions of the Old World. The keys of the ash were formerly pickled 
by steeping in salt and vinegar and were eaten as a condiment, a use to which they are 
still put in Siberia. The leaves are sometimes used to adulterate tea.^- 

' Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 378. 1879. 

' Gray, A. Man. Bol. 480. 1908. 

' DuChaillu Land Midnight Sun 1:152. 1882. 

Prince U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 1861. 

' Young, A. Chron. Fj7gr. 234. 184 1. 

' Hutchinson Hist. Mass. 1:25. Ed. of 1795. 

'Wood, W. New Eng. Prosp. 15. 1865. 

* Williams, R. Key Narragansett Hist. Coll. 1:121. 1643. 

' Parkinson Par. Terr. 528. 1904. (Reprint of 1629). 
"I Smith, J. Dom. Bot. 444. 1871. 
" Balfour, J. H. Treas. Bot. 1:506. 1870. 
" Johnson, C. P. Useful Pis. Gt. Brit. 17.^. 1862. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 283 

F. omus Linn, manna ash. 

Alediterranean region and the Orient. The manna ash is indigenous and is cultivated 
in Sicily and Calabria. When the trees are eight or ten years old, one cut is made every day 
from the commencement of July to the end of September, from which a whitish, glutinous 
liquor exudes spontaneously and hardens into manna. Manna is collected during nine 
years, when the tree is exhausted and is cut down and only a shoot left, which after four 
or five years becomes in turn productive. Once a week the manna is collected. The 
yield is abcJht 5 poimds of select and 70 pounds of assorted manna per acre. This tree 
is the melia of Dioscorides, the meleos of modem Greece.' The seeds are imported into 
Egypt for culinary and medicinal use and are called bird tongues.^ Fraxinus etccelsior 
Linn, furnishes a little manna in some districts of Sicily .' 

The manna of Scripture is supposed to be a Lichen, Parmelia esculenta, a native of 
Asia Minor, the Sahara and Persia. Some believe manna to be the exudation found on 
the stems of Alhagi maurorum Medic, a shrubby plant which covers immense plains in 
Arabia and Palestine and which now furnishes a manna used in India. In Kvmiaun, 
as Madden * states, the leaves and branches of Pinus excelsa Wall., become covered with 
a liquid exudation which hardens into a kind of manna, sweet, not turpentiny, which 
is eaten. Tamarisk manna is collected in India from the twigs of Tamarix articulata 
Ehr. and T. gallica Ehr., and is used to adulterate sugar as well as for a food by the Bedouin 
Arabs. Pyrus glabra Boiss., affords in Lviristan a substance which, according to Hauss- 
knecht, is collected and is extremely like oak manna. The same traveller states that 
Salix fragilis Linn., and Scrophularia frigida Boiss., likewise yield in Persia saccharine 
exudations. A kind of manna was anciently collected from Cedrus libani Linn. Australian 
manna is found on the leaves of Eucalyptus viminalis Labill., E. mannifera Mudie and 

E. dumosa A. Cimn. ; that from the second species is used as food by the natives. This 
latter manna is said to be an insect secretion and is called lerp. In Styria, Larix europaea 
DC, exudes a honeyed juice which hardens and is called manna. In Asiatic Turkey, 
diarbekir manna is foimd on the leaves of dwarf oaks. Pinus lambertiana Dougl., of 
southern Oregon, yields a sort of exudation used by the natives, which resembles manna. 

Freycinetia banksii A. Cimn. Pandaneae. 

New Zealand. The flowers, of a sweetish taste, are eagerly eaten by the natives 
of New Zealand.* This plant is said by Curl to bear the best edible fruit of the country.** 

F. milnei Seem. 

Fiji Islands. According to MiJne,' the fruit is eaten by the Fijians. 

Fritillaria camschatcensis Ker-Gawl. Liliaceae. Kamchatka lily. 

Eastern Asia. The bitter tubers, says Hooker, are copiously eaten by the Indians 

Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 169. 1879. (Omus europaea) 
' Ibid. 

' Fluckiger and Hanbury Pharm. 366. 1874. 

* Madden, E. Obs. Himal. Coniferae. 1850. 
' Hooker, W. J. Journ. Bot. 4:306. 1842. 
Curl, W. Bot. Index 107. 1880. 
'Seemann, B. Fl. Viti. 283. 1865-73. 

284 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

of Sitka and are known by the name of koch. This plant is emimerated by Dall ' among 
the usefiil indigenous Alaskan plants. In Kamchatka, the women collect the roots, which 
are used in cookery in various ways; when roasted in embers, they supply the place of bread. 
Captain Cook ' said he boiled and ate these roots as potatoes and found them wholesome 
and pleasant. Royle ' says the bulbs are eaten in the Himalayan region. 

F. lanceolata Pursh. narrow-leaved fritillary. 

Western North America. The roots are eaten by some Indians.'' 

Fuchsia cor3rmbifiora Ruiz. & Pav. Onagrarieae. fuchsia. 

Peru. The fruit is said by J. Smith * to be wholesome and not unpalatable. 

F. denticulata Ruiz. & Pav. fuchsia. 
Peru. The acid fruits are edible.^ 

F. racemosa Lam., fuchsia. 

Santo Domingo. It produces edible, acid fruits.' 

Fusanus acuminatus R. Br. Santalaceae. native peaches, quandong nut. 

Australia. Both the succulent outer part and kernel are edible.* The seeds are eaten 
as almonds.' Lindley"says the fruit is as sweet and useful, to the New Hollanders as 
almonds are to us. 

F. persicarius F. Muell. 

Australia. The bark of the root of this small variety of the sandal tree is roasted 
by the Murray tribe of Australian natives in hot ashes and eaten. It has no taste but is 
very nutritious. The native name is quantong.^^ 

Galactites tomentosa Moench. Compositae. 

A plant of the Mediterranean countries, described by Diodorus '- as an edible thistle 
and by Dioscorides as eaten, while young, cooked with oil and salt. The tender flower- 
stem is eaten in the region of the Dardanelles. 

Galega oflScinalis Linn. Leguminosae. goat's rue. 

Europe and western Asia. This European herb is recommended by Gerarde " as a 

' Dall, W. H. Alaska 517. 1897. 

'Cook Koyoge 3:118. 1773. 

= Royle, J. F. Illustr. Bot. Himal. 1:388. 1839. 

' Brown, R. Bot. Soc. Edinb. 9:380. 1868. 

'Smith, J. DoOT. Bo/. 385. 1871. 

Unger, F. V. S. Pat. Of. Rpt. 351. 1859. 

' Ibid. 

Mueller, F. Sel. Ph. 443. 1891. 

Henfrey, A. Bo/. 344. 1870. 
'"Lindley, J. Feg. Xing. 788. 1846. 
" Hooker, W. J. Journ. Bot. 9:267. 1857. 
" Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 448. 1879. 
" Gerarde, J. Herb. 2nd ed. 1253. 1633 or 1636. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 285 

spinach. It has recently received attention as a possible substitute for clover. In 
France, it is an inmate of the flower garden. ^ 

Galium aparine Linn. Rubiaceae. bedstraw. bur-weed, catch-weed, cleavers. 


Northern climates. The seeds form one of the best of the substitutes for coffee, 
according to Johnson,^ and are so used in Sweden. The dried plant is sometimes used 
as a tea. 

G. verum Linn, cheese rennet, hundred-fold, yellow bedstraw. 

Europe; naturalized in eastern North America. Yellow bedstraw has been used in 
some parts of England to curdle milk. In Gerarde's time, this plant was used to color 
the best Cheshire cheese. According to Ray, the flowering tops, distilled with water, 
yield an acid liquor which forms a pleasant simimer drink.' 

Garcinia cambogia Desr. Guttiferae. 

East Indies. In the East Indies, the fruit is eaten at meals as an appetizer. It is 
about two inches in diameter, with a thin, smooth, yellowish rind and a yellow, succtilent, 
sweet pulp.* The fruit is of an exceedingly sharp but pleasant acid and the aril, or pulp, 
'is by far the most palatable part. 

G. cochinchinensis Choisy. 

China. The fruit is about the size of a plum, of a reddish color when ripe and has 
a jtaicy, acid pulp. The leaves are used in Amboina as a condiment for fish.^ 

G. cornea Linn. 

East Indies. The fruit resembles that of the mangosteen but is sometimes larger.^ 

G. cowa Roxb. cowa. cowa-mangosteen 

East Indies. The fruit is eatable but not palatable. The cowa or cowa-mangosteen, 
bears a ribbed and russet apricot-colored fruit of the size of an orange and, were it not 
a trifling degree too acid, would be accounted most delicious. It makes, however, a 
remarkably fine preserve. In Burma, the fruit is eaten." 

G. dulcis Kiu-z. 

Moluccas. The berry is the size of an apple, of a roundish-oval figure and bright 
yellow hue when ripe. The seeds are enveloped in edible pulp of a darker color than 
the skin and have a pleasant taste. 

G. indica Choisy. cocum. kokum. 

East Indies. This is a large tree of the coast region of western India known by the 

' Vilmorin Fl. PI. Ter. 1870. 3rd Ed. 

* Johnson, C. P. Useful. Pis. Gt. Brit. 137. 1862. 
Johnson, C. P. Useful Pis. Gt. Brit. it,(). 1862. 

Martyn Miller Gard. Did. 1807. {Cambogia gutta) 

' Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 1:621. 1831. {Stalagmitis cochinchinensis) 
Don, G. Hist. DicM. Pis. 1:621. 1831. (Stalagmitis celebica) 
' Firminger, T. A. C. Card. Ind. 206. 1874. 


natives as the conca. The fruit is the size of a small apple and contains an acid, purple 
pulp. Garcia d'Orta, 1563, says that it has a pleasant, though sour, taste and that the 
fruit serves to make a vinegar. The oil from the seeds has been used to adulterate 
butter.' About Bombay, it is called kokum, and the fruit is eaten, and oil is obtained 
from the seeds. It is called bruidas by the Portuguese at Goa, where coctun oil is used 
for adulterating ghee or butter.^ 

G. lanceaefolia Roxb. 

Himalayas. The plant yields an edible fruit in India.' 

G. livingstonei T. Anders. African mongosteen. 

Tropical Africa. It is grown as a fruit tree in the PubUc Gardens of Jamaica.* 

G. mangostana Linn, mongosteen. 

A fruit of the equatorial portion of the Malayan Archipelago and considered by many 
the most delicious of all fruits. Capt. Cook, in 1770, found it at Batavia and says " it 
is about the size of a crab apple and of a deep red wine-color; on the top of it are the 
figiu^s of five or six small triangles found in a circle and at the bottom several hollow, 
green leaves, which are remains of the blossom. 'UTien they are to be eaten, the skin, 
or rather flesh, must be taken off, under which are found six or seven white kernels placed 
in a circtdar order and the pulp with which these are enveloped is the fruit, than which 
nothing can be more delicious: it is a happy mixture of the tart and the sweet, which is 
no less wholesome than pleasant." Bayard Taylor ' says " beautiful to sight, smell and 
taste, it hangs among its glossy leaves, the prince of fruits. Cut through the shaded 
green and purple cf the rind, and lift the upper half as if it were the cover of a dish, and 
the pxilp of half-transparent, creamy whiteness stands in segments like an orange, but 
rimmed with darkest crimson where the rind was cut. It looks too beautiful to eat; but 
how the rarest, sweetest essence of the tropics seems to dwell in it as it melts to your 
delighted taste." The tree was fruited in English greenhouses in 1855. It is cultivated 
in the southern and eastern parts of India but does not there attain the same perfection 
as it does in the Malay Archipelago.* Neither does it do well in the West Indies,' but 
Morris ' says it is cultivated for its fruit in the Public Gardens of Jamaica. In Burma, 
it is called men-gu.^ 

G. morella Desr. gamboge. 

East Indies and Malay; a small tree common in Siam and Cambodia. The fruit 
is a pulpy drupe, about two inches in diameter, of a yellow color and is esteemed as a des- 

' Fliickiger and Hanbury Pkarm. 86. 1879. 

2 Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 4S3. 1879. 

Royle, J. F. Illustr. Bol. Himal. 1:133. 1839. 

* Morris Rpt. Pub. Gard. Jam. 35. 1880. 

' Taylor, B. Siam 268. 1892. 

Black, A. A. Treai. Bo<. 1:519. 1870. 

' Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 339. 1859. 

' Morris Rpt. Pub. Gard. Jam. 35. 1880. 

Pickering, C. Ckron. Hist. Pis. 642. 1879. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 287 

sert fruit. The plant furnishes the gamboge, the orange-red gum-resin of commerce.' 
It is called cochin goraka and is cultivated in the Public Gardens of Jamaica.^ 

G. ovalifolia Oliver. 

African tropics. It yields edible fruit.' 

G. paniculata Roxb. 

Himalayan region. The fruit is edible.* The fruit of this species raised in Calcutta 
is represented as about the size of a cherry, that of native specimens received from Silhet 
about twice as large.^ 

G. pedunculata Roxb. 

Himalayan region. The fleshy part of the fruit which covers the seeds and their 
juicy envelope, or aril, is in large quantity, of a firm texture and of a very sharp, pleasant, 
acid taste. It is used by the natives in their curries and for acidulating water. 

G. xanthochymus Hook. f. 

East Indies and Malay. The plant bears a round, smooth apple of medium size, 
which, when ripe, is of a beautiful, yellow color. The seeds are from one to four, large, 
oblong and immersed in pulp. The fruit is very handsome and in taste is little inferior 
to many of our apples. Firminger * says the fruit is intolerably acid. Drury ' says that 
its orange-like fruit is eaten; Unger,* that it is pleasant-tasted. 

Gardenia brasiliensis Spreng. Rubiaceae. 

Brazil. This plant affords, according to J. Smith,' an edible fruit about the size of 
an orange. 

G. gununifera Linn. f. 

East Indies. The fruit is eaten.'" The fruit is eaten in the Circar Mountains of 

G. jasminoides Ellis. 

China. The flowers are used for scenting tea." 

Garuga pinnata Roxb. Burseraceae. 

Malay and East Indies. The fruit is eaten raw and pickled." 

' Smith, J. Diet. Econ. Pis. 189. 1882. 

* Morris Rpt. Pub. Card. Jam. 35. 1880. 
'Royle, J. F. Illustr. Bol. Himal. 1:133. 1839. 

* Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 339. 1859. 
'Wight, R. lUustr.Ind. Bot.i:i2S. 1840. 

Firminger, T. A. C. Card. Ind. 207. 1874. {Xanthochymus pictorius) 
'Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 593. 1879. {Xanthochymus pictorius) 
linger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 336. 1859. {Xanthochymus pictorius) 
Smith, J. Dom. Bo(. 334. 1871. 

' Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 270. 1874. 

"Don, G. Hisl. Dichl. Pis. 3:497. 1834. {G. arborea) 

"Fortune, R. Resid. Chinese 201. 1857. {G.florida) 

" Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 62. 1876. 

288 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

Gastrodia cunninghamii Hook. f. Orchideae. peri-root. 

New Zealand. The root of this orchid is eaten by the natives of New Zealand, who 
call it peri; it is about i8 inches long, as thick as the finger and full of starch.' 

Gaultheria myrsrinites Hook. Ericaceae. 

Northern California and Oregon. The fruit is scarlet, aromatic, and is said to be 

G. prociunbens Linn, checker berry, tea berry, wintergreen. 

Northeastern America. The berries are often offered for sale in the markets of Boston; 
they are pleasantly aromatic and are relished by children. The oil is used for flavoring. 
The leaves are made into a tea by the Indians of Maine. 

G. shallon Pursh. salal. 

Northwest Pacific Coast. The aromatic, acid berries are rather agreeable to the 
taste.* The fruit is much esteemed by the Indians of the northwest coast * and is dried 
and eaten in winter.' 

Gaylussacia frondosa Terr. & Gray. Vacciniaceac. blue tangle, dangleberry. dwarf 
North America. The fruit is large, bluish, rather acid and is used for puddings. 
The fruit is sweet and edible according to Gray.' In the southern states, the berries are 

G. resinosa Torr. & Gray, black huckleberry. 

North America. This plant has several varieties and occurs in woodlands and swamps 
in northeast America. The berries are globular, of a shining black color, and Emerson ' 
says are more valued in market than those of other species. 

Geitonoplesium cymosum A. Cunn. Liliaceae. shepherd's joy. 

Islands of the Pacific and east Australia. The young shoots offer a fine substitute 
for asparagus, according to Mueller.'" 

Gelidium comeum Lam. Algae, kanteen. 

This seaweed occurs almost everywhere. In Japan, kanteen, or vegetable isinglass, 
js prepared from it, which is eaten. The cleansed plant is boiled in water, the solution 
is strained and allowed to set to a jelly in wooden boxes. The jelly is cut into long prisms, 

'Black, A. A. Trees. Bot. 1:521. 1870. 
Brewer and Watson Bot. Cat. 1:455. 1880. 

Torrey Bot. U. S. Mex. Bound. Surv. 2:108. 1859. 

Hooker, W. J. Fl. Bar. Amer. 2:36. 1840. 
' Brown, R. Bot. Soc. Edinb. 9:384. 1868. 

' Emerson, G. B. Trees, Shrubs Mass. 2:452. 1875. 

' Gray, A. Man. Bot. 282. 1868. 

Elliott, S. Bo,'. 5o. Car., Ga. 1:496. 1821. (Vaccinium frondosum) 

Emerson, G. B. Trees, Shrubs Mass. 2:451. 1875. 
Mueller, F. Sii. Pis. 214. 1891. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 289 

frozen and then allowed to thaw in the sun. The water runs away as the thawing proceeds, 
leaving a white skeleton of kanteen. One part will make a firm jelly with 150 parts of 

Genipa americana Linn. Rubiaceae. genipap. marmalade box. 

South America. This plant is cultivated in Brazil, Guiana and other tropical coun- 
tries for its large, greenish- white, edible fruit.' The fruit is as large as an orange and 
has an agreeable flavor. In Siirinam, it is called marmalade box.^ 

Genista tinctoria Linn. Leguminosae. dyer's-broom. woodwaxen. 

Europe in the region of the Caucasus. The buds are pickled and used in sauces as 
a caper substitute. 

Gentiana campestris Linn. Gentianeae. gentian. 

Europe. Linnaeus' says the poorer people of Sweden use this species as a hop to 
brew with their ale. 

G. lutea Linn, yellow gentian. 

Europe and Asia Minor. The root contains sugar and mucilage, and in Switzerland 
an esteemed liquor is prepared from it.* It is an inmate of the flower garden in 

Geoffraea superba Htimb. & Bonpl. Leguminosae. almendor. 

South America. Gardner ^ says this plant produces a fleshy drupe about the size 
of a walnut which is called umari by the Indians. In almost every house, whether Indian 
or Brazilian, he observed a large pot of this fruit being prepared. The taste of the kernel 
is not unlike that of boiled beans. It is the almandora of the Amazon.' 

Geranium dissectum Linn. Geraniaceae. Australian geranium, native carrot. 

Europe, northern Asia and Australia. In Tasmania, the roots, called native carrots, 
are used as food.' Drummond ' saw a species in Swan River Colony, the perennial root 
shaped like a carrot, which was eaten by the natives. 

Geum rivale Linn. Rosaceae. indian chocolate, purple avens. water avens. 

Northern temperate regions. Johnson *' says this plant was often used in olden times 
to flavor ale and other liquors. 

1 Don, G. Hist. DicU. Pis. 3:495. 1834. 
Masters, M. T. Treas. Bot. 1:525. 1870. 
Lightfoot, J. Ft. Scot. 1:153. 1789. 

* Lindley, J. Med. Econ. Bot. 194. 1849. 

Vilmorin Fl. PI. Ter. 427. 1870. 3rd Ed. 

Gardner, G. Trav. Braz. lOl. 1846. 

' Black, A. A. Treas. Bot. 1:527. 1870. 
Syme, J. T. Treas. Bot. 1:528. 1870. 
Hooker, W.J. /orn. 5o/. 2:368. 1840. 
" Johnson, C. P. Useful Pis. Ct. Brit. 88. 1862. 


G. urbanum Linn, avens. clove-root, herb bennett. 

Northern temperate regions, Australia and New Zealand. The root, according to 
Lindley,' is used as an ingredient in some ales. 

Gigantochloa apus Kurz. Gramineae. bamboo. 

Java. The young shoots are used as a vegetable.* 

G. ater Kurz. bamboo. 

Java. This bamboo in Java attains a height of 70 feet and is extensively cultivated. 
The young shoots aflord a culinary vegetable.' 

G. robusta Kurz. bamboo. 

Malay. This bamboo attains the height of a himdred feet. The yoimg shoots are 
used as a vegetable.* 

G. verticillata Munro. bamboo. i^ 

Java. The plant grows to a height of 120 feet, with stems nearly a foot thick. This 
is one of the most extensively cultivated of ail Asiatic bamboos. The young shoots are 
used as a cvilinary vegetable.* 

Gigartina lichnoides Harvey. Algae, ceylon moss. 

Ceylon moss is a seaweed much used in the East as a nutritive article of food and 
for giving consistence to other dishes. It is of a very gelatinous nature and when boiled 
down is almost wholly convertible into jelly.* 

Ginko biloba Linn. Coniferae. ginko. maiden-hair tree. 

China and Japan. The fruit of the ginko is sold in the markets in all Chinese towns 
and is not unlike dried almonds, only whiter, fuller and more round. The natives seem 
very fond of it, although it is rarely eaten by Europeans.' In Japan, the seeds furnish 
an oil used for eating and burning.* The fruit of the maiden-hair tree is called in China 
pa-kwo. The Chinese consume the nuts of this tree at weddings, the shells being dyed 
red; they have a fishy -taste.' This tree is largely cultivated as an ornamental in Europe, 
Asia and North America. 

Gladiolus edulis Burch. Irideae. edible gladiolus. 

South Africa. The bulb-like roots are edible and taste like chestnuts when roasted.'" 

1 Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 506. 1879. 
'Mueller, F. Set. Pis. 216. 1891. 

* Ibid. 
' Ibid. 

Harvey, W. H. Man. Brit. Algae. 1841. 
'Fortune, R. Wand. China 118. 1847. 

Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 797. 1879. 
Smith, F. P. Contrib. Mat. Med. China 103. 1871. 
"Mueller, F. Sel. Pis. 217. 1891. 


Glaucium flavum Crantz. Papaveraceae. 

Europe and the Mediterranean regions. This plant furnishes an inodorous and 
insipid oil of a clear yellow color, sweet, edible and fit for burning. 

Gleditschia triacanthos Linn. Leguminosae. honey locust. 

North America. This tree, native of the region about the Mississippi and its tribu- 
taries, is cultivated as an ornamental tree both in this country and in Europe. The pods 
contain ntimerous seeds enveloped in a sweet, pulpy substance, from which a sugar is said 
to have been extracted.^ Porcher ^ says a beer is sometimes made by fermenting the 
sweet pods while fresh. 

Glyceria fluitans R. Br. Gramineae. float grass, manna grass, poland manna. 

Northern temperate regions. The seeds of this grass are collected on the continent 
and sold as manna seeds for making puddings and gruel.' According to Von Hear,'' it 
is ctdtivated in Poland. 

Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc. Leguminosae. coffee bean, soja bean, soy bean. 

Tropical Asia. This bean is much cultivated in tropical Asia for its seeds, which 
are used as food in India, China and Japan. It is an ingredient of the sauce known 
as soy. Cf late, it has been cultivated as an oil plant. In 1854,^ two varieties, one 
white- and the other red-seeded, were obtained from Japan and distributed through the 
agency of the Patent Office. At the late Vienna Exposition, samples of the seed were 
shown among the agricultural productions of China, Japan, Mongolia, Transcaucasia 
and India. Professor Haberland ^ says this plant has been cultivated from early ages 
and that it grows wild in the Malay Archipelago, Java and the East Indies. In Japan, 
it is called miso.'' Of late, its seeds have appeared among the novelties in our seed cata- 
logs. According to Bretschneider,' a Chinese writing of 163-85 B. C. records that Shen 
nung, 2800 B. C, sowed the five cereals, and another writing of A. D. 127-200 explains 
that these five cereals were rice, wheat, Panicum italicum Linn., P. miliaceum Linn, and 
the soja bean. The use of this bean as a vegetable is also recorded in authors of the fifth, 
fovirteenth and sixteenth centuries. The first Eiu-opean mention of the soja bean is by 
Kaempfer,' who was in Japan in 1690. In his accoimt of his travels, he gives consider- 
able space to this plant. It also seems to be mentioned by Ray,'" 1704. This bean is 
much cultivated in China and Cochin China." There are a large number of varieties. 

' Smith, A. Treas. Bol. 1:534. 1870. 

' Porcher, F. P. Res. So. Fields, Forest 229. 1869. 

Johnson, C. P. Useful Pis. Gl. Brii. 285. i8j2. 

* Heer Agr. Ohio 278. 1859. 

U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. XV. 1854. Preface. {Soja hispida) 

Rutgers Sci. School Rpl. 55. 1879. 

' Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 2:357. 1832. 

Bretschneider, E. Bol. Sin. 75, 78, 52, 59. 1882. 

Kaempfer, E. Amoen. 1712. 
" Ray Hist. PL 438. 1704. 
" Loureiro Fl. Cochin. 441. 1790. 


Seeds were brought from Japan to America by the Perry Expedition on its retvim and 
were distributed from the United States Patent Office * in 1854. In France, seeds were 
distributed in 1855.^ In 1869, Martens' described 13 varieties. 

Glycosmis pentaphylla Correa. Rutaceae. Jamaica mandarin orange. 

Tropical Asia and Australia. This Asiatic tree is noted for the delicious flavor of 
its fruit.* It is the mandarin orange of Jamaica and is grown as a fruit tree in the Public 
Gardens of Jamaica.^ The ripe fruit is eaten.' 

Glycyrrhiza asperrima Linn. f. Leguminosae. wild licorice. 

Russia and central Asia. Pallas ' says the leaves are used by the Kalmucks as a 
substitute for tea. 

G. echinata Linn, wild licorice. 

Southern Europe and the Orient. From the root of this herb, a portion of the Italian 
licorice is prepared. The Russian licorice root is of this species.* 

G. glabra Linn, licorice. 

South Europe, northern Africa and Persia. This plant is cultivated in England, 
Germany and the north of France. Licorice root is used in medicine and in brewing 
porter.' The leaves, called nakhalsa are employed by the Mongols as substitutes for 

G. lepidota Pursh. wild licorice. 

North America. The root is eaten by the Indians of Alaska and the northwestern 

Gmelina arborea Roxb. Verbenaceae. 

Tropical India and Burma. The yellow drupe is eaten by the Ck)nds of the Satpura 
who protect the tree near villages." 

Gnetum gnemon Linn. Gnetaceae. 

Malay. The seeds are eaten in Amboina, roasted, boiled or fried, and the green 
leaves are a favorite vegetable, cooked and eaten as spinach. *' 

' U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. XV. 1854. {Soja hispida) 

' Paillieux 5oja 5. 1881. 

' Martens Gartenbohne 103, 104, 105. 1869. 

* Masters, M. T. Treas. Bot. 1:537. 1870. (G. citrijolia) 

' Morris Rpt. Pub. Card. Jamaica 35. 1880. 

Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 50. 1874. 

' Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 793. 1879. 

'MueUer, F. Sel. Pis. 217. 1891. 

'Mueller, F. Sel. Pis. 218. 1891. 

"Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 753. 1879. {G. hirsuta) 
" U. S. D.A. Rpt. 407. 1870. 
" Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 364. 1876. 
" Figuier Veg. World 332. 1867. 


Gomortega nitida Ruiz & Pav. 

This is a large tree of Chile called queule or keule. The fruit is the size of a small 
peach; the eatable part is yellow, not very juicy, but is of a most excellent and grateful 

Gomphia jabotapita Sw. Ochnaceae. buttcn tree. 

Tropical America. Piso * says the carpels are astringent and are not only eaten 
raw, but that an oil is expressed from them, which is used in salads. 

G. parviflora DC. button tree. 

Brazil. The oil expressed from the fruit is used for salads. 

Goniothalamus walkeri Hook. f. & Thorns. Anonaceae. 

Ceylon. The roots are very fragrant and are said to contain camphor. They are 
chewed by the Singhalese.' 

Gonolobus hispidus Hook. & Am. Asclepiadeae. angle-pod. 

South America. The pod is described by Tweedie* as being very large, resembling 
a toad, and is eaten by the natives. 

Goss3T)ium herbaceum Linn. Malvaceae, cotton. 

Tropical Asia. During the War of the Rebellion, cotton seed came into some use 
as a substitute for coffee, the seed having been parched and ground.* The oil expressed 
from the seed makes a fine salad oil and is also used for cooking and as a butter 

Gouania domingensis Lirm. Rhamneae. chaw-stick. 

West Indies. The stems are used for flavoring cooling beverages.^ 

Gourliea chilensis Clos. Leguminosae. chanal. chanar. 

Tropical South America. This plant is called chanar or chanal in Chile and 
Buenos Aires. According to Tweedie, the pulp of the fruit is used in flavoring sweet 

Gracilaria lichenoides L. Harv. Algae, agar-agar. 

Coast of Ceylon and the opposing portion of the Malayan Archipelago. This seaweed 
is highly valued for food in Ceylon and other islands of the East. It abounds in Burma 
and is of superior quality on the Tenasserim Coast. 

' Lindley, J. Trans. Hort. Soc. Land. $:i04. 1824. 
2 Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 1:816. 1831. 

Jackson, J. R. Treas. Bot. 2:i2')C). 1876. 

Hooker, W. J. Journ. Bot. 1:2^5. 1834. 
' Stelle Amer. Agr. Rev. 105. 1882. 

Smith, A. Treaj. Bo/. 1:545. 1870. 
'Black, A. A. Treas. Bot. 1:545. 1870. 


Greigia sphacelata Regel. Bromeliaceac. 

Chile. The sweet, pulpy frviits, called chupon, are greedily eaten by children. 

Grevillea sp.? Proteaceae. silk-bark oak. 

A species at Swan River Colony, Australia, has a large, yellow, spicate inflorescence 
nearly a foot long. The natives, says Drummond, collect the flowers and suck the honey 
from them. They call the plant woadjar} 

Grewia asiatica Linn. Tiliaceae. 

East Indies. This plant is cultivated in India, says Brandis,* for the small, not very 
succulent, pleasantly acid fruit. The bark of this tree is also employed for making rope. 
Masters ' says the small, red fruits, on account of their pleasant, acid taste, are commonly 
used in India for flavoring slierbets. Firminger ^ says the pea-sized fruits, with a stone 
in the center, are sour and uneatable. The berries have a pleasant, acid taste and are 
used for making sherbets.' 

G. hirsuta Vahl. 

Tropical Asia. A shrub or small tree whose pleasant, acid fruit is much used for making 

G. megalocarpa Beauv. 

Tropical Africa. The black fruit is edible." 

G. oppositifolia Buch.-Ham. 

Hindustan. The berries have a pleasant, acid taste and are used for sherbets.' They 
are also eaten.' 

G. pilosa Lam. 

East Indies and tropical Africa. The fruit of a shrub, probably this, is called karanto 
on the Bassi hills of India and is eaten.^" 

G. populifolia Vahl. 

East Indies and tropical Africa. The fruit, v/ith a scanty but pleasant pulp, is eaten 
in Sind, where it is called gungo. In the Punjab, it is called gangee.^^ 

G. salvifolia Heyne. 

East Indies. The small, dry, subacid fruit is eaten in India.'* 

' Hooker, W. J. Journ. Bot. 2:360. 1840. 

' Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 41. 1874. 

'Masters, M. T. Treas. Bot. 1:552. 1870. 

* Firminger, T. A. C. Card. Ind. 200. 1874. 

.' Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 735. 1879. (G. elastica) 

Royle, J. F. Illuslr. Bot. Himal. 1:104. 1839. 

'Don, G. Hist. DicM. Pis. 1:550. 1831. 

Drury, H. Useful Pis. Ind. 235. 1873. 

Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 38. 1874. 
> Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 39. 1874. 
" Brandis, D. Fo'est Fl. 38. 1874. 
"Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 43. 1874. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 295 

G. sapida Roxb. 

Himalayan region. This plant bears a small but palatable fruit/ much used for 

G. scabrophylla Roxb. 

Himalayan region and Burma. The fruit, the size of a gooseberry, is eaten in India ' 
and is used for sherbets.* 

G. tiliaefolia Vahl. 

Tropics of Asia and Africa. Its drupe, the size of a pea, is of an agreeable, acid 

G. villosa Wild. 

East Indies. The fruit is of the size of a cherry, with a sweet, edible pulp and is eaten 
in India.* 

Grias cauliflora Linn. Myrtaceae. anchovy pear. 

West Indies. The anchovy pear is a native of Jamaica, where it forms a high tree. 
It has for a long time been cultivated in plant houses for the sake of its magnificent foliage. 
The fruits are pear-shaped, russet-brown drupes and when young are pickled like the 
mango, which they resemble in taste.' This plant is cultivated to a limited extent in 
extreme southern Florida.* 

Guazuma tomentosa H. B. & K. Sterculiaceae. bastard cedar. 

West Indies; introduced into India. The fruit is filled with mucilage, which is said 
by Dnxry ^ to be very agreeable to the taste. 

G. ulmifolia Lam. bastard cedar. 

Tropical America. The fruit, says St. Hilaire,'" is hard and woody but is filled 
with a mucilage of a sweet and agreeable taste, which can be sucked with pleasure. 
In Jamaica, says Lunan," the fruit is eaten by the negroes, either raw or boiled as a 

Guizotia abyssinica Case. Compositae. ramtil. 

Tropical Africa. This plant is a native of Abj^nia, where it is cultivated, as well 
as in India, for the sake .of its seeds, which yield an oil to pressure, bland like that of sesame 

' Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 42. 1874. 

'Royle, J. F. Illiislr. Bot. Himal. 1:104. 1839. 

Brandis, D. Forest Fl. ^o. 1874. (G. sclerophylla) 

*Royle, J. F. Illustr. Bot. Himal. 1:104. 1839. 

'Brandis, D. Forest Fl. ^i. 1874. 

Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 39. 1874. 

'Rhind, W. Veg. King. 374. 1855. 

'Redmond, D. Amer. Pom. Soc. Rpt. 55. 1875. 

Drury, H. Useful Pis. Ind. i^t. 1873. 

'" St. Hilaire, A. Fl. Bras. Merid. 1:118. 1825. 

" Lunan, J. Horl. Jam. 1:60. 18 14. 

296 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

and called ramtil. This oil is sweet and is used as a condiment and as a burning oil.' It is 
much used for dressing food in Mysore.' 

Gundelia toumefortil Linn. Compositae. 

Sjrria, Asia Minor and Persia. This thistle is grown abimdantly in Palestine and is 
similar to the artichoke. The young plant, especially the thick stem, with the young 
and still undeveloped flower-buds, is brought to the market of Jerusalem under the name 
cardi and is sought after as a vegetable.' 

Gunnera chilensis Lam. Halorageae. 

Chile. The acidulous leaf -stalks serve as a vegetable.* The plant somewhat resembles 
rhubarb on a gigantic scale. The inhabitants, says Darwin,' eat the stalks, which are 
subacid. The leaves are sometimes nearly eight feet in diameter, and the stalk is rather 
more than a yard high. It is called panke.' In France, it is grown as an ornament.' 

Gustavia speciosa DC. Myrtaceae. 

New Granada. The small fruits of this tree, according to Himiboldt and Bonpland, 
cause the body of the eater to turn yellow, and, after it remains 24 or 48 hoiu-s, nothing 
can erase the color.* 

Gjminema lactiferum R. Br. Asclepiadeae. cow plant. 

East Indies and Malay. This is the cow plant of Ceylon, where it is said to yield 
a mild and copious milk.' 

Gymnocladus canadensis Lam. Leguminosae. chicot. Kentucky coffee-tree. 


North America. This tree, which occiu^ in the northern United States and in Canada, 
is often cultivated for ornamental piu-poses. The pods, preserved like those of the tamarind, 
are said to be wholesome and slightly aperient. The seeds were emploj^ by the early 
settlers of Kentucky as a substitute for coffee.'* 

Gynandropsis pentaphylla DC. Capparideae. 

Cosmopolitan tropics. This plant is a well-known esculent in the Upper Nile and 
throughout equatorial Africa as far as the Congo." In India, the leaves are eaten by the 

'Black, A. A. Tfeaj. 5o/. 1:556. 1870. (G. oleifera) 
' Ainslie Mat. Med. 2:256. 1826. 
Unger, F. U. S. Pal. Off. Rpl. 358. 1859. 
'Mueller, F. Sel. Pis. 224. 1891. 

' Darwin, C. Voy. H. M. S. Beagle 279. 1884. (G. scabra) 
'MoMna. Hist. Chili I :q<). 1808. {G. tinctoria) 
' Vilmorin R P/. Ter. 478. 1870. 3rd Ed. (G. scabra) 
" Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 2:870. 1832. 
Royle, J. F. Illustr. Bot. Himal. 1:274. 1839. 
'" Browne, D. J. Trees Amer. 219. 1846. 
" Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 64S. 1879. (Cleome pentaphylla) 


natives,* and the seeds are used as a substitute for mustard and yield a good oil.^ In 
Jamaica, it is considered a wholesome plant but, from its being a little bitterish, requires 
repeated boilings to make it palatable.' 

Gynura sarmentosa DC. Conipcsitae. 

Malay. In China, the leaves are employed as food.* 

Gyrophora muhlenbergii Ach. Lichenes. rock tripe. 

Arctic Simates. Franklin ' says, when boiled with fish-roe or other animal matter, 
this lichen is agreeable and nutritious and is eaten by the natives. 

G. vellea Linn. Ach. rock tripe. 

Cold regions. This lichen forms a pleasanter food than the other species of this 

Haematostaphis barteri Hook. f. Anacardiaceae. blood plum. 

Tropical Africa. The fruit has a pleasant, subacid flavor when ripe. In size and 
shape it is similar to a grape.' 

Haemodomm sp.? Haemodoraceae. 

At Swan River, Australia, Drummond says seven or eight species furnish roots which 
are eaten by the natives. The roots of all the species are acrid when raw but mild and 
nutritious when roasted.' 

Halesia tetraptera Linn. Siyraceae. silver-bell tree, wild olive. 

North Carolina to Texas. The ripe fruit is eaten by some people and when green 
is sometimes made into a pickle. 

Hamamelis virginiana Linn. Hamamelideae. witch-hazel. 

Northeastern United States. The seeds are used as food, says Balfour.' The kernels 
are oily and eatable, says Lindley.'" The source of such statements, writes Gray,*' appears 
to be the Medical Flora of the eccentric Rafinesque, who says the nuts are called pistachio 
nuts in the Southern States, but Gray *^ has never heard of the seeds being eaten. They 
are about the size of a grain of barley and have a thick, bony coat. 

1 Ainslie, W. Mat. Ind. 2:224. 1 826. 
' Drury, H. Useful Pis. Ind. 239. 1873. 
Ainslie, W. Mat. Ind. 2:224. 1826. 

* Dickie, G. D. Treas. Bot. 1:187. 1870. {Cacalia procumbens) 
'Franklin, J. Narr. Journ. Polar Seas 773. 1823. 


^ Card. Chron. 751. 1864. 
' Hooker, W. J. Journ. Bot. 2:355. 1840. 
Balfour, J. H. Man. Bot. 504. 1875. 
"Lindley, J. Veg. King. 784. 1846. 
" Gray, A. Amer. Journ. Set. 24:439. 1857, 

298 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

Hancomia speciosa Gomez. Apocynaceae. mangaba. 

Biazil. Gardner ' says the fruit is about the size of a large plum, streaked a little 
with red on one side. The flavor is most delicious. Hartt " says the fruit is very delicious. 

Hedysarum mackenzii Richards. Leguminosae. licorice-root. 

North America. Richardson ' says at Fort Good Hope, Mackenzie River, this plant 
furnishes long, flexible roots which taste sweet like licorice and are much eaten in the 
spring by the natives but become woody and lose their juiciness and crispness as the season 
advances. This is the licorice-root of the trappers of the Northwest and is also used as 
a food by the Indians of Alaska.^ 

Heldreichia kotschjri Boiss. Cruciferae. 

Cilicia. This plant has the same properties as the cresses.* 

Helianthus annuus Linn. Compositae. sunflower. 

North America. This plant is said by Pickering ' to be a native of western America 
and is called in Mexico chimalati. Gray ' says it probably belongs to the warmer parts 
of North America. Other botanists ascribe its origin to Mexico and Peru. Brewer and 
Watson * say in all probability the wild sunflower of the California plains is the original 
of the cultivated sunflower and that the seeds are now used by the Indians as food. Elahn,' 
1 749, saw the common sunflower cultivated by the Indians at Loretto, Canada, in their 
maize fields; the seeds were mixed with thin sagamite or maize soup. In 16 15, the sun- 
flower was seen by Champlain among the Hurons.*" The seeds are said to be boiled and 
eaten in Tartary. In Russia, they are ground into a meal, the finer kinds being made 
into tea-cakes, and in some parts the whole seed is roasted and used as a substitute for coffee. 

Gerarde," in England, writes: " We have found by triall, that the buds before they 
be flowered, boiled and eaten with butter, vinegar and pepper, after the manner of arti- 
chokes, an exceeding pleasant meat, surpassing the artichoke far in procuring bodily lust. 
The same buds with the stalks neere unto the top (the hairness being taken away) broiled 
upon a gridiron and afterwards eaten with oile, vinegar, and pepper have the like property." 
In Russia, this plant yields about 50 bushels of seed per acre, from which about 50 gallons 
of oil are expressed and the oil-cake is said to be superior to that from linseed for the feeding 
of cattle. This oil is used for culinary piuposes in many places in Russia. In Landeshut, 
Germany, the carefully dried leaf is much used locally for a tobacco. The seed-receptacles 

'Gardner Trav. Braz. 6$. 1849. 

' Hartt Geog. Braz. 374. 1870. 

'Richardson, J. Arctic Explor. 1:240. 1851. {H. boreale) 

^Dall, W. H. Alaska -^i. 1897. 

'Baillon, H. Hist. Pis. 3:225. 1874. 

Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 749. 1879. 

'Gray, A. Man. Bot. 255. 1868. 

Brewer and Watson So/. Cal. 1:353. 1880. 

'Kalm, P. Trav. No. Amer. 2:309. 1772. 

'" Parkman, F. Pion. France 395. 1894. 

" Gerarde, J. Herb. 752. 1633 or 1636. 


are made into blotting paper and the inner part of the stalk into a fine writing paper in 
the manufactories of the province. The stalk, when treated like flax, produces a silky 
fiber of excellent quality. The green leaves make excellent fodder, and Sir Allen Crockden, 
in England, is said to grow the plant at Sevenoaks, for the purpose of feeding his stock. 
The leaves, dried and burned to powder, are valuable, mixed with bran, for milch cows.* 
The seeds are also said to be valuable as a food for sheep. The dried seeds are pounded 
into a cake and eaten by the Indians of the Northwest.* 

H. doronicoiaes Lam 

North America. This coarse species with showy heads, of river bottoms from Ohio 
to Illinois and southward, is most probably, say^ Gray,^ the original of the Jerusalem 

H. giganteus Linn, giant sunflower. 

Eastern North America. The Choctaws use the seeds ground to a flour and mixed 
with maize flour for making a very palatable bread.* 

H. tuberosus Linn. Jerusalem artichoke. 

North America. The name, Jerusalem artichoke, is considered to be a corruption 
of the Italian Girasoli articocco, sunflower artichoke. Gray ^ thinks that this esculent 
originated in the valley of the Mississippi from the species of sunflower, H. doronicoides, 
Lam. It was cultivated by the Huron Indians.* In New England, Gookin found the 
natives mixing Jerusalem artichokes in their pottage. They were growing in Virginia, in 
1648 '' and at Mobile, Alabama, in 1775.* The sunflower reached Europe in the early part 
of the seventeenth century, as it is not mentioned in Bauhin's Phytopinax, 1596, and is 
mentioned in his Pinax, 1623 , where, among other names, he calls it Crysanthemum e Canada 
quibusdam, Canada Gf Artichoki sub terra, aliis. It is figured by Columna,' 1616, and 
also by Laurembergius,'" 1632; Ray," 1686, makes the first use found of the name Jerusalem 
artichoke, though Parkinson used the word in 1640, according to Gray. In 1727, Town- 
send ^ says " it is a Root fit to be eat about Christmas when it is boiled." Mawe," 1778, 
says it is by many esteemed. Bryant," 1783, says, "not much cultivated." In 1806, 
McMahon " speaks of it in American gardens and calls it " a wholesome, palatable 

' Simmonds, P. L. Trap. Agr. 419. 1889. 

'Hooker, W. J. Fl. Bor. Amer. 1:313. 1840. {H. lenticularis) 

'Gray, A. Amer. Journ. Set. 348. 1877. 

* Romans Nat. Hist. Fla. i : 84. 1 775. 

'Gray, A. ^Amer. Agr. 142. 1877. 


''Perf. Desc. Va. 4. 1649. Force Coll. Tracts 2: No. 8. 1838. 

'Romans Nat. Hist. Fla. 1:115. 1775- 

'Columna Minus cognit. stirp. pars altera. 13. 1616. 

^ Soisette Man. Jard. 1829; P'mWe L'Hort. France. 1824. 

" Laurembergius v4/)^ra^ Plant. 131. 1632. 

" Townsend 5ee(/ima7i 23. 1726. 

"Mawe and Abercrombie Unit'. Gard. Bol. 1778 

"Bryant Fl. Diet. 33. 1783. 

"McMahon, B. Amer. Gard. Cal. 206. 1806. 


food." In 1863, Burr ' describes varieties with white, purple, red and yellow-skinned 

The history of the Jerusalem artichoke has been well treated by Gray and Trumbull 
in the American Journal of Science, May, 1877, and April, 1883. It was found in culture 
at the Lew Chew Islands about 1853.* We offer a synonymy as below: 

Flos Solis Farnesianus sive Aster Peruanus tubercosus. Col. 13. 1616. 

Helianthemum itidicum tuberosum. Bauh. Pin. 277. 1623. 

De Solis flore tuberoso, seu flore Farnesiano Fabii Columnae. Aldinus, 91. 1625. 

Battatas de Canada. Park. Par. 1629. 

Adenes Canadenses seu flos solis glandulosus. Lauremb. 132. 1632. 

Flos Solis pyramidalis, parvo flore, tuberosa radice, Heliotropium indicum. Ger. 1633. 

Peruanus solis flos ex Indiis tuberosus. Col. in Hem. 878, 881. 1651. 

Potatoes of Canada. Coles. 1657. 

Canada &' Artischokki sub terra. H. R. P. 1665. 

Chrysanthemum latifolium Brasilianum. Bauh. Frod. 70. 167 1. 

Chrysanthemum Canadense arumosum. Cat. H. L. B. 1672. 

Helenium Canadense. Amman. 1676. 

Chrysanthemum perenne majus fol, integris, americanum tuberum. Mor. 1630. 

Jerusalem Artichoke. Ray 335- 1686. 

Corona solis parvo flore, tuberosa radice. Toum. 489. 17 19. 

Helianthus radice tuberosa esculenta, Hierusalem Artichoke. Clayton. 1739. 

Helianthus foliis ovato cordatis triplinervus. Gronov. Virg. 129. 1762. 

Helianthus tuberosus. Linn. Sp. 1277. 1763. 

Helichrysum serpyllifolium Less. Compositae. hottentot tea. 

South Africa. This plant is used as a tea substitute under the name of Hottentot tea.* 

Heliconia bihai Linn. Scitamineae. false plantain. 

South America. In the West Indies, the young shoots are eaten by the natives.* 

H. psittaconun Linn. f. parrot's plantain. 
South America. In the West Indies, the shoots are eaten.* 

Helwingia rusciflora Willd. Araliaceae. 

Japan. The young leaves, says Balfour,' are used in Japan as an esculent. 

Hemerocallis sp.? Liliaceae. day lily. 

Northern Asia. It is somewhat difficult, says Penhallow,' to give testimony bearing 
upon the flavor and desirable qualities of flowers and buds from various species of 
Hemerocallis. In certain sections of the Island of Yezo, particularly on the pumice for- 

'Burr, F. Field, Card.- Veg. 37. 1863. 

'Birdwood Veg. Prod. Bomb. 165. 1865. 

' Card. Chron. 20:766. 1883. 

< Masters Treas. Bot. 1:575. 1870. 

> Ibid. 

Balfour, J. H. Treas. Bot. 1:579. 1870. 

'Penhallow, D. P. Amer. Nat. 16:119. 1882. 


mation of the east coast, these plants are very abundant and, at the time of blossoming, 
the fields for miles along the road on either side are almost uniformly golden-yellow. At 
such times the Aino women may be seen busily engaged gathering the flowers which they 
take home to dry or pickle in salt. They are afterwards used in soups. 

H. minor Mill. 

Northern Asia. In China, the yoimg leaves are eaten and appear to intoxicate or 
stimulate to some extent. The flowers are eaten as a relish with meat.' This species is 
said by Vilmorin - to be a native of Siberia and to be grown in French flower gardens. 

Henriettea succosa DC. Melasiomaceae. 

Guinea. The plant furnishes a gooseberry-like fruit of little value.' 

Henriettella fiavescens Triana. Melasiomaceae. 

Guiana. This species furnishes a gooseberry-like fruit of little value.* 

Heracleum cordatum Presl. Umbelliferae. cow parsnip. 

Sicily. The root is black, sweet scented and is used as angelica by the Sicilians.^ 

H. flavescens Baumg. yellow cow parsnip. 

This plant is used as a food and, in Kamchatka, a spirit called raka is prepared from it.^ 

H. lanattun Michx. American cow parsnip. 

Subarctic America. The roots and young stems are eaten by some of the tribes 
along the Pacific and it is also used by the Crees of the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains 
as a potherb.' 

H. pubescens Bieb. downy cow parsnip. 

The young shoots are filled with a sweet, aromatic juice and are eaten raw by the 
natives of the Caucasus,* where it is native. In France, it is grown in the flower garden.' 

H. sibiricum Linn. 

In Prussia, this plant is sown in April and the next year yields an immense amount 
of foliage to be used as fodder. It is more especially grown for ewes than for any other 
kind of stock. In 1854, seed from Germany was distributed from the United States Patent 
Office.'" Captain Cook says this plant was formerly a principal ingredient in the cookery 
of most of the Kamchatka dishes but since the Russians got possession of the country it 
has been almost entirely appropriated to the purpose of distillation. 

'Smith, F. P. Contrib. Mat. Med. China no. 1871. 
'Vilmorin /Y. PI. Ter. 507. 1870. 3rd Ed. (H. graminea) 
'Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 351. 1859. (Melastoma succosum) 
<Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 351. 1859. {Melastoma flavescens) 
'Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 3:342. 1834. 
Don, G. Htst. Dichl. Pis. y.2,^1. 1834. 
'Brown, R. Bot. Soc. Edinb. 9:381. 1868. 
Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 3:3:^2. 1868. 

Vilmorin Fl. PI. Ter. 163. 1870. 3rd Ed. (Berce pubescente) 
> U. S. Pal. Off. Rpt. 1854. Preface. 


H. sphondylium Linn, cow parsnip. 

Europe, northern Asia and western North America. The people of Ploonia and 
Lithuania says Gerarde,* "use to make drinks with the decoction of this herb and leven 
or some other thing made of meale, which is used instead of beere and other ordinaire 
drinks." The young succulent stems, after being stripped of their envelope, are 
occasionally eaten as a salad in the outer Hebrides. These stalks are much used, says 
Johnson,' in some parts of Asiatic Russia. In Russia and Siberia, the leaf-stalks are 
dried in the sun and tied up in close bundles, until they acquire a yellow color, when a 
sweet substance resembling sugar forms upon them, which is eaten as a great delicacy. 
In Lithimnia and Siberia, a spirit is distilled from the stalks, either alone or mixed with 
bilberries; fermented, they form a kind of beer. The yoimg shoots and leaves may be_ 
boiled and eaten as a green vegetable and, when just sprouting from the ground, resemble 
asparagus in flavor. 

H. tuberosum Molina. ' 

Chile. The bvdbs are frequently six inches long and three broad; the color is yellow; 
the taste is pleasant. The plant grows naturally in sandy places near hedges and produces 

Herpestis monnieria H. B. & K. Scrophularineae. water hyssop. 
Cosmopolitan tropics. The Indians eat this herb in their soups.* 

Hesperocallis undtxlata A. Gray. Liliaceae. 

Mexico. The bulb is eaten by the California Indians." 

Hibiscus cannabinus Linn. Malvaceae, bastard jute, deckaner hemp. Indian hemp. 
Old World tropics. The stem yields a hemp-like fiber sometimes called Indian hemp, 
Deckaner hemp, or bastard jute. It is as much cultivated, says Drury,^ for the sake of 
its leaves as its fibers. The leaves serve as a sorrel spinach. 

H. digitatus Cav. 

Brazil and Guiana. The plant is used as a vegetable.' 

H. esculentus Linn. gobo. gombo. gumbo, ocra. okra. 

Tropical Africa. Okra has become distributed as a plant of cultivation from Khartum 
and Sennar throughout Egypt to Palestine and elsewhere. Schweinfurth * found its seed 
pods a favorite vegetable in Nubia and the plant perfectly wild on the White Nile. About 
Constantinople, okra is largely cultivated and the leaves are used as a demulcent.' In 

'Gerarde, J. Herb. loog. 1633 or 1636. 

2 Johnson, C. P. Useful Pis. Gt. Brit. 118. 1862. 

> Molina Hist. Chili 1:96. 1808. 

<Titford, W. J. Hort. Bot. Amer. 35. 181 1. 

'Brewer and Watson Bot. Cal. 2: 158. 1880. 

Drury, H. Useful Pis. Ind. 243. 1873. 

'Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpl. 359. 1859. 

'Schweinfurth, G. Heart Afr. 1:97. 1874. 

''Amer. Journ. Pharm. May i860. 


India, the capsule, familiarly known as the bendi-kai, is much esteemed for imparting 
a mucilaginous thickening to soups, and the young pods are often gathered green and 
pickled like capers; but Firminger ' states that, though of an agreeable flavor, the pods, 
on accoimt of their slimy nature, are not generally in favor with Europeans. Its seeds 
form one of the best coffee substitutes known.^ In the south of France, okra is cultivated 
for its pods. It was carried from Africa to Brazil before 1658,' reached Surinam before 
1686 ^ and is mentioned by Hughes ^ for Barbados in 1750. 

In the. southern United States, okra has long been a favorite vegetable, the green 
f)ods being used when quite young, sliced in soups and similar dishes, to which they impart 
a thick, viscous or gummy consistency. The ripe seeds, washed and ground, are also 
said to furnish a palatable substitute for coffee. Okra is mentioned by Kalm,^ 1748, as 
growing in gardens in Philadelphia; is mentioned by Jefferson as cultivated in Virginia 
before 1781 ; and is included among garden vegetables by McMahon,' 1806, and all succeed- 
ing writers on American gardening. The green seed pods are used in soups, or stewed 
and served like asparagus, or when cold made into a salad. The green pods may be pre- 
served for winter use by cutting them in halves, stringing and drying them. The young 
leaves and pods are also occasionally dried, pulverized and stored in bottles for future use. 
The stalks of the plant are used for the manufacture of paper. This plant offers a highly 
esteemed vegetable in southern States and is quite frequently, but neither generally nor 
extensively, cultivated in northern gardens for use of the pods in soups and stews. 

The Spanish Moors appear to have been well acquainted with this plant, which was 
known to them by the name of bantiyah. Abul-Abbas el-Nebati, a native of Seville, learned 
in plants, who visited Egypt in 12 16, describes in unmistakable terms the form of the plant, 
its seeds and fruit, which last, he remarks, is eaten when young and tender with meal 
by the Egyptians.' The references to this plant in the early botanies are not numerous 
and the synonymies offered are often incorrect. The following, however, are justified: 

Trionum tkeophrasti. Rauwolf, in Ap. to Dalechamp, 31. 1857. Cum ic. 

Alcea aegyptia Clusius Hist. 2:27, 1601. Cum ic. 

Honorius bellus. In Clus., 1. c. 2:311. 

Bamia alessandrina. Dur. C. Ap. 161 7. Cum ic. 

Quingombo. Marcg. Bras., 31, 1648, cum ic; Piso. Bras. 211, 1658. Cum ic. 

Malva rosea sive hortensis. Bauh. J. 2:951. 165 1. 

Ketmia americana annua flore albo, fructu non sulcata longissimo. Commelyn, Hort. 
Med. 150. 1 70 1. Cum ic. 

Of these, the last only, that of Commelyn, represents the type of pod of the varieties 
usually to be foimd in our gardens, but plants are occasionally to be foimd bearing pods 

' Firminger, T. A. C. Card. Ind. 141. 1874. 
*Bon Jard. 501. 1882. 

Piso De Ind. 211. 1658. Marcgravius Hist. Rerum Nat. Bras. 31. 1648. (Piso) 

Commelin //or/. 1:37. 1697. 
'Hughes, G. Nat. Hist. Barb. 210. 1750. 
' Kalm, P. Trav. No. Amer. i:$H. 1772. 
' McMahon Amer. Gard. Cat. 318. 1806. 

Fluckiger and Hanbury Pharm. 94. 1879. 


which resemble those figured in the above list. There is little recorded, however, con- 
.ceming variety, as in the regions where its culture is particularly affected there is a paucity 
of writers. Miller's Dictionary, 1807, mentions that there are different forms of pods 
in different varieties; in some, not thicker than a man's finger, and five or six inches long; 
in others, very thick, and not more than two or three inches long; in some, erect; in others, 
rather inclined. Lunan,' in Jamaica, 1814, speaks of the pods being of different size and 
form in the varieties. In 1831, Don^ describes a species, the H. bamtnia Link., with 
very long pods. In 1863, Burr ' describes four varieties in American gardens; two dwarfs, 
one pendant-podded and one tall and white-podded. In 1885, at the New York Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station, varieties were grown under 11 different names and from 
these there were three distinct sorts only. Vilmorin,* 1885, names but two sorts, the 
long-fruited and the round-fruited. 

H. ficulneus Linn. ^^ 

Tropics of Asia 'and Australia. This species is cultivated in Egypt as a vegetable." 

H. furcatus Willd. 

Old World tropics. This species of hibiscus is used as a vegetable.* 

H. hirtus Linn. 

East Indies and Malay. This species furnishes a vegetable of Bengal and the East 

H. maculatus Lam. 

Santo Domingo. This plant is used for food purposes.* 

H. micranthus Linn. f. 

African tropics and East Indies. It is used as a vegetable.' 

H. rosa-sinensis Linn. Chinese hibiscus. 

Old World tropics. This is a well-known ornament of our hot-houses. The people 
of India '" and China,'' prepare a kind of pickle from the petals of the flowers. 

H. sabdariffa Linn. Indian sorrel, roselle. 

Old World tropics. Two varieties, the red and white, are cultivated in most gardens 
of Jamaica for the flowers which are made, with the help of sugar, into very agreeable 
tarts and jellies, or fermented into a cooling beverage. '^ Roselle is now cultivated in most 

' Lunan, J. Horl. Jam. 2:12. 1814. 

' Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 1:480. 1831. 

Burr, F. Field, Card. Veg. 614. 1863. 

*Vilmorin Teg. Card. 357. 1885. 

' Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 359. 1859. 


' Ibid. 



'"Ainslie, W. Ma<. /</. 2:359. 1826. 
" Drury, H. Useful Pis. Ind. 244. 1873. 
" Long Hist. Jam. 80$. 1774. 


gardens of India. The most delicious puddings and tarts, as well as a remarkably fine 
jelly, are made of the thick, succulent sepals which envelope the fruit. There are two 
kinds, the red and the white.* In Malabar, jellies and tarts are made of the calyces and 
capstdes freed from the seeds ^ as also in Burma.^ In Unyoro and Ugani, interior Africa, 
it is cultivated for its bark, seeds and leaves. The bark makes beautiful but short cordage; 
the leaves make a spinach and the seeds are eaten roasted." Roselle is now rather com- 
monly grown in Florida. 

H. S3rriacus"^inn. rose of sharon. 

Old World tropics. In China, the leaves are sometimes made into tea or eaten when 

H. tiliaceus Linn. 

The Tahitians suck the bark when the breadfruit harvest is improductive, and the 
New Caledonians eat it.* 

Hippocratea comosa Sw. Celastrineae. 

Santo Domingo and West Indies. The seeds are oily and sweet.' 

H. grahamii Wight. 

East Indies. In India, the seed is edible. ' 

Hippophae rhamnoides Linn. Elaeagnaceae. sallow thorn, sea buckthorn. 

Europe and temperate Asia. The fruit is acid and, though not very agreeable in 
flavor, is eaten by children in England. The Siberians and Tartars make a jelly from 
the berries and eat them with milk and cheese, while the inhabitants of the Gulf of Bothnia 
prepare from them an agreeable jelly which they use as a condiment with their fish. In 
some districts of France, a sauce is made of the berries, to be eaten with fish and meat. ' 
In Kunawar, the fruit is made into a condiment.'" 

H. salicifolia D. Don. sea buckthorn. 

Nepal. The fruit is eaten in the Himalayas." 

Hodgsonia heteroclita Hook. f. & Thomas. Cucurbitaceae. 

Himalayan regions, Burma and Malay. This plant is a gigantic climber bearing 
immense, yellowish-white, pendulous blossoms. Its fruit is of rich brown, whose kernels, 
called katior-pot by the Lepchas, are eaten."* 

1 Firminger, T. A. C. Card. Ind. 200. 1874. 
Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 797. 1879. 

* Speke, J. H. Journ. Disc. Source Nile 563. 1864. 
'Smith, F. P. Contrib. Mat. Med. China 113. 1871. 

Seemann, B. Fl. Vili. 18. 1865-73. 
'Baillon, H. Hist. Pis. 6:27. 1880. 

Wight, R. Illustr. Ind. Bot. i: 132. 1840. 

Johnson, C. P. Useful Pis. Gl. Brit. 2^9,. 1862. 
"Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 389. 1874. 
" Royle, J. F. Illuslr. Bot. Himal. 1:323. 1839. 
" Hooker, J. D. Himal. Journ. 2:7, 350. 1854. 

3o6 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

Hoffmanseggia stricta Benth. Leguminosae. 

Mexico. This herb has an esculent, tuberous rootstock.' 

Holboellia latifolia Wall. Berberideae. 

Himalayan regions. This is the kole-pot of the Lepchas; the fruit is eaten in Sikkim 
but is mealy and insipid.' This plant is called gophla and the fruit is eaten.' 

Hordeum deficiens Steud. Gramineae. red sea barley. 

Abyssinia. This is one of the two-rowed barleys cultivated in Arabia and Abyssinia.^ 

H. distichon Linn, barley. 

Parent of cultivated forms. This is the common barley of cultivation and occurs 
in niunerous varieties. Meyer ^ found it growing wild between Lenkoran and Baku; 
Koch,' on the Steppes of Schirwan in the southeast of the Caucasus; Kotschy,' in South 
Persia. Forster * reports it as wild in the region near the confluence of the Samara and 
the Volga. Barley was cultivated, says Pickering,' at the time of the invention of writing 
and standing crops are figured under the fifth, seventh and seventeenth dynasties of 
Egypt, or about 2440 B. C, 1800 B. C. and 1680 B. C. It is mentioned as among the 
things that were destroyed by the plagues of Egypt.^" The flour of barley was the food 
of the Jewish soldiers." The Egyptians claimed that barley was the first of the cereals 
made use of by man and trace its introduction to their goddess, Isis. Barley was in all 
times considered by the Greeks, says Heer,'^ as a sacred grain and was exclusively used 
in sacrifices and in the great festival held every year at Eleusis in honor of agricvilture. 
Pliny '^ terms it antiquissimum frumentum, the most ancient cereal, but, according to 
Suetonius, it was considered an ignominious food by the Romans. Common barley, 
says Unger,'* came to Europe by the way of Egypt; and the Romans were acquainted 
with the two- and the six-lined barley, and the Greeks with these varieties and the bere 
barley. Barley was long the grain most extensively cultivated in England. It appears 
on the coins of the early Britons and was not only the grain from which their progenitors, 
the Cimbri, made their bread but from which they made their favorite beverage, beer.'* 
Herodotus describes beer made from barley as among the drinks of the Egyptians in his 

'Havard, V. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 501. 1885. 

' Hooker, J. D. Illustr. Himal. Pis. PL X. 1855. 

Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 571. 1876. 

<MueUer,F. Set. Pis. 232. 1891. 

' Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 302. 1859. 


' Ibid. 

' Humboldt, A. Views Nat. 129. 1850. 

Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 34. 1879. {H. vulgare) 
" Exodus 9:31. 
" 2nd Samuel 17:28. 
" Heer Agr. Ohio 14:283. 1859. 
"Humboldt, A. Views Nat. 129. 1850. 
' Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 302. 1859. 
"Johnson, C. W. Journ. Agr. ist Ser. 11:484. 


day, 450 B. C, and Pliny, Aristotle, Strabo and Diodorus mention beer. Xenophon, 
400 B. C, writes that the people of Armenia used a drink made of fermented bariey. 
Diodorus Siculus says the natives of Galatia prepared a beer from barley, and barley 
is mentioned in Greece by Sophocles, Dioscorides and others. Tacitus, about A. D. 100, 
says beer was the common drink of the Germans. 

Barley was sown by Gosnold ^ on Martha's Vineyard and the Elizabeth Islands in 
1602. Lescarbot ^ sowed barley at Port Royal, Nova Scotia, in 1606, and it was growing 
in Champkiin's garden at Quebec in 16 10. Barley was grown by the colonists of the 
London Company in Virginia in 161 1.' It appears to have been cultivated in the New 
Netherlands in 1626.* In 1629-33, barley was growing at Lynn, Massachusetts.* 

Barley can be grown in sheltered valleys as far north as 70 in Lapland and 68 in 
Siberia.^ At Fort Yukon, Alaska, it has been grown in small patches, according to Dall.^ 

H. hexastichon Linn, six-lined barley, winter barley. 

Europe and Asia. This barley is supposed by Lindley ' to be a domesticated form 
of H. distichon. Unger ' says the six-lined, or winter barley, was cultivated by the 
Egyptians, Jews and East Indians in the earliest times and grains of it are found in the 
mummies of the Egyptian catacombs. Ears are somewhat numerous, says Lubbock,'" 
in the ancient lake habitations of Switzerland. In the ears from Wangen, each row has 
generally ten or eleven grains, which, however, are smaller and shorter than those now 
grown. There are now in cultivation numerous varieties referred to this form. 

H. jubatum Linn, maned barley, squirrel-tail barley. 

Seashore and interior salines of the New World. The seeds are especially in request 
among the Shoshones of southern Oregon." The maned, or squirrel-tail, barley has been 
known in British gardens since 1782 as an ornamental grass. Its awned spikes are danger- 
ous to cattle. 

H. vulgare Linn. bere. big barley, nepal barley. 

This species furnished the varieties known as bere, or big barley, and appears to be 
one of the varieties formerly cultivated in Greece. Its native land seems unknown, 
although Olivier " states it grew wild in the region between the Euphrates and the Tigris. 
Willdenow " is inclined to place its native country in the region of the Volga. It is enu- 

U. S. Pat. Of. Rpt. 156. 1853. 
' Parkman, F. Pion. France 266. 1894. 
' U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 156. 1853. 
* Ibid. 
' Ibid. 

Enc. Brit. 17:630. 1859. 8th Edition. 
'Dall, W. H. Alaska 441. 1897. 
'Morton Cyc. Agr. 2:67. 1869. 
Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 302. 1859. 
" Lubbock Amer. Journ. Set. Art. 34: 181. 1862. 2ad Series. 
"Brown, R. Bot. Soc. Edinb. 9:382. 1868. 
Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 302. 1859. 
" Ibid. 

308 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

merated by Thunberg among the edible plants of Japan. It is cultivated in Scotland as 
a spring crop and in Ireland as a winter crop. Nepal barley is cultivated at great eleva- 
tions on the Himalaya Mountains and in Thibet. The seed has frequently been sent 
to Europe as a very hardy kind, of quick maturity, but it is chiefly cultivated in botanical 
gardens. It is a naked-seeded Epecies with much the appearance of wheat. It was intro- 
duced into Britain in 1817.* 

H. zeocriton Linn, battledore barley, sprat barley. 

Parent of cultivated forms. This species is occasionally cultivated in Scotland, and 
Lindley ' says it is interesting only from a botanical point of view. He says it is an 
undoubted result of domestication. Koch * collected in the Schirwan part of the Cau- 
casus a kind of grain which he calls H. spontaneum and regards as the original wild form 
of sprat barley. 

Hormosippon arcticus Berk. Algae. 

This alga abounds in the Arctic regions and affords wholesome food, which is far 
preferable to the tripe de roche, as it has none of its bitterness or purgative quality. 

Houttuynia cordata Thimb. Piperaceae. 

Himalayan region, China and Japan. The leaves of this plant are said to be used 
as a potherb in Nepal.* In France, it is an inmate of flower gardens ^ as an aquatic. 

Hovenia dulcis Thunb. Rhamneae. raisin tree. 

Himalayan regions, China and Japan. The tree is cultivated in India for its fruit, 
which has a pleasant flavor like that of a Bergamot pear.'' The round fruits, about the 
size of a pea, are seated at the end of the recurved, fleshy pedimcle, which is cylindrical, 
about an inch long, and is the part eaten.* 

Hamulus lupulus Linn. Urticaceae. bine. hop. 

Northern Eiirope and not rare in the United States, especially westward on banks 
of streams. The scaly cones, or catkins, have been used from the remotest period in the 
brewing of beer. The hop was well known to the Romans and is mentioned by Pliny 
under the name lupus salictarius. Hop gardens are named as existing in France and 
Germany in the eighth and ninth centuries, and Bohemian and Bavarian hops have been 
known as esteemed kinds since the eleventh century. The hop was mentioned by Joan 
di-Cuba in his Ortus Samtatis as growing in Holland prior to 1485. Hop roots were men- 
tioned in the Memorandum ' of Mar. 16, 1629, of seeds to be sent to the Massachusetts 
Company. The plant was also cultivated in New Netherlands as early as 1646, and in 

' Thunberg Fl. Jap. XXXIIL 1784. 
' Mueller, F. Sel. Ph. 27,2. 1891. 

Morton Cyc. Agr. 2:68. 1869. 

* Humboldt, A. Views Nat. 130. 1850. 

' Royle, J. F. lUustr. Bot. Himal. 1:331. 1839. 

Vilmorin W. P/. Ter. 516. 1870. 3rd Ed. 

' Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 94. 1 876. 

' Black, A. A. Treas. Bot. 2:599. 1870. 

' Mass. Records 1:24. 


Virginia in 1648 it is said, " their Hopps are faire and large, thrive well." ' Gerarde * 
says, " The buds or first sprouts which come forth in the Spring are used to be eaten in 
sallads; yet are they, as Pliny saith, more toothsome than nourishing, for they yield but 
very small nourishment." Dodoenaeus alludes to this plant as a kitchen herb. He 
says, " before its tender shoots produce leaves, they are eaten in salads, and are a good 
and wholesome meat." Hop shoots are now to be found in Covent Garden market and 
are not infrequently to be seen in other European markets. 

The ^Bt allusion to the hop as a kitchen herb in America is by Cobbett,' 182 1. The 
use of the young shoots is mentioned by Pliny * in the first century as collected from the 
wild plant, rather as a luxury than as a food. Dodonaeus, 1616, refers to the use of the 
young shoots, as collected apparently from the hop yard, as does also Camerarius,* 1586, 
and others. Emil Pott,* in summing up the uses of this plant, says that the tendrils fur- 
nish a good vegetable wax and a jtiice from which a reddish-brown coloring matter can 
be extracted. Hop ashes are greatly valued in the manufacture of certain Bohemian 
glasswares. A pulp for paper-making can be satisfactorily bleached, and very service- 
able unbleached papers and cardboards are made from this raw material. The fibers 
can also' be used in the manufacture of textile fabrics, and, in Sweden, yarn and linen 
making from hop fibers has long been an established industry and is constantly increasing 
in importance and extent. The stalks can also be used for basket and wickerwork. The 
leaves and the spent hops are excellent food for live stock and especially for sheep. 

Hydnora africana Thimb. Cytinaceae. jackal's kost. 

South Africa. This plant is found growing on the roots of Euphorbia. It consists 
of a tubular fiower from four to six inches long and may be compared to the socket of a 
candlestick but three-lobed. The outside is of dull brown and inside of a rosy-red color. 
It possesses an offensive smell like putrid meat. It is, however, said to be eaten by the 

Hydrangea thumbergii Siebold. Saxifrageae. tea-of-heaven. 

Japan. The natives use the dried leaves as a substitute for tea.' This tea is called 
ama-tsja, tea-of-heaven. 

Hydrophyllum appendiculatum Michx. Hydrophyllaceae. hairy waterleaf. woolen 


Eastern North America. Barton ' says, in Kentucky, the young shoots are eaten 
in the spring as a salad and are highly prized by all who eat them. 

' Perj. Desc. Va. 3. 1649. Force Coll. Tracts 2: No. 8. 1838. 

* Gerarde, J. Herft. 885. 2nd Ed. 1633. 

Cobbett, W. Amer. Card. 1^1. 1846. 

' Pliny lib. 21, 50. 

' Camerarius Epit. 934. 1586. 

Pott, Emilin, in Farm. 509. 1879. 

'Smith, J. Dom.Bot. 208. 1871. 

' Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 3:233. 1834. 

' Barton, W. P. C. Med. Bot. 2:xiii. i8l8. 


H. canadense Linn. 

. North America. Barton ' says the roots of this species were eaten by the Indians 
in times of scarcity. 

H. virginicum Linn. Indian salad, shawnee salad. 

North America. This plant is called in the western states, according to Serra,' 
Indian salad or Shawnee salad, because eaten as such by the Indians, when tender. Some 
of the first settlers ate the plant. 

Hygrophila spinosa T. Anders. Acanthaceae. 

East India and Malay. The leaves are used as a potherb.' 

Hymenaea courbaril Linn. Leguminosae. 

A colossal tree of tropical and southern subtropical South America. The pods con- 
tain three or foiir seeds, inclosed in a whitish substance, as sweet as honey, which the 
Indians eat with great avidity, though, says Lunan,* it is apt to purge when first gathered. 
Brown,' in British Guiana, says this pulp tastes not unlike a dry cake, being sweet and 
melting in the mouth. It is called algarroba in Panama, jatal in Brazil and simiri in 

Hyoseris lucida Linn. Compositae. swine's succory. 

Egypt. Wilkinson ' says this plant is the hypocheris of Pliny and is esciilent. 

Hjrpelate paniculata Cambess. Sapindaceae. 

West Indies. The fruit is the size of a plum and is edible after roasting. 

Hyphaene thebaica Mart. Palmae. gingerbread tree. 

African tropics. The fruits which are produced in long clusters, each containing 
between one and two hundred, are beautiftilly polished, of a rich, yellowish-brown color 
and are of irregular form. In Upper Egypt, they form part of the food of the poorer 
classes of inhabitants, the part eaten being the fibrous, mealy husk, which tastes almost 
exactly like gingerbread, but its dry, husky nature renders it unpalatable.* 

Hypochoeris apargioides Hook. & Am. Compositae. 

Chile. The root of this perennial herb is used for culinary purposes like that of 

' Barton, W. P. C. Med. Bot. 2:xiii. 1818. 

' Serra, C. de. Trans. Horl. Soc. Land. 4:445. 1822. 

Dutt, U. C. Mat. Med. Hindus 216. 1877. 

* Lunan, J. Hort. Jam. 1:462. 1814. 

' Brown, C. B. Camp Life Brit. Cuiana 180. 1876. 
Smith, A. Treas. Bot. 2:(x>9,. 1870. 
'Wilkinson, J. G. Anc. Egypt. 2:33. 1854. 
' Smith, A. Treas. Bot. i-.di^. 1870. 

Mueller,?. Sel. Ph. 23C. 1891. 


H. brasiliensis Griseb. 

Southern Brazil. This smooth, perennial herb has the aspect of a sow-thistle. It 
is sometimes used like endive as a salad.' 

H. maculata Linn. 

Europe and northern Asia. The leaves may be used as a salad.^ 

H. radicata Linn, spotted cat's ear. 

Europe and north Africa. This weed of Britain, says Johnson,' has been cultivated 
in gardens but has fallen into disuse. The wild plant may be boiled as a potherb. 

H. scorzonerae F. Muell. 

Chile. The plant has edible roots.* 

Hypoxis sp.? Amaryllideae. 

Labillardiere ^ found a species in the forests of New Caledonia, the roots of which 
are eaten by the natives. 

H3rptis spicigara Lam. Labiatae. 

African tropics. This plant of tropical Africa is called neeno and is cultivated by 
the natives of Gani as a grain. It is eaten roasted by them. They also extract an oil 
from the seeds, both black and white, of this strongly smelling plant. Schweinfurth ' 
says the tiny seeds are brazed to a jelly and are used by the natives of central Africa as 
an adjunct to their stews and gravies. The Bongo and Niam-Niam, especially, store 
large quantities. 

Hyssopus officinalis Linn. Labiaiae. hyssop. 

Europe and temperate Asia. Hyssop was once considerably employed in domestic 
medicine. From the frequent mention made of it in Scripture, we may infer that it grew 
wild in Syria and Egypt. In French and Italian cookery, the tops of the young shoots 
are sometimes used in soups.* In 1597, Gerarde ' figures three varieties; in 1683, Wor- 
lidge names it among culinary herbs in England, but says it is more valued for medicine; 
in 1778, Mawe'" describes six varieties, and says the plant is generally cultivated in the 
kitchen garden; in 1806," McMahon includes hyssop in his list of kitchen aromatics for 
American gardens. Hyssop is mentioned among European garden plants by Albertus 
Magnus in the thirteenth century and in nearly all the later botanies, Ray enumerating 

' Black, A. A. Treas. Bot. 2:1052. 1870. 
' Loudon, J. C. Hort. 683. i860. 
Johnson, C. P. UseftU Pis. Gt. Brit. 147. 1862. 
'Mueller, F. Sel. Pis. 236. 1891. 
' Labillardidre Voy. Recherche La Perouse 2:243. '799- 
'Speke, J. H. Journ. Disc. Source Nile 579. 1864. 
' Schweinfurth, G. Heart A fr. 1:250. 1874. 
'Mcintosh, C. Book Gard. 2:241. 1855. 
Gerarde, J. Herb. 464. 1597. 
" Mawe and Abercrombie Univ. Card. Bat. 1778. 
"McMahon, B. Amer. Gard. Cal. 583. 1806. 

312 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

it also as an ornamental plant, in nine varieties. As an ornamental plant, hyssop is 
deserving of notice but its present use in American gardens must be very limited. It 
is mentioned by Paulus Aegnita, in the seventh century, as a medicinal plant. It is said 
by Fessenden,' 1828, to be occasionally used as a potherb. At present, it has become 
naturalized as an escape from gardens in Michigan. In France, hyssop is grown in the 
flower gardens.' 

Icacina senegalensis Juss. Olacineae. 

Tropical Africa. The fruit is about the size of an Orleans plum, of a yellow color, 
with a flavor much resembling that of noyau.' 

Idesia polycarpa Maxim. Bixineae. 

Japan. This large-growing tree is cultivated for its fruits, which are many-seeded 

berries, the seeds lying in pulp.^ 


Ilex cassine Walt. Ilicineae. cassina. dahoon holly, holly, yaupon. 

Eastern North America. Romans says the leaves of the cassina were roasted and 
made into a decoction by the Creek Indians. The Indians attributed many virtues to 
the tea and permitted only inen to drink it. Along the coast region of Virginia and Caro- 
lina, the leaves of yaupon are used as a tea and are an object of sale. 

I, fertilis Reiss. 

Brazil. This species yields the mild vaaXi, considered equal to the best Paraguay tea.' 

I. glabra A. Gray. Appalachian tea. inkberry. 

Eastern North America. Porcher ' says the leaves form a tea substitute. 
I. paraguensis A. St. Hil. mat^. yerba de mate. 

Paraguay. From this plant comes the well-known mate of South America, which 
replaces tea in Brazil and Buenos Aires. It is consumed by the thousands of tons.' 

I. quercifolia Meerb. American holly. 

Eastern North America. According to Porcher,' the leaves afford a tea substitute 
in the south. 

I. verticillata A. Gray, black alder, winterberry. 
Porcher ^ says the leaves are substituted for tea. 

Illicium anisatum Linn. MagnoUaceae. Chinese anise. 

Eastern Asia. The fruit, about an inch in diameter, forms an article of commerce 

Fessenden New Amer. Card. 164. 1828. 
^Vilmonn Fl. PI. Ter. 522. 1870. 3rd Ed. 
Don, G. Hisl. Dichl. Pis. 1:582. 1831. 

Moore, T. Treas. Boi. 2:iyyj. 1876. 

' Saunders U. S. D. A. Rpt. 217. 1881-82. (/. gigantea) 
Porcher, F. P. Res. So. Fields, Forests 428. 1869. 
^U.S.D.A. Rpt. 193. 1870. 
' Porcher, F. P. Res. So. Fields, Forests 429. 1869. 

Porcher, F. P. Res. So. Fields, Forests 428. 1869. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 313 

amongst Asiatic nations. In 1872, Shanghai received 703,066 pounds. The Chinese 
mix the fruit with coffee and tea to improve the flavor.' The Mohammedans of India 
season some of their dishes with the capsiales,^ and the capsules are largely imported into 
Germany, France and Italy for the flavoring of spirits.' 

Imbricaria malabarica Poir. Sapotaceae. 
East Indies. The fleshy fruit is edible.* 

I. maxima Boir. 

Island of Bourbon. This species, also, has a fleshy, edible fruit.' 

Inga buorgoni DC. Leguminosae. 

Tropical America. The pulp of this legume is edible.* 

I. fagifoUa Willd. 

Tropical America. The seeds are covered with a fleshy, edible pulp.' 

I. feuillei DC. 

Peru. This plant is a native of Peru and is cultivated there in gardens, where it 
is called pacay. The white piilp of its long pods is eaten.' 

I. insignia Kimth. 

Ecuador. The pulp of the legimie is edible.' 

I. marginata Willd. 

Tropica] America. The legtmie contains a sweet and sapid edible pulp.'" 

I. spectabilis Willd. 

Tropical America. This plant bears a pod with black seeds in sweet, juicy cotton. 
It was called guavas by Cieza de Leon " in his travels, 1532-50. It is the guavo real of 
Panama and is commonly cultivated for the white pulp about the seeds. 

I. vera Willd. Linn. 

Tropical America. The pulp about the seeds is sweet and is eaten by negroes.*^ 

Inocarpus edulis Forst. Leguminosae. tahitian chestnut. 

Islands of the Pacific. The nuts of the ivi, or Tahitian chestnut, says Seemann," 
are eaten in the Fiji Islands, roasted or in a green state, and are soft and pleasant to the 

'Loudon, J. C. Arb. Frut. Brit. 1:258. 1854. 

'Ainslie, W. Mat. Ind. 2:18. 1826. 

' Fluckiger and Hanbury Pharm. 20. 1879. 

Masters, M. T. Treas. Bot. 2:620. 1870. 
5 Ibid. 

Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpi. 333. 1859. 
'Royle, J. F. Illustr. Bot. Himal. 1:183. 1839. 
Smith, A. Treas. Bot. 2:623. 1870. 

Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 333. 1859. 
'"Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 2:387. 1832. {I. sapida) 

" Markham, C. R. Trav. Cieza de Leon. Hakl. Soc. Ed. 16, 99. 1864. 
"Sloane, H. Nat. Hist. Jam. 2: sg. 1725. 
"Seemann, B. Fl. Viti. 70, yi. 1865-73. 


taste. They are much prized by the natives of the Indian Archipelago and in Machian 
the inhabitants ahnost live on them. Labillardi^re ' says the fruit is eaten boiled by the 
natives of the Friendly Islands and the flavor is very much like that of chestnuts. Wilkes * 
says it is the principal food of the mountaineers of Fiji. Voigt ' says the nuts are edible 
but are by no means pleasant. The tree is called in Tahiti, rata.* 

Inula crithmoides Linn. Contpositae. 

Mediterranean regions. The leaves are pickled and eaten as a condiment." 

Ipomoea aquatica Forsk. Convolvulaceae. sweet potato, water convolvulus. 

Old World tropics. In the Philippines, the root is cooked and eaten by the natives.' 
This species is often planted by the Chinese arotmd the edges of tanks and pools for the 
sake of its succulent leaves.' It is largely cultivated in central China as a vegetable; it 
is eaten in the spring and somewhat resembles spinach in flavor.' 

I. batatas Poir. sweet potato. 

Tropics of America. This widely-distributed, cultivated plant, originally of South 
and Central America, had developed many varieties at the period of its discovery by 
Columbus. Peter Martyr,' 1514, mentions batatas as cultivated in Honduras and gives 
the names of nine varieties. In 1526, Oviedo i" not only mentions sweet potatoes in the 
West Indies, but says thej' often have been carried to Spain, and that he had carried them 
himself to Avila, in Castile. In Peru, Garcilasso de la Vega " says the apichu are of four 
or five different colors, some red, others yellow, others white, and others brown, and this 
author was contemporary with the conquest. The camote of Yucatan, called in the islands 
axi and batatas, is mentioned in the fourth voyage of Columbus,'- and Chanca, physician 
to the fleet of Columbus, in a letter dated 1494, speaks of ages as among the productions 
of Hispaniola. In Europe, sweet potatoes are mentioned by Cardanus," 1556, and Clu- 
sius," 1566, describes the red, or purple, and the pale, or white, sorts as under culture 
in Spain, and, in 1576, notes that their culture had been attempted in Belgium. Their 
mention thereafter in the early botanies is frequent. 

The culture of sweet potatoes is noted for Virginia before 1650.'^ In 1750, Hughes " 

' Labillardidre Voy. Recherche La Perouse 2:153. 799. 
Wilkes, C. U. S. Explor. Exped. 3:334. 1845. 

Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. ^yj. 1879. 


'Johnson. C. P. Useful Pis. Gl. Brit. 161. 1862. (Limbarda crithmoides) 

Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 703. 1879. (I. reptans) 

' Williams, S. W. Mid. King. i:2Sy. 1848. (Convolvulus reptans) 

Smith, F. A. Contrib. Mat. Med. China 71. 1871. 
Eden Hist. Trav. 88, 143. 1577. 

" Gray and Trumbull Am. Jour. Sci. 248. 1883. 

"Vega, G. de la. Roy. Comment. Hakl. Sec. Ed. 2:359. 1871. 

" Fluckiger and Hanbury Pharm. 452. 1879. 

" Cardanus i?erMm Var. 189. 1556. 

" Clusius Hm/. 297. 1576. 

"Williams, E. Virginians. 1650. Force Coll. Tracts 3 : No. 1 1 . 1844. 

"Hughes, G. Nat. Hist. Barb. 228. 1750. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 315 

says that at least 13 sorts are known at the Barbados. In the Mauritius, Bojer ' describes 
the round and long forms, white and purple. At the present time, Vilmorin ^ describes 
two varieties in France, and in 1863 ' Burr describes nine varieties in American gardens. 
Of the varieties now known, not one type can be considered as modem in its appearance. 
The sweet potato is mentioned in England by Gerarde," 1597, as growing in his garden 
and he says they grow " in India, Barbarie and Spaine and other hot regions," a state- 
ment confirmed in part by Clusius,' who states in 1601 that he had eaten them in Spain. 
This plant ifmoticed by Monardes^ and by Lobel,^ 1570-76. Its cultivation has been 
attempted in different parts of Italy but as yet, so Targioni-Tozzetti ' wTites, without 
success. The sweet potato reached St. Thomas, off the African coast, before 1563-74. 
In Ramusio,' we find in the Portuguese pilot's relation, " The root which is called by the 
Indians of Hispaniola batata is named igname at St. Thomas and is one of the most essen- 
tial articles of their food." 

Rimiphius '" says that the Spaniards carried this root to Manilla and the Moluccas, 
whence the Portuguese distributed it through the Indian Archipelago. It is figured by 
Rheede " and Rtmiphius ^^ as cultivated in Hindustan and Amboina. In Batavia, it was 
cultivated in 1665." Firminger '* speaks of it as one of the native vegetables in coimnon 
cultivation in all parts of India, the plant producing pink flowers with a purple eye. In 
China, Mr. Fortune informed Darwin,'^ the plant never yields seeds. In the Hawaiian 
Islands, Wilkes^* says there are 33 varieties, 19 of which are of a red color and 14 white. 
In New Zealand, Tahiti and Fiji, it is called by the same name. In New Zealand, there 
is a tradition among the natives that it was first brought to the island in canoes composed 
of pieces of wood sewed together. 

Sweet potatoes are mentioned as one of the cultivated products of Virginia in 1648," 
perhaps in 1610 ''and are mentioned again by Jefferson, *' 1781. They are said to have 
been introduced into New England in 1764 and to have come into general use. John 

' Bojer. W. Hon. Maurit. 225. 1837. 

' Vilmorin Ls Pis. Po/og. 401. 1883. (Convolvulus batatas) 

' Burr, F. Field, Card. Veg. 99. 1863. 

* Gerarde, J. Herb. 2nd Ed. 926. 1633. 

' De Candolle, A. Geog. Bo/. 2:822. 1855. (Batatas edulis) 

' Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 754. 1879. (Convolvulus edulis) 

' Ibid. 

' Targioni-Tozzetti Journ. Horl. Soc. Land. 141. 1854. 

' Ramusio Ge. CoH. Voy. Portugese .^a. 1789. 

'" De Candolle, A. Geog. Bot. 2:822. 1855. 

" Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 754. 1879. (Convolvulus edulis) 

12 Ibid. 

" Churchill Co//. Faji. 2:303. 1732. 

"Firminger, T. A. C. Card. Ind. 157. 1874. 

" Darwin, C. Ans. Pis. Domest. 2:i$t,. 1893. 

Wilkes, C. U. S. Explor. Exped. 4:282. 1845. 

" Per/. Desc. 7a. 4. 1649. Force Coll. Tracts 2:1838. 

^^ True D eel. Fa. 13. 1610. Force Coll. Tracts 3 : 1 844. 

1' JeSerson Notes Va. 54, 55. 1781. 


Lowell * says that sweet potatoes of excellent quality can be raised about Boston, but they 
are of no agricultural importance in this region. In 1773, Bartram saw plantations of sweet 
potatoes about Indian villages in the South, and Romans refer to their tise by the Indians 
of Florida in 1775. At the present day, sweet potatoes are quite generally cultivated 
in tropical and subtropical countries, as in Africa from Zanzibar to Egypt,'' in India, 
China, Japan, the Malayan Archipelago, New Zealand, the Pacific islands, tropical Amer- 
ica, and southern United States as far north even as New York. They are grown to a 
small extent in the south of Europe, Canary Islands and Madeira. 

I. batatilla G. Don. 

Venezuela. This species furnishes tubers which are used as sweet potatoes.' 

I. biloba Forsk. pohue. 

Borders of the tropics. Ellis * says, in Tahiti, the stalks of the pohue are eaten in 
times of famine. a^ 

I. digitata Linn. 

Borders of the tropics. This species is commonly cultivated for food in western 
tropical Africa.' 

I. fastigiata Sweet, wild potato. 

Tropical America. Humboldt ^ mentions this species as cultivated in America under 
the name, batata. 

I. grandifiora Lam. 

Tropical America. Ainslie ' says, in India, the seeds are eaten when young. 

I. hederacea Jacq. 

Borders of the tropics. This species is often cultivated in tropical regions.' 

I. leptophylla Torr. man-of-the-earth. man-root, moonflower. 

Western North America. The wild potato \'ine is a showy plant of the deserts of 
North America and is commonly called man-root or man-of-the-earth, being similar in 
size and shape to a man's body. The Cheyennes, Arapahoes and Kioways roast it for 
food when pressed by himger but it is by no means palatable or nutritious. Its enormous 
size and depth in the ground make its extraction by the ordinary Indian implements a 
work of much difficulty. ' 

I. macrorrhiza Michx. 

Georgia and Florida. Henfrey " says this species has edible, farinaceous roots. 

'Lowell, J. Boston Adven. 1821. Oct. 27. 

*Speke, J. H. Journ. Disc. Source Nile 575. 1864. 

' Mueller, F. Sel. Pis. 240. 1891. 

* Ellis, W. Polyn. Research. i:$T,. 1833. 

> Smith, A. Treas. Bat. I :i2g. 1870. {Batatas paniculata) 

' De Candolle, A. Geog. Bot. 2:823. i855- 

' .\inslie, W. Mat. Ind. 2:219. 1826. 

" De Candolle, A. Geog. So/. 2:1043. 1855. {Pliarbitis hederacea) 

'U.S. D. A. Rpt. 407. 1870. 

"Henfrey, A. Bot. 321. 1870. 


Dr. Baldwin has been informed that the negroes in the South sometimes eat the 

I. mammosa Choisy. 

Tropics. According to Forster,^ this species is cultivated under the name of umara, 
gumarra, or gumalla in Tahiti and in southern New Zealand. 

I. tuberosa Linn. Spanish woodbine. 

Tropics. The edible tubers are much like the sweet potato in size, taste and form.' 

I. turpethum R. Br. 

Asia, tropical Australia, Society and Friendly Islands and the New Hebrides. The 
soft, sweet stem is sucked by the boys of Tahiti.^ 

Iridea edulis Bory. Algae. 

" It is an tmaccoimtable fact that this plant should have been long confounded with 
Rhodymenia palmata the true Irish eatable Dulse. I have never seen I. edulis eaten, 
but Stackhouse tells us that in Cornwall it is sometimes eaten by fishermen, who crisp it 
over the fire." ' 

Iris cristata Ait. Irideae. crested iris. 

Mountains of Virginia and southward. Pursh says the root, when chewed, at first 
occasions a pleasant, sweet taste, which, in a few minutes, turns to a burning sensation 
by far more pungent than capsiciun. The hunters of Virginia use it very frequently to 
alleviate thirst. 

I. ensata Thunb. sword-leaved iris. 

Himalayas and northern Asia. This iris is cultivated in Japan for the rootstocks, 
which furnish starch.^ 

I. japonica Thunb. 

Japan. This species is grown in Japan and is used for the same purpose as I. ensata. 

I. pseudacorus Linn, yellow iris. 

Eastern Asia and Europe. The angular seeds, when ripe, are said to form a good 
substitute for coffee but must be well roasted before eating.^ 

I. setosa Pall. 

Siberia. This species is grown in Japan and is used for the same purpose as /. ensata. 

I. sibirica Linn. Siberian iris. 

Europe and northern Asia. This species is grown in Japan and is used for the same 
P'orpose as /. ensata. 

'ElUott, S. Bot. So. Car., Ca. 1:253. 1821. 

De Candolle, A. Geog. Bot. 2:824. I^SS- 

De Candolle, A. Geog. Bot. 2:823. 1855. 

<Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 329. 1859. (Convolvulus turpethum) 

'Harvey, W. H. Phycol. Brit. 3: PI. XCVII. 1846-51. 

' Georgeson Amer. Card. 13: 210. 1892. 

'Johnson, C. P. Useful Pis. Gt. Brit. 267. 1862. 

31 8 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

I. sisyrinchium Linn. Spanish nut. 

Mediterranean, the Orient and Afghanistan. This species has been in cultivation 
in England since the time of Gerarde, who calls it Spanish nut and says that it is " eaten 
at the tables of rich and delicious persons in sallads or otherwise." It is a native of the 
Mediterranean region.' 

I. tectorum Maxim, wall iris. 

Japan. This species is grown in Japan and is used for the same purpose as /. ensata. 

Irvingia barteri Hook. f. Simarubeae. bread tree. 

A tree of tropical Africa, called dika. Burton* says the fruit forms the one sauce 
of the Fans and is called ndika. The kernels are extracted from the stones and roasted 
like coffee, pounded and poured into a mould. This cheese is scraped and added to boil- 
ing meat and vegetables. It forms a pleasant relish for the tasteless plantain. The French 
export it to adulterate chocolate. The fruit is much used, says Masters,^ at Sierra Leone. 

Isatis indigotica Fortune. Cruciferae. woad. 
China. The leaves are used for food.* 

Jacquinia caracasena H. B. & K. Myrsineae. 

Venezuela. The berry is edible. The seeds are imbedded in a sweet, fleshy pulp, 
according to Don.' 

Jasminum paniculatum Roxb. Oleaceae. jasmine. 

China. This is the sieu-hing-hwa of China. The flowers are used for scenting tea.* 

J. sambac Ait. Arabian jasmjne. 

Tropical Asia; called mo-le-hwa in China. The flowers are used for scenting tea.^ 

Jatropha urens Linn. Eupkorbiaceae. spurge nettle, tread-softly. 

Southern United States. This plant is called by the negroes tread-softly on account 
of its stinging hairs. The tuberous roots are said to be eatable like those of the cassava.' 

Jessenia polycarpa Karst. Palmae. 

Brazil. A palm of New Granada. The fruit is about the size of a pigeon's egg, 
violet colored, having a thin, oily, eatable flesh surrotmding a fibrous husk which encloses 
a single, homy seed.' 

Jubaea spectabilis H. B. & K. Palmae. coquito palm, little cokernut. 

A palm of Chile cultivated in South America. The sap of this tree is boiled to the 

' Britten, J. Treas. Bot. 2:1352. 1876. 

' Burton Anthrop. Rev. Journ. 1:50. 1863. 

' Masters, M. T. Treas. Bot. 2:717. 1870. (Mangifera gabonetisis) 

* Bretschneider, E. Bot. Sin. 51. 1882. 

s Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 4:24. 1838. 

'Fortune, R. Resid. Chinese 201. 1857. 

' Ibid. 

' Black, A. A. Treos. Bo<. 1:303. 1870. {Cnidoscolus stimtUosus) 

Smith, A. Treas. Bot. 2:637. 1870. 


consistency of treacle and fonns the tniel de palma, palm honey, of Chile, a considerable 
article of trade, being much esteemed for domestic use as sugar. The trees are felled 
and the crown of leaves is immediately cut off, when the sap begins to flow and continues 
for several months, provided a thin slice is shaved off the top each morning, until the 
tree is exhausted. Each tree yields about 90 gallons. The nuts are used by the Chilean 
confectioners in the preparation of sweetmeats and have a pleasant, nutty taste. The 
nuts of the Coquito palm are often called little cokernuts.^ 

Juglans baccata Linn. Juglandeae. walnut. 

West Indies. The nuts are edible and furnish an oil. They are very rich in starch.^ 

J. cinerea Linn, butternut. 

Eastern North America. The butternut was called by the Narragansett Indians 
wussoquat, and the oil from the nut was used for seasoning their aliments.' The nuts 
were used by the Indians to thicken their pottage. The immature fruit is sometimes 
used as a pickle and is most excellent. The kernel of the ripe nut is esteemed by those 
who do not object to its strong and oily taste. The tree is occasionally grown as a shade 
tree and for its nuts. In 18 13, a sample of butternut sugar was sent to the Massachusetts 
Society for the Promotion of Agriculture. 

J. nigra Linn, black walnut. 

A tree valued for its timber, common in the western states of northeast America. 
The kernel of the nut is sweet and less oily than the butternut but greatly inferior to the 
Madeira nut. It is eaten and was a prized food of the Indians. 

J. regia Linn. English walnut, madeira nut. Persian walnut. 

This tree extends from Greece and Asia Minor over Lebanon and Persia to the Hima- 
layas. It is abundant in ICashmir, Nepal and neighboring countries and is cultivated in 
Europe and elsewhere. It is referred to by Theophrastus under the name of karuon. 
According to Pliny, it was introduced into Italy from Persia, but it is mentioned as exist- 
ing in Italy by Varro, who was bom B. C. 116. In many parts of Spain, France, Italy 
and Germany, the nut forms an important article of food to the people, and in some parts 
of France considerable quantities of oil are expressed from the kernels to be used in cook- 
ing and as a drying oil in the arts. In Circassia, sugar is said to be made from the sap. 
There are many varieties; those of the province of Khosistan in Persia are much esteemed 
and are sent in great quantities to India. In Georgia, they are of a fine quality.^ In 
North China, an almost huskless variety occiirs.^ In France, there is a variety called 
Titmouse walnut because the shell is so thin that birds, especially the titmouse, can break 
it and eat the kernel. In the United States, it is called English walnut and two varieties 
succeed well in Virginia. In western New York, it is occasionally seen in lawns. 

' Smith, A. Treas. Boi. 2:639. 1870. 
' Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 321. 1859. 
" Michaux. F. A. No. Amer. Sylva i:iii. 1865. 
* Ainslie, W. Mat. Ind. 1:463. 1826. 
'Mueller, F. 5e/. P/i. 245. 1891. 


J. rupestris Engelm. 

Western North America. The small nuts are sweet and edible.* 

J. sieboldiana Maxim. Japanese walnut. 

Japan. The small nuts are of good flavor, borne in large clusters, a dozen or more 
in one bunch.' 

Juniperus bermudiana Linn. Coniferae. Bermuda cedar. 

Bermuda Islands. In 1609, Sir Thomas Gates' and Sir George Sommers * were 
wrecked on the Bermudas and in their account say " we have a kinde of Berrie upon the 
Cedar tree, verie pleasant to eat." In Newes from Barmudas,^ 161 2, it is said, " there 
are an infinite number of Cedar trees (fairest I think in the world) and those bring forth 
a verie sweete berrie and wholesome to eat." 

J. commtmis Linn, juniper. 

North temperate and arctic regions. The berries are used by distillers to flavor 
gin. The ripe berries were formerly used in England as a substitute for pepper. In 
many parts of Germany, the berries are used as a culinary spice. In Sweden, they are 
made into a conserve, also prepared in a beverage and in some places are roasted and 
used as a coffee substitute.^ In France, a kind of beer called genevrette is made by fer- 
menting a decoction of equal parts of juniperberries and barley.' In Germany, juniper 
is used for flavoring sauerkraut.' In Kamaon, India, the berries are added to spirits dis- 
tilled from barley." In western North America, the berries are an Indian food. 

J. drupacea Labill. habbel. plum juniper. 

Greece, Asia Minor and Syria. The sweet, edible fruit is highly esteemed through- 
out the Orient, according to Mueller.'" 

J. occidentalis Hook. California juniper. 

Western North America. The plant bears a large and tuberculated berry, sweet and 
nutritious, which has, however, a resinous taste. The berries are largely consumed by 
the Indians of Arizona and New Mexico." 

J. pachyphlaea Torr. sweet-fruited juniper. 

Mexico. The berries are purplish, globose, half an inch in diameter and have a 
sweetish and palatable pulp.'^ 

' Sargent U. S. Census 9:131. 1884. 

'Georgeson ^wer. C7ard. 12:266. 1891. 

' Newes from Barmudas 20. 1613. Force Coll. Tracts 3 : 1844. 


^ Newes from Barmudas 13. 1613. Force Coll. Tracts 3: 1844 

Phillips H. Comp. Orch. 213, 214. 1831. 

' Johnson, C. P. Useful Pis. Gl. Brit. 264. 1862. 

Barton and Castle Brit. Ft. Med. 244. 1877. 
' Brandis, D. Fo'resl Ft. 536. 1876. 

"Mueller, F. Sel. Ph. 246. 1891. 

"U. S. D. A. Rpt. 411. 1870. 

" Havard, V. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 503. 1885. 


J. recurva Buch.-Ham. drooping juniper. 

Himalayan region. In India, the sprigs are used in the distillation of spirits. The 
shrub is sacred and the resinous twigs are used for incense.' This species is used in India 
in the preparation of an intoxicating liquor and for making yeast.^ 

J. tetragona Schlecht. mexic.\n juniper. 

Mexico. The berries are half an inch in diameter, and the Indians are said to use 
them as food.' 

Elandelia rheedii Wight & Am. Rhizophoreae. 
East Indies and Malay. Its fruit is edible.* 

Kedrostis rostrata Cogn. Cucurbitaceae. 

East Indies. The leaves are eaten as greens - and are called in Tamil appakovay.^ 
Royle ' says the fruit is eaten. 

Kigelia pinnata DC. Bignoniaceae. 

A tree of tropical Africa. The fruit is often two or more feet long and is filled with pulp 
containing numerous, roundish seeds. Grant ^ says the roasted seeds are eaten in famines. 

Kleinhovia hospita Lirm. Sterculiaceae. 

Tropical eastern Asia, the Malayan Archipelago and the Samoan Islands. The 
leaves are cooked and eaten in the Philippines.' 

Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm. Sapindaceae. 

China. The berries, when roasted, are eaten by the Chinese, in spite of their appar- 
ent acidity." The leaves are used for food.'' 

Lacis sp. ? Podostemaceae. 

Henfrey says some species are used for food on the Rio Negro and other parts of 
South America.'^ 

Lactuca alpina Benth. & Hook. f. Compositae. mountain sow-thistle. 

Europe. The stem, which is milky, is peeled and eaten raw by the Laplanders; the 
taste is extremely bitter." 

Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 536. 1876. 
'Card. Chron. 17:47. 1882. (J. squamata) 
Torrey, J. Pacific R. R. Rpl. 4: 141. 1856. 
*Baillon, H. Hist. Pis. 6:301. 1880. Note 
' Ainslie, W. Mat. Ind. 2:21. 1826. 
Drury, H. Useful Pis. Ind. 88. 1873. 
" Royle, J. F. Illustr. Bot. Himal. i:2i<). 1839. 
' Speke, J. H. Journ. Disc. Source Nile 577. 1864. 
Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 743. 1879. 
> Smith, F. P. Contrib. Mat. Med. China iqc). 1871. 
" Bretschneider, E. Bol. Sin. 52. 1882. 
" Henfrey, A. Bot. 359. 1870. 

" Lankester Veg. Food g:igi. 1846. Libr. Entert. Knowl. 


L. scariola Linn, lettvce. prickly lettuce. 

Europe and the Orient. Lettuce, the best of all salad plants, as a cultivated plant 
has great antiquity. It is evident, by an ancedote related by Herodotus, that lettuce 
appeared at the royal tables of the Persian kings about 550 B. C Its medicinal properties 
as a food-plant were noted by Hippocrates,^ 430 B. C; it was praised by Aristotle,' 356 
B. C; the species was described by Theophrastus,* 322 B. C, and Dioscorides,' 60 A. D.; 
and was mentioned by Galen,* 164 A. D., who gives the idea of very general use. Among 
the Romans, lettuce was very popular. Columella,' A. D. 42, describes the Caecilian, 
Cappadocian, Cyprian and Tartesan. Pliny,' A. D. 79, enumerates the Alba, Caecilian, 
Cappadocian, Crispa, Graeca, Laconicon, Nigra, Purpurea and Rubens. Palladius," 
210 A. D., implies varieties and mentions the process of blanching. Martial,'" A. D. loi, 
gives to the lettuces of Cappadocia the term vtles, or cheap, impljdng abundance. In 
China, its presence can be identified in the fifth century." In England, Chaucer, 
about 1340, uses the word in his prologue, " well loved he garlic, onions and lettuce," 
and lettuce is likewise mentioned by Turner,'^ 1538, who spells the word lettuse. It is 
mentioned by Peter Martyr, 1494. as cultivated on Isabela Island. In 1565, Benzoni " 
speaks of lettuce as abounding irL.Hayti. In 1647, Nieuhoff '* saw it cultivated in Brazil. 
In 1806, McMahon " enumerates for American gardens 16 sorts. In 1828, Thorburn's " 
seed catalog offered 13 kinds, and in 1881, 23 kinds. 

In the report of the New York Agricultural Experiment Station for 1885, 87 varieties 
are described with 585 names of synonyms.'' Vilmorin '* describes, 1883, one hundred 
and thirteen kinds as distinct. The numbers of varieties named by various writers at 
various times are as follows: For France, in 1612, six; in 1690, twenty-one; in 1828, forty; 
in 1883, one hundred and thirteen. For Holland, in 1720, forty-seven. For England, 
in 1597, six; in 1629, nine; in 1726, nine; in 1763, fifteen; in 1765, eighteen; in 1807, fourteen. 
For America, in 1806, sixteen; in 1885, eighty-seven. 

The cabbage and cos lettuces are the sorts now principally grown but various other 

'Mcintosh, C. Book Card. 2:5. 1855. 

'Hippocrates Opera Comarius Ed. 113. 1546. 

' Scaliger Aristotle 63. 1566. 

* Theophratus Hist. PI. Bodaeus Ed. 761. 1644. 

' Dioscorides Vergelius Ed. 220. 1532. Ruellius Ed. 130. 1529. 

'Galen Aliment, lib. 2. Gregorius Ed. 143. 1547. 

'Columella lib. 10, c. 181-193, 369. 

' Pliny lib. 19, c. 38. 

' Palladius lib. 2, c. 14; lib. 3, c. 24; lib. 4, c. 9, etc. 
" Martial lib. 5, 79. 

" Bretschneider, E. Bot. Sin. 78. 1882. 
" Turner Libellus 1538. 

" Benzoni Hist. New World. Smythe Ed. 1857. 
" Churchill Coll. Voy. 

" McMahon, B. Amer. Card. Cal. 581. 1806. 
' Thorbum Cat. 1828. 

" N. Y. Agr. Expt Sta. (Geneva) Rpt. 1885. 
" Vilmorin Les Pis. Potag. 285. 1883. 


kinds, such as the curled, are frequently, and the sharp-leaved and oak-leaved are occa- 
sionally grown as novelities. In these lettuces there can be offered only the synon^Tny of 
a few of the varieties now known those which indicate the antiquity of our cultivated 



The Lanceolate-Leaved Type. 

Lactuca longifolia. Bauh. Phytopinat 200. 1596. 

Lattuga franzese. Dur. C. 244. 1617. cum ic. 

Lactuca folio oblongo acuta. Bauh. Pin. 125. 1623. Prod. 60. 1671. 

Lactuca Ion go at valde angusto folio. Bauh. J. 2:999. 1651; Chabr. 313. 1677. 

Deer Tongue. Greg. 1883. 

The Cos Type. 

Pena and Lobel,' 1570, say that this form is but rarely grown in France and Germany, 
although common in the gardens of Italy; and Heuze ^ says it was brought from Rome 
to France by Rabelais in 1537. 

Lactuca intyhacea. Lombard Lettuce Ger. 240. 1597. 

Lactuca foliis endivae. Matth. Op. 399. 1598. 

Lactuca Romana longa dulcis. Bauh. J. 2:998. 1651. Chabr. 313. 1677. 

La Romaine Jard. Solit. 161 2 

Romaines. Vilm. 307. 1883. 

We can reasonably believe the lettuce of Camerarius to be very close to the Florence 
Cos. The Lombard lettuce was grown as a sport in the garden of the New York Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station in 1886, and the figures by Bauhin and Chabraeus may well 
be the Paris Cos. It is not to be understood, however, that these figures represent the 
improved forms of our present culture but the prototj'pes from which our plants have 
appeared, as shown not only by resemblance of leaf -form but through the study of variables 
in the garden. Ray, 1686, describes the Cos as having light green and dark green varieties, 
and these, as well as the Spotted Cos, are indicated by Bauhin in 1623. 

Headed Lettuce. 
A . This is the sort commonly grown, and the figures given in the sixteenth century 
indicate that the heading habit was even then firmly established. We have the 
following synonyms to offer, premising that types are referred to: 
Luctuca crispa. Matth. 264. 1554; Pin. 195. 1561. 
Lattuga. Cast. Dur. 243. 1617. 
La royalef Le Jard. Solit. 161 2. Quintyne 1690. 
Laitue Blonde de Berlin syn. Laitue royale. 295. 1884. 
B. Lactuca sativa sessilis sive capitata. hob. Icon. 1:242. 1591. 
Lactuca capitata. Dod. 645. 1616. 
Very Early Dwarf Green. 

' Pena and Lobel Advers. 90. 1570. 
'Heuze. G. Pis. Aliment i, v. 1873. 


C. Lactuca. Cam. Epit. 298. 1586. 

Lactuca capitata. Ger. 240. 1597. 

Lactuca crispa. Matth. 399. 1598. 

Batavians. Vilm. 1883. 
D. Lattich. Roezl. 167. 1550. 

Green Fringed. 

The last identification is from the appearance of the young plant. The old plant is 
remarkably different, forming a true rosette. 

Cutting and Miscellaneous. 

A. Lactuca crispa altera Ger. 240. 1597. 

Lactuca crispa et tenuiter dissecta. Bauh. J. 2:1000. 1651. 

Chabr. 314. 1677. 

Curled Cutting, ' 

B. Lactuca Joliis querci. Ray 219. 1686. 

C. Capitatum cum plurihus capitibus. Bauh. J. 2:998. 1651. Chabr. 313. 1677. 

Egyptian Sprouting. 

The minor variations which are now separated into varieties did not receive the same 
recognition in former times, the same variety name covering what now would be several 
varieties; thus, Quintyne, 1693, calls perpignans both a green and a pale form. Green, 
light green, dark green, red and spotted lettuces are named in the old botanies, hence 
we cannot assert any new types have appeared in modem culture. 

Lagenaria vulgaris Ser. Cucurbiiaceae. bottle gourd, trumpet gourd. 

Tropics. This plant has been found growing wild with bitter fruit in India,' in the 
moist forests around De5a-a Doon.^ It is also found wild in Malabar,' where it is cultivated 
in gardens for the gotird which is eaten. This gourd is one of the commonest of the native 
vegetables of India, says Firminger,'' the fruit being of moderate size and having the appear- 
ance of two oval gourds united endwise, or, of an inflated bladder compressed by a cord 
around it. Cut up in slices, it affords a palatable but rather insipid dish. About Con- 
stantinople, it is called dolma and is cultivated, the gourd when young, being cut and 
boiled with other foods.' In Europe, the variety called irompette is eaten.' In China, 
its soft, downy herbage is sometimes eaten, and the fruit is also eaten but is apt to purge.' 

Lagerstromia parviflora Roxb. Lythrarieae. crape myrtle. 

East Indies. In India, a sweet gum exudes from wounds in the bark and is eaten.' 

' De CandoUe, A. Geog. Bot. 2:898. 1855. 



< Firminger, T. A. C. Card. Ind. 126. 1874. 

Walsh, R. Trans. Hort. Soc. Lond. 6:56. 1826. 

' De CandoUe, A. Geog. Bot. 2:898. 1855. 

'Smith, F. P. Contrib. Mat. Med. China 126. 1871. 

*Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 239. 1876. ~ 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 325 

Lallemantia iberica Fisch. & Mey. Labiatae. 

Asia Minor and S^Tia. The seeds are very rich in fat and are used for food, as well 
as for lighting purposes, in the northwest districts of Persia. 

Laminaria digitata Lam. Algae, red-ware, sea-girdles, sea-wand, sea-ware. 


The tender stalks of the young fronds of this seaweed are eaten.^ 
L. esculenta Lindbl. badderlock. 

Orkney. The midrib of the stem of this seaweed is eaten.^ 

L. potatorum Labill. 

This plant is used as food by the natives of Australia.' 

L. saccharina Lam. 

This seaweed is said to be eaten in Iceland and other northern countries.^ 

Lamium album Linn. Labiatae. archangel, dead-nettle, dumb-nettle. 

Europe and the Orient. The young leaves are boiled in the spring and eaten as 
greens by the common people of Sweden.' 
L. purpureum Linn, archangel, red dead-nettle. 

Europe, northern Asia and naturalized as a weed in some places in the United States. 
The red dead-nettle, or archangel, is eaten in Sweden as greens in spring.' 

Landolphia fiorida Benth. Apocynaceae. rubber tree. 

Tropical Africa. This species furnishes the abo of tropical Africa, eaten by the natives.' 
Montiero ' describes a species of this genus, probably this, as occurring in Angola and 
called rubber tree. The fruit, the size of a large orange, is yellow when ripe; the shell is 
hard and bitter and the inside full of a soft, reddish pulp in which the seeds are contained. 
This pulp is of an agreeable acid flavor and is much liked by the natives. On the Niger, 
according to Barter,' its fruit, which is very sour, is eaten by the natives under the name 
of aboli. 

L. owariensis Beauv. 

Tropical Africa. This a climbing plant, the fruit of which is the size of an orange 
and has a reddish-brown, woody shell and an agreeable, sweetish-acid pulp. It is eaten 
by the natives and is called 060.' Schweinfurth says the fruit exceeds in sourness that 
of the citron and the natives of Djur-land manufacture a beverage from it as refreshing 
as lemonade. 

' Lindley, J. Veg. King. 21. 1846. 

* Rhind, W. Veg. King. 190. 1857. 
' Lindley, J. Veg. King. 21. 1846. 

* Johnson, C. P. Useful Pis. Gt. Brit. zoi. 1862. 
' Lightfoot, J. Fl. Scot. 1:308. 1789. 

* Lightfoot, J. Fl. Scot, i-.icx). 1789. 

' Jackson, J. R. Treas. Bot. 2:1311. 1876. 
Montiero, J. J. Angola, River Congo i:\38. 1875. 
Barter Gard. CAron. 17:472. 1882. New series. 
" Schweinfurth, G. Heart A fr. i:ig2. 1874. (Carpodinus sp.?) 

326 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

Lansium domesticum Jack. Meliaceac. 

A tree of eastern Asia, cultivated in China. Its fruit is sold in the Canton markets. 
The fruit is the size of a pigeon's egg, of a yellowish color without and whitish within. 
It is highly esteemed and is eaten fresh or variously prepared. It is known in the East 
Indies as lansa, langsat, lattseli, ayer-ayer or bejetlan} In Borneo, Wallace^ calls it one 
of the most delicious of the subacid, tropical fruits. 

Lantana trifolia Linn. Verbenaceae. 

Tropical America. Sloane says the fruit is more juicy than that of other species and 
is not unpleasant to eat.' 

Lapageria rosea Ruiz & Pav. Liliaceae. 

Chile. The berries, which are of the size of an egg, are sweet and edible.'' 

Lapsana communis Linn. Compositae. nipplewort. 

Etu^ope, Orient, northern Asia and naturalized in America. The young leaves in the 
spring have the taste of radishes and are eaten at Constantinople as a salad. In some 
parts of England, the common people boil them as greens, but they have a bitter and 
not agreeable taste. 

Lardizabala bitemata Ruiz et Pav. Berberideae. 

Chile and Peru. The fruit is eatable and is sold in the market. The pulp is sweet 
and grateful to the taste. It is called in Peru aquilboguil or guilbogin and in Chile 

L. tritemata Ruiz & Pav. 

Chile. This plant has edible fruit.' 

Larix europaea DC. Coniferae. European larch. 

Europe and northern Asia. The Jakuts of northern Siberia grate the inner bark 
and use it in a broth of fish, meal, and milk. A kind of sugary matter exudes from the 
the larch in the summer and is collected under the name of manna, or briancono. When 
the larch forests of Russia take fire, a juice exudes from the scorched trunks which is 
collected under the name of orenburgh gum.* 

Larrea mexicana Moric. Zygophylleae. creosote plant. 

Mexico. Travellers chew the twigs to alleviate extreme thirst.' The plant is a bright 
evergreen with foliage resembling that of Buxus. 

' Seemann, B. Treas. Bol. 2:659. 1870. 
Wallace, A. R. Malay Arch. 94. 1869. 
' Lunan, J. Hort. Jam. 2:294. 1814. 
* Mueller, F. Sel. Pis. 251. 1891. 
Lightfoot, J. Fl. Scot. 1:445. 1789. 
Don, G. Hisl. Dichl. Pis. 1:103. 1831. 
'Baillon, H. Hist. Pis. 3:70. 1874. 
U. S. Disp.Sii. 1865. 
Greene, E.L. Amer. Nat. 15:25. 1881. 


Laserpitiuni latifolium Linn. Umbelliferae. lasewort. 

Europe. The Romans, says Glasspole,' used the root of lasewort, with cumin, in 
seasoning preserved artichoke. 

Latania commersonii J. F. Gmel. Palmae. 

Bourbon Island. The fruit is eaten by the negroes, says Seemann,* but that argues 
little for their taste, as it has a rather disagreeable flavor. 

Lathyrus aphaca Linn. Leguminosae. yellow-flowered pea. 

Europe and the Orient. The seeds, according to Lindley,' are served sometimes at 
table while young and tender but if eaten abundantly in the ripe state are narcotic, pro- 
ducing severe headache. 

L. cicera Linn, lesser chick-pea. vetch. 

Europe and the Orient. This species is an annual with red flowers, occasionally grown 
in the south of Europe for its peas, but these are of inferior quality and are said sometimes 
to be very unwholesome.^ Vetches were carried to the West Indies by Columbus, says 
Pickering,* but their cultivation at the present day seems unknown in America. . 

L. magellanicus Lam. cape horn pea. 

Magellan region. The Cape Horn pea was eaten by the sailors of Lord Anson in 
default of better vegetables but is inferior to the worst sort of cultivated pea.* 

L. maritimus Bigel. heath pea. seaside pea. 

North America and Europe. The seeds are very bitter. In 1555, the people of a 
portion of Suffolk County, England, suffering from famine, supported themselves to a great 
extent by the seeds of this plant.' 

L. montanus Bernh. bitter vetch, heath pea. mountain pea. 

Europe and northern Asia. Bitter vetch is a native of Europe and the adjoining 
portion of Asia and has been cultivated on a small scale in kitchen gardens in Britain. 
The Highlanders of Scotland have great esteem for the tubercles of the roots; they dry 
and chew them to give a better relish to their whiskey. In some parts of Scotland a spirit 
is extracted from them. The tubers are sweet in taste and very nutritious and are some- 
times boiled and eaten. In Holland and Flanders, the peas are roasted and served as 
chestnuts.* According to Sprengel,' the peas are eaten in Sweden and form an article 
of commerce. In England, the plant is called heath pea." 

' Glasspoole, H. G. Ohio Slate Bd. Agr. Rpt. 30:533. 1875. 
Seemann, B. Pop. Hist, of Palms 229. 1856. 
' Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 826. 1879. 

* Treas. Bot. 2:662. 1870. 

' Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 220. 1879. 

Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 2:331. 1832. {Pisum americanum) 

' Johnson, C. P. Useful Pis. Gt. Brit. 82. 1862. {Pisum maritimum) 
Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 2:340. 1832. {Qrobus tuberosus) 
Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 435. 1879. (Qrobus tuberosus) 
" Ibid. 


L. ochrus DC. 

Mediterranean countries. This is a species of pea mentioned as cultivated by Phanias 
of Eresus * and Clemens Alexandrinus.' It is enumerated among the esculent plants 
of Egypt by Alpinus.' Perhaps this is the pea exhumed by Dr. Schliemann * in a carbonized 
state from the ruins of ancient Greece. 
L. sativus Linn, chickling vetch. 

Europe, north Africa and the Orient. This vetch is an annual forage herb, the pods 
of which are available for culinary purposes. It is superior, according to Langethal, to 
vetches in quality of fodder and seed but is less productive.' The flour from the peas 
makes a pleasant bread but is unwholesome; its use in the seventeenth century was for- 
bidden in Wiutemburg by law. The peasants, however, eat it boiled or mixed with wheat 
flour in the quantity of one-fourth without any harm.* In many parts of France the seed 
is used in soups.'' 

This, in many regions, is a forage-plant rather than a vegetable;' but in the south 
and southwest parts of Europe, as in Italy and Spain and also in Turkey ' and India," 
\t is grown for the use of the seed in soups,'* as well as in the manner of green peas.'^ This 
vetch has been cultivated in southern Europe from a remote period and is mentioned 
by Columella " and Palladius." According to Heuze," it came from Spain into France 
in 1640; but this must refer to some variety, for it appears to have been well known to the 
herbalists of the sixteenth century, as Dodonaeus,'* 1556, and others. It was included 
among American vegetables by Burr, 1863, who mentions two varieties, the one with dun, 
the other with white, seeds. This latter form was mentioned by Bauhin, 1623. 
L. tuberosus Linn, dutch mice, earthnut pea. 

Northern Old World and Uralian plains. In Holland, Don " says, the plant is culti- 
vated for its roots, which are eaten there. Johnson '* says in Holland and Germany the 
roots are roasted as food. Pallas " says they are eaten by the Kalmucks. These tubers 
are small but amylaceous and are sometimes called Dutch mice. 

Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 345. 1879. {Pisum ochrus) 
2 Ibid. 

* Schliemann Amer. Antiq. 66. 1880. 
5 Mueller, F. Set. Pis. 252. 1891. 
Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 2:335. 1832. 
^ Bon Jard, 603. 1882. 

* Decaisne and Naudin Man. Jard. 4:316. 1865. 
Heuze, G. Pis. Aliment 2:414. 1873. 

"Birdwood Veg. Prod. Bomb. 120. 1865. 

" Bon Jard. 603. 1882. 

" Noisette Afo. /ard. 2:377. i860. 

" Columella lib. 2, c. 11. 

" Palladius lib. 4, c. 6. 

" Heuze, G. Pis. Aliment 2:^1^. 1873. 

" Dodonaeus Frumen/. 113. 1556. 

" Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 2:332. 1832. 

' Johnson, C. P. Useful Pis. Gt. Brit. 83. 1862. 

" Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 670. 1879. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 329 

The plant is now included among vegetables for the garden by Vilmorin,' although 
he says it is scarcely ever cultivated, but that the tubers are often collected from the wild 
plant in France. Burr ^ likewise includes this species among American garden plants 
but we know not upon what authority. In 1783, Bryant ' says this French weed was culti- 
vated in Holland for its roots, which were carried to market. In Siberia, the tubers are 
said to be much relished by the Tartars. They are used in Germany. It can scarcely 
be considered a plant of culture. 

Laurelia aromatic Juss. Monimiaceae. chile laurel. Peruvian nutmeg. 
A Chilean species whose aromatic seeds are used as a spice in Peru.* 

Laurencia obtusa Berk. Algae, corsican moss. 

This forms the greater part of what is now sold in the shops of Britain as Corsican moss. 

L. pinnatifida Lam. pepper dulse. 

This seaweed is called pepper dulse in Scotland, on account of its hot and biting taste,^ 
and is used as a condiment when other seaweeds are eaten.' 

Laurus nobilis Linn. Laurineae. bay. laurel, sweet bay. 

Mediterranean region. The leaves are used by confectioners for flavoring.' 

Lavandula spica Cav. Labiaiae. lavender. 

Mediterranean regions. This plant appears to be the nardus stricta of ancient writers 
and was by them held in high esteem.' There are three varieties, says Burr, in cultivation; 
it is used as a potherb. It was mentioned for our gardens by McMahon,' 1806. Lavender 
yields oil-of-spike, used by painters on porcelain and by artists in the preparation of 
varnishes. It is cultivated in Surrey, England, to the extent of 300 acres. It is also 
grown in Lincolnshire and in Hertfordshire, "where, in 1871, about 50 acres were cropped. 
Mawe, 1778, named four types: the narrow-leaved with blue flowers, the narrow-leaved 
with white flowers, the broad-leaved and the dwarf. 

L. vera DC. lavender. 

Mediterranean region. This species was used by the Romans to mix with salads '" 
and is occasionally cultivated in our gardens, as the seed appears in our seedsmen's catalogs. 
There is no satisfactory identification of lavender in the writings of the ancients, although 
it seems to have been well known to the botanists of the sixteenth centiory. Its use as 

Vilmorin Les Pis. Potag. 241. 1883. 
'Burr, F. Field, Card. Veg. lo^. 1863. 
'Bryant F/. Diet. 1783. 

Smith, A. Treas. Bot. 2:663. 1870. (L. sempervirens) 
'Harvey, W. H. Phycol. Brit. 2: PI. LV. 1846-51. 
Lindley, J. Feg. King. 24. 1846. 

'Lindley, J. Med. Econ. Bot. 2:664. 1870. 
Mcintosh, C. Book Card. 2:261. 1855. 

McMahon, B. Amer. Card. Col. 583. 1806. 
> Mcintosh, C. Book Card. 2:7. 1855. 


a perfume was indicated as early as the fourteenth century and as a medicine even 
in the twelfth century.' Its seed was in English seedsmen's lists of 1726* for garden 

Lecanora affinis Linn. Lichenes. crab's eye. 

This lichen is found in Armenia and Algeria, blown about and heaped up by the winds. 
It is ground with com in times of scarcity to eke out the scanty supply. 

L. esculenta Linn, cup moss. 

This lichen was found by Ledebour in the Kirghiz Steppe and in middle Asia, fre- 
quently on a barren soil or in clefts of rocks, whence it is often washed down after sudden 
and violent falls of rain, so as to be collected in considerable quantity and easily gathered 
for food. The same species was found by Paviot, who procured it in his journey to Ararat, 
where it is eaten by the natives. In some districts of Persia, in 1828, it covered the ground 
to a depth of five or six inches in so short a period of time that the people thought it had 
been rained down from heaven. This lichen is supposed by some to have been the manna 
of the children of Israel. 

Lecythis grandiflora Aubl. Myrtaceae. 
Guiana. The seeds are palatable.' 

L. minor Jacq. 

New Granada. The fruit is two inches in diameter. The seeds are of an agreeable 

L. ollaria Linn, pot tree. 

Tropical America. The fruit is the size of a child's head and is prized for its chestnut- 
like fruit.' 

L. zabucajo Aubl. 

Gtiiana. The nuts of this species are rather more than two inches long and one wide, 
covered with a longitudinally-furrowed, corky shell and grow in large, hard, woody fruits. 
shaped like urns, measuring about six inches in diameter and having close-fitting lids 
at the top.* 

Ledum latifolitxm Jacq. Ericaceae. Labrador tea. 

Northern climates. The leaves are said to have been used as a substitute for 
tea during the Revolutionary War.' Lindley ' says the leaves are used to render beer 

iPluckiger and Hanbury Pharm. 476. 1879. 

' Townsend Seedsman 37. 1726. 

Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 2:873. 1832. 


Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 315. 1859. 

Smith, A. Treas.Bot. 2:667. 1870. 

'Wood U. S. Disp. 1546. 1865. 

Lindley, J. Veg. King. 454. 1846. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 331 

L. palustre Linn, marsh rosemary. 

Northern and arctic regions. This plant furnished a tea to Richardson ' in his arctic 

Lens esculenta Moench. Leguminosae. lentil. 

Orient. This was probably one of the first plants brought under cultivation by 
mankind for food. Lentils were known to the ancient Greeks, Jews and Egyptians. The 
cultivation of the lentil is very ancient, as it has been found in the Egyptian tombs of the 
twelfth dynasty, or 2200 to 2400 B. C- It has been found in the lacustrine debris of 
Switzerland dating from the age of bronze.^ Lentils are now cultivated extensively through- 
out most parts of the East, including Egj-pt, Nubia, Syria and India; likewise in most 
of the countries of central and southern Europe. Wilkinson states that in ancient Egypt 
much attention was bestowed on the culture of this useful pulse, and certain varieties 
became remarkable for their excellence, the lentils of Pelusium being esteemed both in Egypt 
and in foreign countries. In Egypt and S3ma, the seeds are parched and sold in the shops. 
In France and Spain, there are three varieties cultivated; the small brown or red sort is 
preferred for haricots and soups, and the yellow lentil is readily convertible into flour 
and serves as the base of certain adulterated preparations.* In England, lentils are but 
little cultivated, yet two varieties are named: the French, of an ash-gray color; the Egyptian, 
with a dark skin and of an orange-red color inside. In 1834, seeds of the lentil were dis- 
tributed from the United States Patent Office.* 

Leonia glycycarpa Ruiz & Pav. Violarieae. 

A tree of Peru, the fruit of which is called achocon. The fruits are the size of a peach, 
with a rough, netted skin and sweet ptilp, which is eaten by the Peruvians ^ and is much 

Leopoldinia major Wallace. Palmae. jara palm. 

Brazil. The Indians of the Rio Negro collect the fruit in large quantities and, by 
burning and washing, extract a flotary substance which they use as a substitute for salt. 

Lepidium diffusum DC. Cruciferae. dittander. 

Louisiana. The plant is eatable as a water cress.' 

L. draba Linn, hoary cress. 

East Mediterranean coimtries. The plant is cooked and eaten in Cappadocia, and 
the seeds are substituted for pepper in seasoning. 

' Barrow, J. Voy. Disc. Arctic Reg. 379. 1846. 

' Schweinfurth in Nature $1 4. 1883. 

' De CandoUe, A. Orig. Ph. Cult. 322. 1885. 

Wilkinson, J. G. Anc. Egypt. 1:167. 1854. 

' Journ. Agr. 5:65. 1853. New series. 

U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 16. 1854. (Ervum lens) 

' Smith, J. Did. Econ. Pis. 3. 1882. 

'Smith, A. Treas. Bot. 2:670. 1870. 

' Don, G. Hist. DicU. Pis. 1:221. 1831. (Lepidiastrum diffusum) 


L. latifolium Linn, dittander. poor man's pepper. 

A cress of Europe, north Africa, middle and north Asia.' In Britain, this cress was 
much used as a pungent condiment before the various substances now employed for such 
purposes became cheap and hence the common name, poor man's pepper. It was some- 
times called dittander, and under that name was cultivated in cottage gardens but is now 
almost entirely discarded as a culinary vegetable.^ Loudon * says it has roots resembling 
horseradish, for which it may be used as a substitute, and the leaves are excellent as greens 
and for salads. Lightfoot * mentions the use of the pungent leaves for salads, and Mueller * 
says it is much used for some select sauces. 

L. oleraceum Forst. f. new Zealand cress. 

New Zealand. This plant is found growing abundantly on the seashores. It is 
a good antiscorbutic and was eagerly sought after by early voyagers as a remedy for 
sctu"vy. The natives call it eketera. It is now cultivated in Britain as a potherb.' 
L. piscidium Forst.- f. fish poison. 

Pacific Islands. This is an extremely pungent cress eaten by seamen as a relish and 

L. sativum Linn, cress, nasturtium. 

Orient. De Candolle ' believes this plant to be a native of Persia, whence it may 
have spread into the gardens of India, Syria, Greece, Egypt and even as far as Abyssinia. 
It is said by Xenophon, about 400 B. C, to have been eaten by the Persians before they 
became acquainted with bread. Pliny, in the first centvuy, speaks of the nasturtium as 
growing in Arabia, of a remarkable size. Cress finds frequent mention in the Greek and 
Latin authors. This plant has been cultivated in England since 1548 and is mentioned 
by Gerarde ' who says, " Galen saith that the Cresses may be eaten with bread 
Velutiobsonium and so the Ancient Spartans usually did ; and the low-countrie men many 
times doe, who commonly use to feed of Cresses with bread and butter. It is eaten with 
other sallade herbes, as Tarragon and Rocket; and for this cause it is chiefly sown." In 
1806, McMahon ' mentions three varieties for American gardens. The leaves while young 
have a warm, pungent taste and are now eaten as a salad, either separately or mixed with 
lettuce or other salad plants. The curled varieties are used for garnishing. Burr '" describes 
five varieties, and four types are now under culture; the common, the curled, the broad- 
leaved and the golden. '' The synonomy of these various types is as below, it being pre- 
mised that the modem varieties vary somewhat in degree only: 

Mueller,?. Sel. Pis. 2$Z- 1891. 
Johnson, C. P. Useful Pis. Gt. Brit. 25. 1862. 
' Loudon, J. C. Hort. 687. i860. 
* Lightfoot, J. F/. 5co/. 1:339. 1789. 
' Mueller, F. Sel. Pis. 255. 1891. 
Smith, A. Treas. Bot. 2:671. 1870. 
' De Candolle, A. Orig. Pis. Cull. 87. 1885. 
' Gerarde, J. Herb. 2 $0. 1633 or 1636. 
McMahon, B. Amer. Card. Col.. 581. 1806. 
"Burr, F. Field, Card. Veg. 341 . 1863. 
" Vilmorin Veg. Card. 207. 1885. 



Common Cress. 

Nasturtium hortense. Fuch. 362. 1542; Trag. 82. 1552; Pin. 221. 1561; Ger. 

194. 1597; Dod. 711. 1616. 
Gartenkress. Roezl. 188. 1550. 
Nasturtium. Matth. 280. 1558; Lob. Obs. 107. 1576; Cam. Epit. 335. 1586; 

Matth. Op. 425. 1598; Chabr. 289. 1677. 
Nasturtio. Pictorius Ed. Macer 75. 1581. 
Nasturtttim hortense commune. Bauh. Phytopin. 161. 1596. 
Nasturtium hortense vulgatum. Baugh. Pin. 102. 1623. 
Nasturtium vulgar e. Baugh. J. 2:912. 1651. 
Common Garden Cress. Ray 825. 1686; Vilm. 207. 1885. 
Garden Cress. Townsend 1726. 
Lepidium saticum. Linn. Sp. 899. 1763. 

Common Cress. Stevenson 1785; Bryant 103. 1783; Mj/fer's Z)jrt. 1807. 
Common Small-Leaved. Mawe 1778. 
Cresson alenois commun. Vilm. 194. 1883. 

Curled Cress. 

Nasturtium hortense crispum. Bauh. Phy0pin. 161. 1596; Pin. 104. 1623. 

Nasturtium hortense. Limi. Ger. 194. 1597. 

Nasturtium crispum augustifolium'. Matth. Op. 426. 1598. 

Nasturtium crispum. Bauhin, Joh. Bauh., J. 2:913. 1651. 

Nasturtium hortense crispum latifolium. Bavh. Prod. 44. 167 1. 

Nasturtium hortense crispum angustifolium. BatA. 43. 1671. 

Nasturtium crispum. Chabr. 289. 1677. 

Curled Cress. Ray 825. 1686; Townsend 1726; Stevenson 34. 1765; Bryant 103. 

1783; McMahon 1806; Mill. Did. 1807. 
Lepidium sativum crispum. Linn. Sp. 899. 1763. 
Cresson frise. L'Hort. Franc. 1824; Petit Diet. 1826. 
Cresson alenois f rise. Vilm. 195. 1883. 
Curled, or Normandy, and Extra-Curled Dwarf. Vilm. 207. 1885. 

Broad-Leaved Cress. 

Nasturtium. Cam. Epit. 335. 1586. 

Nasturtium hortense latifolium. Bauh. Phytopin 160. 1596; Pin. 103. 1623. 

Nasturtium latifolium dioscorideum. Bauh., J. 2:913. 1651. 

Nasturtium latifolium. Chabr. 289. 1677. 

Broad-Leaved Garden Cress. Ray 825. 1686; Vilm. 207. 1885. 

Broad-Leaved. Townsend 1726; Stevenson 34. 1765; Mawe 1778; McMahon 1806; 

Mill. Diet. 1807. 
Lepidium latifolium. Linn. Sp. 899. 1763. 
Cresson a larges feuilles. L'Hort. Franc. 1824; Petit 1826. 
Cresson alenois d, large feuille. Vilm. 195. 1893. 



Golden Cress. 

Cresson dorS. Petit 1826; Noisette 1829. 

Golden. Hort. Trans. 6: sSt,. 182616111x343. 1863; Vilm. 208. 1885. 

Cresson aUnois dor6. Vilm. 195. 1883. 

It appears as if the types of the modem varieties have not changed through culture, 
as three are quite ancient, and the fourth is but an ordinary variation of a pale yellowish- 
green color. Curled cress seems to have been first observed by J. Bauhin, who furnished 
his brother, C. Bauhin, with seed preceding 1596. 

Leptadenia lancifolia Decne. Asclepiadeae. 

Tropical Africa. The natives of the Upper Nile make spinach of its flowers and 
tender shoots.' 

Leptospermum pubescens Lam. Myrtaceae. tea tree. 

Tasmania and southeastern Australia. The leaves were used by the early settlers 
as a tea substitute.^ 

L. scoparium Forst. tea tree. 

Australia. The leaves were used by Captain Cook in his second voyage as a tea and 
are reported as furnishing a beverage of a very agreeable, bitter flavor, when the leaves 
were fresh.' 

Leucaena esculenta Benth. Leguminosae. 

Mexico. According to Don,^ this is the guaxe of Mexico, the legumes of which are 
eaten by the Mexicans. 

Leucopogon fraseri A. Cunn. Epacrideae. otago heath. 

Australia. A plant whose sweetish, orange-like drupe is edible. 

L. richei R. Br. Australian currants. 

Australia. The berries are said to have supported the French naturalist Riche, who 
was lost for three days on the south coast of New Holland." 

Levisticum officinale Koch. Umbelliferae. lovage. 

Europe. Lovage grows wild in the south of Eiirope and is cultivated in gardens. 
McMahon, 1806,' includes it in his list of kitchen garden, aromatic, pot and sweet herbs, 
and in 1832 Bridgeman ' includes it among garden medicinal herbs. It is now used in ' 
eclectic medicine. At the present day, says Vilmorin,' lovage is almost exclusively used 

Speke, J. H. Journ. Disc. Source Nile 575. 1864. 

Smith, A. Treas. Bot. 2:674. 1870. {L. lanigerum) 

'Andrews Bot. Reposit. 10:622. 1797. 

Don, G. Hist. DicU. Ph. 2:421. 1832. {Acacia esculenta) 

Balfour, J. H. Treaj. Bo/. 1:453. 1870. 

McMahon, B. Amer. Card. Cal. 563. 1806. 

' Bridgeman Young Card. Asst. 107. 1857. 

'Vilmorin Feg. Gord. 316. 1885. 


in the manufacture of confectionery. Formerly the leafstalks and bottoms of the stems 
were eaten, blanched like celery. The whole plant has a strong, sweetish, aromatic odor 
and a warm, pungent taste and is probably grown now in America, as in 1806, rather as 
a medicinal than as a cxilinary herb. Lovage appears to have been known to Ruellius,' 
1536, who calls it Levisticum officinarum, and was seen in gardens by Chabraeus,^ 1677. 

Lewisia rediviva Pursh. Portulaceae. butter-root, spatlum. 

Unwooded portions of the interior of Oregon and northern California. The root is 
boiled and eaten by Indian tribes.' The Indians of California call it spatlum. The root 
is large and fusiform, the outer portion of a dingy color, the inner white and farinaceous. 
It is considered highly nutritious.* 

Licania incana Aubl. Rosaceae. 

Guiana. The fruit is the size of a large olive and is dotted with red; the pulp is white; 
melting, and of a sweetish taste; the shell, or nut, is bony.* 

Lichtensteinia pyrethrifolia Cham. & Schlecht. Umhelliferae. 

South Africa. An intoxicating liquor called gli is prepared from this plant by the 

Ligusticum scoticum Linn. Umbellijerae. scotch lovage. 

Subarctic seashores; from Rhode Island, northward, says Gray.' This plant is 
frequent in the outer Hebrides where it is called shunts and is sometimes eaten raw as a 
salad, or boiled as greens,' or the root is chewed as a substitute for tobacco when tobacco 
is scarce.' It is sometimes used as a potherb in Britain.*" In northwest America, the 
green stem is peeled and eaten by the Indians.'* The root is acrid but aromatic. 

Lilium auratum Lindl. Liliaceae. golden-banded lily. 

Japan. In Japan, the bulbs are a common article of diet with the natives and are 
sold everywhere as a vegetable in the market. When cook'ed, they are sweet, mucilaginous 
and without any decided taste to make them objectionable to a newcomer.'^ 

L. bulbiferum Linn, bulb-bearing lily. 

This lily is enumerated by Thunberg " among the edible plants of Japan. D. P. 

' Ruellius Nat. Stirp. 698. 1536. 
' Chabraeus Icon. Sciag. 401. 1677. 
' Pickering, C. Chron. His. P'.s. 604. 1879. 
*U. S. D. A. Rpt. 407. 1870. 

^ Martyn Miller Card. Diet. 1807. (Hedycrea incana) 
' Treas. Bot. 1:534. 1 870. 
'Gray, A. Man. Bot. \^\. 1868. 
Lightfoot, J. Fl. Scot. 1:160. 1789. 
Journ. Agr. 2:379. 1831. 
' Dickie, G. Treas. Bot. 2:681. 1870. 
" Brown, R. Bot. Soc. Edinb. 9:385. 1868. 
'Mmer. Card. 74. 1882. 
"Thunberg F/. Zap. 134. 1784. 

336 STURTEV ant's notes on edible plants 

Penhallow,' who lived several years in Yeso, says that lilies are frequently cultivated 
there for bulbs, which are sold as a vegetable food in the markets and are very fair eating, 
being sweet and mealy and resembling a potato. In China, this lily is called shan-ian; 
the bulbs are eaten, and the flowers are served as a relish with meat.' 

L. canadense Linn, yellow lily. 

North America. The roots are eaten by the Indians of the Northwest.' 

L. concolor Salisb. star lily. 

China. This lily is cultivated in Japan as a food plant. ^ 

L. japonicum Thunb. Japanese lily. 

Japan. Miss Bird ' found the bulbs of the " white lily," perhaps this species, culti- 
vated and eaten as a vegetable. 

L. lancifolium Thunb. 

Japan. This .species is cultivated in Japan as a food plant.* 

L. martagon Linn, turban lily, turk's cap. 

Southern Europe. The bulbs are said by Pallas ' to be eaten by the Cossacks along 
the Volga. 

L. pomponium Linn, turban lily. 

Eastern Asia. This lily is called by the Tartars askchep, and the roots are collected 
for food.' These bulbs constitute an important article of food in Kamchatka ' and are 
eaten in China.'" 

L. speciosum Thunb. showy lily. 

Japan. This species is cultivated as a food plant in Japan." 

L. superbum Linn, turk's cap. 

North America. Thoreau " says the bulb is eaten by the Indians of Maine in soups 
and is dug in the autumn for this purpose. 

L. tigrinum Ker.-Gawl. tiger lily. 

China and Japan. Royle '' says the bulbs are eaten in China. D. P. Penhallow 
says that this species is cultivated in Yeso for the bulbs, which are sold in the markets 

1 Penhallow, D. P. Amer. Nat. i6:iig. 1882. 

'Smith, P.P. Contrib. Mat. Med. China IM- 1871. 

Brown, R. Bot. Soc. Edinb. 9:380. 1868. 

*Georgeson Amer. Card. 212. 1892. 

'Bird Unbeat. Tracks Jap. 1:238. 188 1. 

Georgeson Amer. Card. 212. 1892. 

'Royle, J. F. lUustr. Bot. Himal. 1:388. 1839. 

Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Ph. 793. 1879. 

Henfrey, A. Bot. 377. 1870. 
"Royle, J. F. lUustr. Bot. Himal. 1:38$. 1839. 
"Georgeson /Imer. Gord. 212. 1892. 
" Thoreau Me. Woods 248, 249. 1877. 
"Royle, J. F. lUustr. Bot. Himal. 1:388. 1839. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 337 

and are very good eating. Miss Bird ' also speaks of its cultivation as a vegetable in 
northern Japan. 

Limacia scandens Lour. Menispermaceae. 

Forests of Cochin China. The drupes are small, smooth, add and esculent.* 

Limnanthemum crenatum F. Muell. Gentianeae. 

Australia. The small, round tubers are roasted for food.* 

L. nymphoides Hoffmgg. & Link. 

Europe and northern Asia. This water plant, with its yellow flowers and roiind 
leaves, was formerly eaten in China in spite of its bitterness.* 

Linaria cymbalaria Mill. Scrophularineae. kenilworth ivy. pennywort. 

Europe. This plant is eaten in southern Europe, says Johnson,' as a salad and is 
a good antiscorbutic. Its taste is not unlike that of cress. 

Lindera benzoin Meissn. Laurineae. benjamin bush, spice bush. 

North America. Barton ' says the berries partake of the same spicy flavor as the bark 
and that, dviring the War of the Revolution, the people of the United States used them 
dried and powdered as a substitute for allspice. Porcher ' says the leaves were much 
used by the Confederate soldiers for making a pleasant, aromatic tea. L. S. Mote ' says 
the yovmg twigs and leaves were often used by the early pioneers of Ohio as a substitute 
for tea and spice. 

Linum usitatissimum Linn. Lineae. flax. 

Etu^ope and the Orient. Flax has been in cultivation since the earliest times. It 
was known to the early Egyptians, as it is mentioned frequently in the Bible as a material 
for weaving cloth. The cloth used in wrapping mummies has been proved to be made 
of the fibers of this plant. Flax was also cultivated by the early Romans. Among the 
Greeks, Alcman, in the seventh century before Christ, the historian Thucydides, and 
among the Romans, Pliny, mention the seed as employed for human food, and the roasted 
seed is still eaten by the Abyssinians.' In the environs of Bombay, the unripe capsules 
are lased as a food by the natives. In Russia, Belgiimi, Holland, Prussia and the north 
of Ireland, flax is extensively grown for its fiber which constitutes the linen of commerce. 
The seeds, known as linseed, are largely used for expressing an oil, and the press-residue 
is used for feeding cattle. This plant is largely grown for seed in the United States. We 

'Bird Unheal. Tracks Jap. 1:175. 1881. 

Loureiro Fl. Cochin. 621. 1790. 

Palmer, E. Journ. Roy. Soc. New So. Wales 17:100. 
*Smith, F. P. Contrib. Mat. Med. China 135. 1871. 
'Johnson, C. P. Useful Pis. Ct. Brit. 197. 1862. 

Barton, W. P. C. Med. Bot. 2:95. 1818. 

' Porcher, F. P. Res. So. Fields, Forest 393. 1869. 

Case Bot. Index 83. 1880. 

' Fluckiger and Hanbury Pharm. 97. 1879. 

338 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

find mention of the culture of flax in Russia about 969 A. D. Flax is said to have been 
introduced into Ireland by the Romans, or even more remotely, by the Phoenicians, but 
the earliest definite mention of linen in Ireland seems to be about 500 A. D. In England, 
the statement is made that it was introduced in 1175 A. D., and Anderson, in his History 
of Commerce, traces some fine linen made in England in 1253. In New England, the 
growing of flax commenced with its first settlement, and as early as 1640 it received legis- 
lative attention. 

Lippia pseudo-thea Schau. Verbenaceae. 

Brazil. In Brazil, an infusion of the leaves is highly esteemed as a tea substitute, 
under the name of capitao do matto.^ Lindley ^ saj^ the leaves form an agreealbe tea. 

Liriodendron tulipifera Linn. Magnoliaceae. poplar, tulip tree, whitewood. 

Eastern North America. The root is used to prepare an agreeable liquor. The 
Canadians use the root to correct the bitterness of spruce beer and to give it a lemon 

Lissanthe montana R. Br. Epacrideae. 

Australia. The large, white, transparent, fleshy fruits are eaten.* 

L. sapida R. Br. Australian cranberry. 

Australia. The berries are red and acid and are made into tarts in New South Wales.* 
A. Smith ' says the flesh is thin and more like that of the Siberian crab than of the 

L. strigosa R. Br. 

Australia. The fruit is eaten.^ 

Litobrochia sinuata Brack. Filices. royal fern. 

Seemann ' says the leaves of this fern are used as a potherb by the natives of Viti. 

Livistona australis Mart. Palmae. cabbage palm, gippsland palm. 

Australia. The yoimg and tender leaves of this palm are eaten like cabbages.' 

Lobelia sp.? Campanulaceae. lobelia. 

The roots of one species are said by Thunberg "to be eaten by the Hottentots. It 
is called karup. 

' Archer, T. C. Profit. Pis. 126. 1865. (Lantana psuedo-thea) 
'Lindley, J. Veg. King. 663. 1846. (Lantana pseudo-thea) 
Baillon, H. Hist. Pis. 1:177. i87i- 
< Smith, A. Treoj. So/. 2:688. 1870. 
' Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 3:776. 1834. 
Smith, A. Treas. Bo/. 2:688. 1870. 
' Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 3:776. 1834. 
Seemann, B. Fl. Viti. 350. 1865^73. 
' Smith, A. Treas. Bot. 2: 6go. 1870. 
'"Thunberg Trail. 2:150. 1796. 


Lodoicea calUpyge Comm. Palmae. coco de mer. double cocoanut. 

Seychelles Islands. The heart of the leaves is eaten and is often preserved in vinegar. 
The fniit is the largest any tree produces, sometimes weighing 40 or 50 pounds, with a 
length of 18 inches and a circumference of 3 feet. The immature fruit affords a sweet 
and melting aliment.' Brandis ^ says the fruit takes several years to come to inaturity. 

Lonicera angustifolia Wall. Caprifoliaceae. narrow-leaved honeysuckle. 

HimalJfyan region. The sweet berry, of the size of a pea, is eaten in India.' 

L. ciliata Muhl. fly honeysuckle. 

Western North America. In Oregon and California, the fruit is much used by the 
Indians and is considered good by white hunters.* 

L. involucrata Banks. 

Western North America. The fruit is eaten by the Indians of Oregon and Alaska.* 

Lophophjrtum sp.? Balanophoreae. 

Masters says one species is eaten in Bolivia.' 

Loranthus exocarpi Behr. Loranthaceae. 

Australia. The fruit is an oblong drupe about one-half inch in length. It is sweet 
and is eaten raw.^ 

Loreya arborescens DC. Melastomaceae. 

Guiana. This species furnishes gooseberry-like fruits of little value, according to 

Lotus edulis Linn. Leguminosae. bird's-foot trefoil. 

Mediterranean countries. In Crete, the pods aie eaten when young as a string bean 
by the poorer inhabitants.' 

L. gebelia Vent. 

Orient. The pods are eaten as a string bean about Aleppo.'* 

L. tetragonolobus Linn, winged pea. 

Mediterranean region. In France, according to Robinson," this pea is activated as 
a vegetable. The pods were formerly employed, says Johns,'* as an esculent by the poor 

' Seemann, B. Pop. Hist. Palms 244. 1856. 
'Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 545. 1876. 

Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 255. 1874. 
*U. S. D.A. Rpt. 414. 1870. 

Masters, M. T. Treas. Bot. 2:(>i)5. 1870. 

' Palmer, E. Journ. Roy. Soc. New So. Wales 17:100. 1884. 

' Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 351. 1859. (Melastoma arborescens) 

Don, G. Hist. DicM. Pis. 2:195. 1832. 
"Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 2:197. 1832. 
"Robinson Parks, Card. Paris 504. 1878. 
"Johns, C. A. Treas. Bot. 2:113$. 1870. 

340 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

of Sicily and Spain. The green pods, says Mueller,' serve as a substitute for asparagus. 
This plant is yet in French gardens for use as a string bean ' but apparently is not in much 
request. In 1726, Townsend' an English seedsman, says, "I put them here, because 
some people eat 'em when they are very young; but in my mind they are not good." In 
1785, Bryant * reports this pea as in disuse except in some of the northern counties of 
England. Clusius ' first saw the plant in a druggist's garden, in 1579, called pisum rubrum. 
In 1588, Camerarius ' speaks of this pea in his Horticulture under the name pisum rubrum. 
The winged pea was first seen by J. Bauhin " in 1594. Ray * describes it in 1686 but 
gives no indication of cultivation or use. Parkinson,* 1629, calls it pisum quadratum 
and it is mentioned in the second edition of Gerarde, 1638. recorded in American 
Gardens by Burr, 1863. 

Lucuma bifera Molina. Sapotaceae. sapota. 

Chile. This tree is cultivated in Chile. It bears ivncs a year, early in simmier and 
in autimin, but the autumnal fruit alone produces kernels; these axi two and have the 
appearance of chestnuts. The fruit is round and a little sloped. By keeping the fruits 
some time in straw, they become ameliorated and acquire that pleasant taste which ren- 
ders them so much esteemed.'" 

L. caimito Roem. 

Peru. The tree is cultivated in Peru. This fruit is about three inches long with a 
soft and agreeable pulp." 

L. mammosa Gaertn. f. mammee. marmalade tree, sapota. 

West Indies and South America. In the West Indies, this tree is cultivated for its 
fruit. The fruit is four or five inches in diameter and is covered with a rough, russet- 
colored bark; the pulp is dark yellowish, soft, sweet, tasting not unlike a very ripe pear. 
It makes an excellent marmalade but, eaten raw, has an aperient quality.'* 

L. obovata H. B. & K. lucuma. 

"Western Peru. The fruit is solid in consistence and so richly flavored that a small 
quantity siiffices. It is sold in the markets at Lima.'' Garcilasso de la Vega '* says, 
" another fruit is called by the Indians of Peru, rucma; by the Spaniards, lucuma. It 

'Mueller, F. Sel. Pis. 121. 1876. 
'VilmorinLei Pis. Potag. 322. 1883. 

Townsend Seedsman 7. 1726. 

Bryant Fl. Diet. 302. 1783. 
'Clusius ffij/. 2:244. 1601. 
Camerarius i7or/. Afei. 91. 1588. Fig. 26. 
'Bauhin, J. Hist. PI. 2:$$?,. 1651. 
"RayHtV. PI. 966. 1686. 

Martyn Miller Card. Did. 1807. 
Molina Hist. Chili 1 : 1 29. 1 808. 

" Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 4:33. 1838. 
"Lunan, J. Hort. Jam. 1:480. 1814. 
" Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 662. 1879. 
"Vega Roy. Comment. Hakl. See. Ed. a:363. 1S71. 


is a tolerable frtut, not delicate nor pleasant, though sweet rather than sour, and not 
known to be unwholesome, but it is coarse food. It is about the size and shape of an 
orange and has a kernel in the center very like a chestnut in color and size but not good 
to eat, being bitter." 

L. serpentaria H. B. & K. 

Cuba. This is a doubtful species foimd in Cuba; the fruit is edible.' 

L. turbinati Molina. 

Chile. This species is cidtivated in Chile. The fruit has the form of a whipping-top. 
By keeping in straw, it ripens into a much-esteemed fruit.^ 

Luffa acutangula Roxb. Cucurbitaceae. strainer vine. 

Old World tropics. This plant is cultivated in India for food purposes and is said 
by Drury ' to be one of the best of the native vegetables and to be much used in curries. 
Roxburgh says that, when the fruit is boiled and dressed with butter, pepper and salt, 
it is little inferior to green peas. This club-shaped gourd, about 10 or 12 inches long, is 
eaten boiled or pickled, but the taste is insipid, says Don.* This is the papefigaye of 
the negroes of Africa, says Oliver,' and presents bitter and poisonous, as well as edible 

L. aegjrptiaca Mill, bonnet gourd, dish-cloth gourd, loop. 

Old World tropics. This species is ctiltivated for its fruit throughout tropical Africa.' 
It is the sooly-qua of the Chinese, a club-shaped, wrinkled gotird, said to be eaten. It 
is cultivated for food purposes in India, where it is called ghia.'' It is considered by the 
natives of Burma a delicious vegetable.' The interior, netted fibers, under the name 
loof, are used in Turkish baths for fleshrubbers. The plant is grown as a curiosity in 
American gardens. 

Lunaria annua Linn. Crucijerae. bolbonac. honesty, penny flower. 

Europe. " The seed of the bolbonac is a temperature hot and dry and sharpe of 
taste and is like in taste and force to the seed of treacle mustard, the roots likewise are 
somewhat of a biting quality but not much: they are eaten with sallads as certain other 
roots are." ' 

Lupinus albus Linn. Leguminosae. field lupine, wolf-bean. 

Mediterranean region. This plant has been cultivated since the days of the ancient 
Egyptians. It was cultivated by the Romans as a legtmie but does not seem to have 

'Don, G. Hisl. DiM. Pis. 4:34. 1838. 

* Molina. Hisl. Chili i:i2g. 1808. 

' Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 41$. 1879. 

* Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 3:29. 1834. 
'Oliver, D. Fl. Trap. Afr. 2:530. 1871. 

* Ibid. 

'Royle, J. F. Illuslr. Bol. Himal. 1:218. 1S39. 

' Pickering, C. Chron. Hisl. Pis. 818. 1879. {L. pentandra) 

' Gerarde, J. Herb. 465. 1633. 


entered the Rhine regions until the sixteenth century. Theophrastus speaks of lupine 
-in his History of Plants and it is also mentioned by Cato, Columella and Pliny. It is 
now extensively cultivated in Sicily, Italy and some other countries as a plant for green 
manuring and for the seeds, which, when boiled to remove their bitterness, are still an 
article of food in some regions.' In 1854, seeds were distributed from the United States 
Patent Office.^ 

L. hirsutus Linn, blue lupine. 

Mediterranean regions. This plant was cultivated by the Greeks under the name 
thermos and serves now as food for the poorer classes of people, as it did the Cynics. The 
Mainots, at the present day, bake bread from the seeds. It now grows wild throughout 
the whole of the Mediterranean region from Portugal and Algiers to the Greek islands 
and Constantinople.' 

L. littoralis Dougl. . S 

Northwest America. The tough, branching roots are used by the Columbia River 
Indians as winter food, being dried. When eaten they are roasted and become farinaceous. 
Tytler * says these are the licorice spoken of by Lewis and Clarke. The native name is 

L. luteus Linn, yellow lupine. 

Mediterranean region. The seeds of this plant constitute a nutritious article of 
food for man. It is cultivated in Italy.' 

L. peretinis Linn, wild lupine. 

Eastern North America. Unger* says its bitter seeds are eaten from Canada to 

L. termis Forsk. 

East Mediterranean coimtries. This plant is cultivated in Italy and in Egypt for 
its seeds, which are cooked in salt water and shelled. The peduncles, after being pickled, 
are eaten without cooking.'. 

Lycium europaetun Linn. Solanaceae. box thorn. 

Mediterranean regions and the Orient. This thorny shrub is used as a hedge plant 
in Tuscany and Spain, and the young shoots are employed as a vegetable.' The globose 
berry, yellow or red and one-sixth of an inch in diameter, is sweet and without flavor but 
is eaten in India.' 

Treas. Bot. 2:699. 1870. 

U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. XV. 1854. 

> Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 316. 1859. 

* Tytler Prog. Disc. No. Coast Amer. 318. 1833. 
'Burr, P. Field, Card. Veg. 515. 1863. 

Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 316. 1859. 
' Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 2:365. 1832. 
' Treas. Bot. 2:701. 1870. 

> Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 345. 1876. 


L. ruthenictun Murr. Russian box thorn. 

Orient. The small, sweet and flavorless berry is eaten in India.' 

Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. Solanaceae. gold apple, love apple, tomato. 

Tropical America. Bancroft ^ states the tomato was eaten by the wild tribes of 
Mexico and by the Nahua nations who called it tomati. Humboldt ' says it was called 
tomati and was sown among maize by the ancient Mexicans. The tomato is mentioned 
by Acosta/ 1590, as among the products of Mexico. The names, mala Peruviana and 
pomi del Peru, indicate its transference to Europe from Peru, but Phillips,^ we know not 
from what authority, say-s the tomato appears to have been brought to Europe from 
Mexico. In the Treasury of Botany,^ it is said to have been introduced to Europe in the 
early part of the sixteenth centviry. 

The earliest mention of tomatoes is by Matthiolus,^ iS54, who calls them pomi d'oro 
and says they have but recently appeared in Italy. In 1570, Pena and Lobel ' give the 
name gold apple in the German, Belgian, French and English languages, which indicates 
their presence in those countries at this date. In 1578, Lyte ' says they are only grown 
in England in the gardens of " Herboristes." Camerarius, in his Epitome, 1586,"' gives 
the French name of pommes d' amours, which corresponds to Lyte's amorous apples; and, 
in his Hortus Medicus, 1588," he gives the names of pomum Indium, and the foreign name 
of tumatle ex tumatle americanorum. Anguillara, 1561, calls them poma Peruviana.^'' In 
Hernandez's History of Nova Hispania, 1651, he has a chapter on the tomati, which includes 
our tomatoes and alkekengis; in 1658, the Portuguese of Java used the word tomatas?^ 
Acosta,'* however, preceding 1604, used the word tomates, and Sloane,'* in 1695, tomato. 
Gerarde says he received seeds of the tomato for his garden from Spain, Italy and other 
hot countries. The date of its appearance in England is hence put for 1596. Gerarde" 
says (in his second edition) that these love apples are eaten abroad prepared and boiled 
with pepper, salt and oil and also as a sauce, but " they yield very little nourishment to 
the bodie, and the same naught and corrupt." C. Bauhin in his Pinax, 1596, calls the 
plant tumatle Americanorum. In 1656, Parkinson *^ mentions the tomato as being culti- 

1 Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 345. 1876. 

' Bancroft, H. H. Native Races 1:624, 653, 1875. 

Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 615. 1879. 

Acosta Nat. Mor. Hist. Ind. Hakl. Sex:. Ed. 1:240. 1880. 
' Phillips, H. Comp. Orch. 225. 1831. 

Treas. Bot. 2:701. 1870. 

' Matthiolus Cofmn<. 479. 15581684. 1570. 
Pena and Lobel ^diieri. 108. 1570:108. 1576. 
Dodoens Herb. 508. 1578. Lyte Ed. 
' Camerarius /n7. 82 1 . 1586. 
" Camerarius Hort. Med. 130. 1588. 
"Gray, A. Amer. Journ. Set. 128. 1883. 
"Bontius De /mi. 131. 1658. 

" Acosta Nat. Mor. Hist. Ind. 266. 1604. Hakl. Soc. Ed. 1880. 
" Sloane, H. Cat. 109. 1696. 
" Gerarde, J. Herb, ist Ed. 275. 1597. 
" Parkinson Par. Terr. 379. 1904. (Reprint of 1629) 

344 STURTEV ant's notes on edible plants 

vated in England for ornament and curiosity only; while Miller,* 1752, says they were 
much used in soups in his time. In 181 2, they were an article of field culture in Italy, 
especially in Sicily, whence they were sent to Naples and Rome, being extensively used 
in Italian cookery. 

As Thunberg ^ does not mention the tomato in Japan in 1776, we may assume that 
it had not reached the Japanese at that date. Rumphius,' 1755, gives the name as tomatte 
as used by the Malays, which shows it had reached the Eastern Archipelago before this 
time. In 1840, Wilkes * foimd a distinct variety cultivated in Fiji, of a yellow color and 
about the size of a small egg. The tomato was even found wild in interior Africa by 
Grant,' about i860, but the natives had not learned the use of the fruit and were surprised 
at his eating it. Long,' 1774, describes the tomato of Jamaica as very large, compressed 
at both ends, deeply furrowed all over the sides, filled with a pulpy juice, which has some- 
what the taste of gravy, for which reason they are often used in soups and sauces and 
impart a very grateful flavor; they are likewise fried and served with eggs. 

D. J. Brown ' says that, until about 1834, the tomato was almost wholly imknown 
in this country as an esculent vegetable, and in the History of the Massachusetts Horticul- 
tural Society * it is said that in 1844 this vegetable was then acquiring that popularity 
which makes it so indispensable at present. Yet they are mentioned as grown in Virginia 
by Jefferson ' in 1781. In 1798, according to a writer in the Prairie Farmer, the tomato 
was brought to Philadelphia by a French refugee from Santo Domingo but was not sold 
in the markets until 1829. In 1802, it was introduced at Salem, Massachusetts, by an 
Italian painter, but he found it difficult to persuade people even to taste the fruit. In 1835, 
tomatoes were sold by the dozen at Quincy Market, Boston. In 181 2, they were use in as 
a food at New Orleans, Louisiana.'" In 1806, McMahon " speaks of tomatoes as being in 
much estimation for culinary purposes but mentions no varieties. In 1818, Gardiner and 
Hepburn say that tomatoes make excellent pickles. In 1828, Fessenden " quotes the name 
from Loudon only. In 1832, Bridgeman " says tomatoes are much cidtivated for soups 
and sauces. 

Thorburn*^ gives directions for their cultivation in his Gardeners' Kalendar for 181 7, 
offers but one variety in his seed catalog of 1828, but offers 3 1 varieties in 1881. T. S. Gold," 

' Martyn Miller Card. Diet. 1807. 

'Loudon, J. C. Enc. Agr. 57. 1812. 

' De CandpUe, A. Geog. Bot. 2:<)i. 1855. 

< Wilkes, C. U. S. Explor. Exped. 3:335. 1845. 

' Speke, J. H. Journ. Disc. Source Nile 576. 1864. 

Long, E. Hist. Jam. 3:tj3. 1774. 

' Brown, D. J. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 384. 1854. 

'Hist. Mass. Hort. Soc. 269. 1880. 

Jefferson Notes Va. Trenton 55. 1803. 
1 Hist. Mass. Hort. Soc. 40. 1880. 
" McMahon, B. Amer. Gard. Cal. 200. 1806. 
"Fessenden New Amer. Gard. 2gi. 1828. (Solanum lycopersicum) 
"Bridgema.n Young Gard. A sst. loi. 1857. (Solanum lycopersicum) 
ThoThum Gard. Kal. 181 7. 
" Gold. T. S. Letter. Apr. 29, 1880. 


Secretary of the Connecticut Board of Agrictiltiire, writes: " we raised our first 
tomatoes about 1832 as a curiosity, made no use of them though we had heard that the 
French ate them. They were called love apples." The editor of the Maine Farmer ^ 
1835, says tomatoes are cultivated in gardens in Maine, and are " a useful article of diet 
and should be found on every man's table." The New York Farmer ^ of this year has 
the statement of a correspondent that he had " planted a large quantity of tomatoes," 
and a Professor Bennett ' in 1835, in a course of local lectures in the West, refers to the 
tomato, or Jerusalem apple, as found in abundance in the markets of the West and recom- 
mends their dietetic use. 

The ribbed tomato, with flattened and more or less ribbed fruit, is the kind first 
introduced into European culture and is described in the Adversaria of 1570, as well as 
by many succeeding authors, and the earlier figures indicate that it has changed but little 
imder culture and was early known as now in red, golden, yellow, and white varieties. 
A parti-colored fruit is mentioned by J. Bauhin, 1651, and the type of the bronze-leaved 
is named by Blackwell, 1770. This ribbed type was probably the kind mentioned by 
Jefferson * as cultivated in Virginia in 1 781, as it was the kind whose introduction into gen- 
eral culture is noted from 1806 to about 1830, when their growing was becoming general. 

It has the following synonymy, gained from figures : 


Synonymy of the Ribbed Tomato. 

Poma amoris, an Glaucium. Diosc. Lob. Obs. 140. 1576. 

Poma amoris. Lyte's Dad. 440. 1578; Cam. Epit. 821. 1586; Ger. 275. 1597; 

Sweert. 2:20. 1654. 
Poma aurea. Dalechamp 628. 1587. 
Poma amoris, pomum aureum. Lob. /cow. 1:270. 1591. 
Solanum pomiferum, fructu rotunda, molli. Matth. Op. 761. 1598. 
Poma amoris Jructu luteo et rubro. Hort. Eyst. 1613; 1713. 
Aurea mala. Dod. 458. 1616; 455. 1583. 
Pomi d'oro. Dur. C. 372. 1617. 
Poma amoris. Park. Par. 381. 1629. 
Amoris pomum. Blackw. 133. 1750. 
Mala aurea. Chabr. 525. 1677; Bauh., J. 3:620. 1650. 
Solanum pomiferum. Mor. Hist. s. 13, t. i, f. 7. 1699. 
Lycopersicon galeni. Morandi8:53. 1744. 
Lycopersicon. Toum. 62. 17 19. 
Common Large Red. Mawe 1778. 
Morelle pomme d' amour. Descourt 6:95. 1827. 
Tomate rouge grosse. Vilm. 555. 1883. 
Large Red. Biur. 646. 1863. 

In form, these synonyms are substantially of one variety. The descriptions accom- 
panjang and others of the same date mention all the colors now found. In 17 19, Tourne- 

Me. Farm. Oct. 16, 1835. 

' N. Y. Farm. Sept. 11, 1835. 

Bennett, Dr. Me. Farm. Aug. 21, 1835. 
Jefferson Notes Va. 54. 1803. 

346 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

fort names a pale red, red, a yellow and a white variety in France, and Mawe, 1778, 
names but the common large red in England. In 1854, Brown describes but two varieties, 
the large red and the large yellow, for American gardens. 


The Round Tomato. 

Of the roimd tomato, there are no indications of its being known to the early botanists, 
the first apparent reference being by Toumefort in 1700,' who places among his varieties 
the Lycopersicum rubra non striata, the non striata, not fluted or ribbed, implying the roimd 
form; and this same variety was catalogued by Tilly ^ at Pisa in 1723. In 1842, some 
seed of the Fiji Island variety was distributed in Philadelphia, and Wilkes' describes 
the fruit of one variety as round, smooth, yellow, the size of a large peach, and the fnut 
of two other varieties as the size of a small egg, but gives no other particulars. This is 
the first certain reference to this group. The large, smooth or round, red and the small^ 
yellow, oval tomato of Browne,* 1854, may belong here. Here, also may be classed such 
varieties as Hathaway's Excelsior, King Humbert and the Plum, and some of the tamate 
pamme varieties of the French. 

The round form occasionally appears in the plants from seed of hybrid origin, for 
when the cross was made between the currant and the tree tomato, some plants thus 
obtained yielded fruit of the plimi type. This, however, may have been atavism. The 
botanical relations seem nearer to the cherry tomato than to the ordinary forms. 


Synonymy of the Cherry Tomato. 

The cherry tomato is recorded as growing spontaneously in Peru, in the West Indies,' 
Antilles,' southern Texas ' and New Jersey. There Avere red and yellow varieties in 
Europe as early as 1623 and these are mentioned in 1783 by Bryant * as if they were the 
only sorts in general culture in England at this time, but Mawe,' 1778, enimierates the 
large red, as also the red and yellow cherry, as imder garden culture. The following is its 
synonymy, mostly founded on description: 

Solanum racemosum cerasarum. Bauh. Pin. 167. 1623; Prad. 90. 1671. 

Solanum amoris minus S. mala aethiopica parva. Park. Par. 379. 1629. 

Cujus fructus plane similis erat, mxignitudine, figura, colore, Sirychnodendro. etc. 
Rechius Notes, Hemand, 296. 1651. 

Fructus est cersan instar (quoad magnitudine) . Hart. Reg. Bles. 310. 1669. 

Salanum pomiferum fructu rotunda, molli parva rubra plana. Ray 3:352. 1704. 

' Toumefort Inst. 150. 1719. 

' Tillus Cat. Horl. Pisa 106. 1723. 

'Wilkes, C. U. S. Explor. Exped. 3:335. 1845. 

< Browne U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 385. 1854. 

Sloane, H. Cat. 109. 1696. 

Descourtilz, M. E. Ft. Antitl. 5:279. 1821-29. 
'Gray, A. Synopt. Ft. 2:226. 1878. 

Bryant Ft. Diet. 1783. 

Mawe and Abercrombie Univ. Card. Bot. 1778. (Solanum lycopersicum) 


Lycopersicum fructu cerasi rubra. Toum. 150. 17 19. ' 

Lycopersicum frtictu cerasiluteo. Toiom. 150. 17 19. 

Solanum lycopersicum. Bryant 212. 1783. 

Cherry-fruited. Mawe 1778. 

Cherry. Mill. Diet. iSoj; Burr 649, 652. 1863. 

Morelle cerasiforme. Descourt. 5:279, 378. 1827. 

Lycopersicum cerasifolium. Noisette 1829. 

Cherry-shaped. Buist 1851. 

Tomate cerise. Vilm. 559. 1883. 

This type is probably the normal form of the tomato of the gardens to which the 
other types given can be referred as varieties. It is qtiite variable in some respects, bear- 
ing its fruit usually in clusters, occasionally in racemes. It is now but little grown and 
only for use in preserves and pickles. 

The Pear Tomato. 

The pear tomato, which is to be classed as one of the fancy varieties under cultiva- 
tion, occurs with both yellow, red, and pale yellow or whitish fruit. It was described 
by Dunal in 1813, and in Persoon's Synopsis in 1805.' It is mentioned in England in 
1 819, and both colors were mentioned in the United States by Salisbury,^ 1848. The 
pear tomato is used for garnishing and pickling. The common names are, pear-shaped 
and fig. 

L. hxunboldtii Dun. 

Brazil. This tomato is very like the preceding species, but the racemes of the flowers 
are smaller, the calyx segments never being the length of the corolla, and the berries are 
one-half smaller, red, and, when cultivated, not less angular than those of L. esculentum.^ 
This tomato was noticed by Himiboldt * as under cultivation at La Victoria, Neuva Valencia, 
and everywhere in the valleys of Arayus, in South America. It is described by Kunth,^ 
1823, and by Willdenow, about 1806, from plants in the Berlin garden from seeds received 
from Humboldt. The fruit, although small, has a fine flavor. The Turban, Turk's Cap, 
or Turk's Turban, of our seedsmen, a novelty of 1881, belongs here, although this culti- 
vated variety is probably a monstrous form. 

L. pimpinellifolium Mill, currant tomato. 

South America. The currant tomato bears its red fruit, somewhat larger than a com- 
mon currant, or as large as a very large ciurant, in two-ranked racemes, which are 
frequently quite large and abundantly filled. It grows wild in Peru and Brazil and is 
figured by Feuillee,' 1725, but not as a cultivated plant. It is described by Linnaeus,' 

' Dunal, M. F. Synop. Solan, no. 1816. 
'Salisbury Trans. N. Y. Agr. Soc. 371. 1848. 
Don, G. Hist. DicM. Pis. 4:443. 1838. 
< Humboldt, A. Trav. 2:20. 1889. 
'Salisbury Trans. N. Y. Agr. Soc. 371. 1848. 
Feuillee Peru 37, t. 25. 1725. 
' Linnaeus Sp. PI. 265. 1763. 

348 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

1763. *rhe grape, or cluster, tomato is recorded in American gardens by Burr,* 1863, 
and as the red currant tomato by Vilmorin,* 1883 and 1885. It is an exceedingly vigorous 
and hardy variety with delicate foliage and fruits most abundantly. The berries make 
excellent pickles. 

According to the test of cross-fertilization,- few, if any, of the above groups are true 
species. Two only, the cherry and the currant tomato, are recorded in a truly wild con- 
dition. The tomato has, however, been under cultivation from a remote period by the 
Nahua and other Central American nations and reached Europe and American culture, 
as all the evidence implies, in an improved condition. If there is any evidence that any 
of our so-called types arose spontaneously from the influences of culture, it is not noted. 
We may well ask, why did not other forms appear during the interval from 1558 to 1623, 
when but one sort, and that figured as little variable, received the notice of the early 
botanists? ^^ 

Maba buxifolia Pers. Ehenaceae. satinwood. 

Asia and African tropics. The fruit is edible, the taste sweetish and not unpalatable 
but it is scarcely worth the trouble of eating, the seed being so large in proportion to the 

M. inconstans Griseb. 

West Indies. The fruit, at first yellow, then red, is edible, with an imgrateful smell 
and an insipid taste. It is an inch in diameter.* 

M. major Forst. f. 

Fiji Islands and India. In India, the fruit is eaten.* 

Macadamia temifolia F. Muell. Proteaceae. nut tree. 

Subtropics of east Australia. The nuts have the taste of hazels.*. 

Madia sativa Molina. Compodtae. madia-oil plant. 

Western North and South America. This plant is ciiltivated in Chile, France, Germany 
and Italy for the sake of the limpid and sweet oil which is expressed from its seeds. This 
oil is used as a substitute for olive oil. The seeds yield about 41 per cent to analysis and 
from 26 to 28 per cent to the oil-press, according to Boussingault, whose experiment in 
1840 gave 635 pounds of oil and 1706 pounds of oil cake per acre. The plant is easily 
cultivated, requiring management similar to seed clover, but, owing to the glutinous nature 
of the stems and stalks, the seeds require to be threshed and sown as soon as the crop is 
cut, otherwise fermentation injures them.'' 

' Burr, F. Field, Card. Veg. 646. 1863. 

' Vilmorin Feg. Gard. 573. 1885. {Solatium racemiflorum) 

'Wight, R. Illustr. Ind. Bot. 2:146. 1850. 

Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 4:39. 1838. (Diospyros psidiodes) 

' Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 337. 1859. 

Mueller, F. Sel. Pis. 266. 1891. 

' Unger, F. U. S. D. A. Rpt. 175. 1870. 


Maerua crassifolia Forsk. Capparideae. 

Arabia. This is an arborescent shrub called in Yemen maeru. Its fruit is eaten 
by boys.' 

Maesa argentea Wall. Myrsineae. 

Himalayan region. The round, smooth, white berry, the size of a peppercorn, is eaten.^ 

M. indica Wall. 

East Indies and Malay. The very small, globose, white berry is eaten in Nepal. 
At Bombay it is called atki* 

Magnolia grandiflora Linn. Magnoliaceae. magnolia. 

Eastern North America. The flowers are pickled in some parts of Devonshire, 
England, and are considered exquisite in flavor.* 

M. yulan Desf. yulan. 

China. The Chinese pickle the flower-buds, after having removed the calyx, and use 
them for flavoring rice.' 

Maieta guianensis Aubl. Melastomaceae. 

Guiana. The fruit is succulent, edible and of a beautiful red color.' This plant 
furnishes gooseberry-like fruits of little value.' 

M. heterophyUa DC. 

Peru. The fruit is eaten.' 

M. poeppigii Mart. 

Peru. The fruit is eaten.' 

Malpighia angustifolia Linn. Malpighiaceae 
West Indies. The fruit is edible.i" 

M. aquifolia Linn. 

West Indies. The fruit is dark purple when ripe and is edible." 

M. berteriana Sprang. 

Guadeloupe. The fruit is edible.*^ 

1 Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 390. 1879. 
' Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 283. 1876. 

* Loudon, J. C. Hort.68g. i860. 

'Loudon, J. C. Arb. Frut. Brit. 1:280. 1854. (M. conspicua) 
AubletHii/. P/i. Giwone 1:443. 1775. 
'Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 351. 1859. 
Baillon, H. Hist. Pis. T-iZ. 1881. 


"Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 1:634. 1831. 
" Don, G. HUt. Dichl. Pis. 1:635. 1831. 


M. cnide Spreng. 

Santo Domingo. The fruit is edible.' 

M. coccigera Linn. 

West Indies. The fruit is small, purple in color when ripe and is edible.* 

M. emarginata Moc. & Sesse 

Mexico. The fruit is edible.' 
M. fucata Ker.-Gawl. 

Jamaica. The berries are edible.* 
M. glabra Linn. Barbados cherry. 

Tropical America. This tree is planted in most gardens in Jamaica and is cultivated 
for its fruit in tropical America. The fruit is round, red, of the bigness of a cherry, smooth 
skinned, and contains, within a reddish, sweetish, copiously juicy pulp, several triangular 
stones whose sides are so accommodated to one another as to seem to make one round one 
with sevtral furrows on the outside.' The fruit, says Schomburgk,' is much used in 
Barbados in preserves and tarts and the taste reminds one of the raspberry rather than 
the cherry. 
M. grandiflora Jacq. 

Martinique. The fruit is edible.T 
M. incana Mill. 

Honduras. The fruit is edible.* 
M. macrophylla Willd. 

Brazil The fruit is edible. 
M. nitida Crantz. 

Venezuela. The fruit is edible.'* 
M. obovata H. B. & K. 

New Granada. The fnait is edible." 
M. punicifolia Linn. 

Tropical America. The fruit is one of the size and shape of a cherry, very succulent, 
and of a pleasant, acid flavor, says Don.** Liman '* says it makes very agreeable tarts 
and excellent jellies. 

Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 1:634. 1831. 
? Ibid. 

Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 1:635. 1831- 

Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 1:634. 1831. 

' Sloane, H. Nat. Hist. Jam. 2:106. 1725. 

Lindley, J., and Paxton, J. Flow. Card, a: 18. 1852. 
' Don. G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 1:635. 1831. 


' Ibid. 

"Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 1:636. 1831. , 
"Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 1:635. '831. 
"Lunan, J. Hort. Jam. i:^g. 1814. 


M. saccharina G. Don. sugar plum. 

Tropical Africa. The fruit is sold in great quantities in the market of Freetown.' 

M. setosa Spreng. 

West Indies. The fruit is edible.* 

M. urens Linn, cow-itch cherry. 

West Indies. The fruit, says Don.' is insipid and is eaten only by children and 
negroes. % 

Malva rotundifolia Linn. Malvaceae, mallow. 

Etirope and neighboring Asia. In Egypt, especially upon the banks of the Nile, the 
mallow is extensively ciiltivated and is used as a potherb by the natives. This plant 
reached northeast America before 1669 and it is mentioned by Josselyn.'' It is now 
naturahzed in waste places and in cultivated grounds. The mallow was formerly among 
the culinary herbs ' but is used now only in infusion or decoction in medicine on account 
of its mucilaginous properties. Unger says Pythagoras thought much of this plant as 
a spinach and among the Greeks, as well as among the Romans, it was at one time much 
esteemed. Mallow and Asphodell were raised at Delos for the temple of Apollo, as a 
symbol of the first noitrishment of man. It was known to Camerarius,^ 1588, and was 
known only to Dodonaeus,' 161 6, as a cultivated plant. At the present day, the young 
shoots are used as a salad in southern France and Italy. 

M. sylvestris Linn, cheeses, high mallow, marsh mallow. 

Eiu-ope and temperate Asia. This mallow is sometimes cultivated in onr gardens ' 
and, on accoimt of its mucilaginous properties, finds use as a demulcent in medicine. It is 
a native of Europe and has become naturalized in this country. Johnson '" says the foliage, 
when boiled, forms a very wholesome vegetable, and the flat seeds are eaten by country 

M. verticillata Linn, curled Ihallow. 

Europe, Asia and northern Africa. This plant is used in China as a vegetable." 

Manunea americana Linn. Guttiferae. mammee apple, south American apricot. 

American tropics. This fine tree of the Antilles is cultivated for its fruit there, as 
well as in some parts of tropical Africa and Asia. The fruit often attains the size of a 
child's head and is of a yellow color. The outer rind and the pvilp which immediately 

'Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 1:635. 1831. 
'Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 1:634. 1831. 

'Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 348. 1879. 
*U. S. Disp.i5S2. 1865. 

Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 359. 1859. 
' Camerarius Hort. Med. 1588. 

Dodonaeus Pempt. 653. 1616. 
t/. 5. Z)w/). 1552. 1865. 

" Johnson, C. P. Useful Pis. Gt. Brit. $%. 1862. 
" Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 359. 1859. 


surrounds the seeds are very bitter, but the intermediate flesh is sweet and aromatic and 
"is eaten, cut into slices and steeped in wine or made into preserves of various kinds." 

Mammillaria fissurata Engelm. Cacteae. dry whiskey. 

Mexico. This plant is sometimes called dry whiskey from the fact that when chewed 
it produces more or less intoxication. 

M. meiacantha Engelm. 

Texas. The oblong, scarlet berries are very good to eat.* 

M. simplex Haw. 

Tropical America. Unger' says its berries are edible. This species yields a milky 
juice that is sweet and wholesome. 

M. vivipara Haw. 

Upper Louisiana. The flowers are large and red; the fruit is the size of a grape, green 
and edible. 

Mangifera foetida Lour. Anacardiaceae. horse mango. 

A tree of the Malayan Archipelago. The horse mango is cultivated by the Burmese, 
who esteem the fleshy, strong-scented fruit.* Don * says it is tmwholesome but is eaten 
by the Malays. 

M. indica Linn, mango. 

Tropical eastern Asia. The mango grows abimdantly in India, where many varieties 
are ciiltivated, and the fruit of some is esteemed as most delicious. In north and central 
India, says Brandis,* the fruit of imgrafted trees is generally stringy with a strong, tiu-pentine 
flavor. It, nevertheless, forms an important article of food for large classes of the popu- 
lation. The fruit of good grafts is excellent, soft, juicy and with a delicious, aromatic 
flavor. In Burma, the mango is not generally grafted, for seeds of a good kind, as a rule^ 
produce good frviit of a similar description. This seems to be the fruit seen by Friar 
Jordanus,^ about 1300, who calls it aniha. The mango was introduced to Jamaica in 1782.* 
In 1880, 21 frmtful and superior varieties were growing at the Botanical Gardens in Trini- 
dad.' At Cayenne, it did not exist before the beginning of the present century." Its 
introduction into Brazil was more ancient as the seeds came thence to Barbados in the 
middle of the eighteenth century." In Martinique, by grafting, a dozen very distinct 

* Treas. Bot. 2:714. 1870. 

'Havard, V. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 520. 1885. 
Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 333. 1859. 

* Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 445. 1879. 
'Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 2:64. 1832. 
Brandis. Forest Fl. 126. 1874. 

' Jordanus Fr. Wonders East. Hakl. Soc. Ed. 14. 1863. 

' Macfadyen 7a>. 1:221. 1837. 

' Prestoe Rpt. Bot. Card. Trinidad 32. 1880. Printed in 1881. 
" De CandoUe, A. Geog. Bot. 2:876. 1855. 
" De CandoUe, A. Orig. Cult. Pis. 202. 1885. 


varieties have been established, the qtiality of which, says Berlanger,' in respect to the 
abundance and flavor of the flesh, places them in the fh^t rank of tropical frtiits. In the 
Mauritius, they cultivate a number of varieties. This tree has been introduced into 
Florida and is now grown there to a limited extent. In Jamaica, starch is made of the 
unripe frmt.* In India, the unripe fruit is much used in conserves, tarts and pickles, 
and the kernels of the seeds are boiled and eaten in times of scarcity.* 

M. sylvatica Roxb. 

Himalayan region. The yellow fniit is eaten by the natives, although inferior to the 
worst kinds of the common mango.'' 

Manihot palmata Muell. Euphorbiaceae. sweet cassava. 

Brazil. This is the sweet cassava of eastern equatorial America, where it has been 
cultivated from early times. The roots of this variety are sweet and may be eaten raw 
but it is less cultivated than the bitter variety. It is cultivated in Queensland, according 
to Simmonds,* for the production of arrowroot. 

M. utilissima Pohl. bitter cassava, manioc, tapioca. 

Brazil. The manioc, or bitter cassava, of eastern equatorial South America was 
cultivated by the Indians of Brazil, Guiana and the warm parts of Mexico before the 
arrival of Europeans and is now grown in many tropical cotmtries. The root is bitter 
and a most virulent poison when raw but, when grated to a pulp and the poisonous juice 
expelled by pressvire, it becomes edible after being cooked. The coarse meal forms cassava. 
The expressed juice, allowed to settle, deposits a large quantity of starch which is known 
as Brazilian arrowroot, or tapioca. The boiled juice furnishes cassareep, a condimental 
sauce, and from the cakes an intoxicating beverage called ptwarrie is brewed by the 
Brazilians. The plant is extremely productive. In Brazil, some 46 different kinds are 
fotmd. Manioc was naturalized in the Antilles as early as the sixteenth centxiry, says 
linger,* although its joxomey around the world by way of the Isle of Bourbon and the 
East Indies took place at a comparatively late period. It reached the west coast of Africa 
earlier, and the erroneous opinion has been entertained that it was transplanted from 
Africa to America. In Africa, at Angola, Livingstone ' says the Portuguese subsist 
chiefly on manioc. It is prepared in many way^. The root is roasted or boiled as it 
comes from the ground; the sweet variety is eaten raw; the root may be fermented in 
water and then roasted or dried after fermentation; baked, or rasped into meal and 
cooked as farina; or made into confectionery with butter and sugar; and the green leaves 
are boiled as a spinach. Grant ' says it is the staple food of the Zanzibar people, where 
some kinds can be eaten raw, boiled, fried, roasted or in flour. In India, it is eaten as a 

' Berlanger Trans. N. Y. Agr. Soc. 18:567. 1858. 
'Brandis, D. Forest Fl. \2T . 1874. 
Masters, M. T. Treas. Bot. 2:716. 1870. 
*Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 2:64. 1832. 
* Simmonds, P. L. Trap. Agr. 34$. 1889. (M.jantpha) 
' Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 309. 1859. 
' Livingstone, D. Trav. Research So. A jr. 462. 1858. 
'Speke, J. H. Journ. Disc. Source Nile 581. 1864. 

354 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

staple food. In Burma, the root is boiled and eaten. In the Philippines, manioc is 
cultivated in many varieties. In 1847, a few dozen plants were introduced to this 
country and distributed from New York City, and in 1870 some were growing in con- 
servatories in Washington. The first mention of cassava is by Peter Martyr ' who 
says " iucca is a roote, whereof the best and most delicate bread is made, both in the 
firme land of these regions and also in Ilandes." In 1497, Americus Vespucius, speak- 
ing of the Indians of South America, says, " their most common food is a certain root 
which they grind into a kind of flour of no unpalatable taste and this root is by some 
of them called jucha, by others chambi, and by others igname." 

Maranta arundinacea Linn. Scitamineae. arrowroot. 

South America. This is the true arrowroot plant of the West Indies, Florida, Mexico 
and Brazil.' It furnishes Cape Colony and Natal arrowroot and Queensland arrowroot 
in part. It is also ciiltivated in India, where it was introduced about 1840.' In 1849, 
arrowroot was grown on an experimental scale in Mississippi, and in 1858 it was grown as 
a staple crop at St. Marys, Georgia. The plant is stated to have been carried from the 
island of Dominica to Barbados and thence to Jamaica.'' The starch made from the 
root is mentioned by Hughes,' 1751, and the mode of preparing it is described by Browne," 
1789. The Bermuda arrowroot is now most esteemed but it is cultivated in the East 
Indies, Sierra Leone and South Africa as well. Wilkes ' found the natives of Fiji making 
use of arrowroot from the wild plant. 

Marathrum foeniculaceum Humb. & Bonpl. Podostemaceae. 

Mexico and New Granada. This plant resembles seaweed and grows in the rivers 
of Veraguas. Its young leaf-stalks, when boiled, have a delicate flavor not unlike that 
of French beans.* 

Marattia alata Sw. Marattiaceae. 

The fleshy caudex of this fern is used in the Sandwich Islands as food, when better 
food is scarce. 

M. attenuata Lab. 

In the Fiji Islands, the fronds are used as a potherb; they are very tender and taste 
not unlike spinach. In New Zealand, the soft part of the stem is eaten. 

Margyricarpus setosus Ruiz et Pav. Rosaceae. pearl berry. 

A native of Brazil, says Loudon,' on arid hills. It bears pearl-like fruit, resembling 
that of the mistletoe but differing from it in having a grateful and acid taste. 

Gray, A. Amer. Journ. Sci. 249. 1883. 

'MueUer, P. Sel. Pis. 270. 1891. 

Simmonds, P. L. Trap. Agr. 345. 1889. 

* Fluckiger and Hanbury Pharm. 629. 1879. 


' Wilkes, C. U. S. Explor. Exped. 3:337- i845- 

*Gard. Chron. 548. 1852. 

Loudon, J. C. Arb. Frui. Brit. 2:924. 844- 


Mariscus dregeanus Kunth. Cyperaceae. 

Africa, Asia and Australia. The roots are boiled and eaten by the natives of India, 
who say they are as good as yams.' 

Marlea vitiensis Benth. Cornaceae. 

Australia and islands of the Pacific. This tree in New South Wales and Queensland 
bears edible fruits.^ 

Marlierea glomerata Berg. Myrtaceae. cambuca. 

Subtropical Brazil. The fruits attain the size of apricots and are much used 
for food.' 

M. tomentosa Cambess. guaparanga. 

Brazil. The sweet berries of this tall shrub are of the size of cherries.'* 

Marrubium vulgare Linn. Labiatae. horehound. 

Europe, Asia and north Africa. This plant affords a popular domestic remedy and 
seems in this coimtry to be an inmate of the medicinal herb-garden only. In Europe, the 
leaves are sometimes employed as a condiment. Although a plant of the Old World, it 
is now naturalized in the New World from Canada to Buenos Aires and Chile, excepting 
within the tropics.' It is figured by Clusius,' 1601, and finds mention by many of the 
botanists of that period. Pliny ' refers to Marrubium as among medicinal plants in high 
esteem, and it finds mention by Columella.* Albertus Magnus,' in the thirteenth century, 
also refers to its valuable remedial properties in coughs. We may hence believe that, as 
an herb of domestic medicine, horehound has accompanied emigrants into all the cooler 
portions of the globe. 

Marsilea nardu A. B. Marsileaceae. nardoo. nardu. 

Australia. The spores and spore cases of this plant are used by the aborigines for 
food, pounded up and baked into bread and also made into a porridge. These preparations 
furnish a nutritious food, by no means unwholesome, and one free from unpleasant taste 
but affording sorry fare for civilized man. 

Martynia fragrans Lindl. Pedalineae. 

Mexico. The Apache Indians gather the half-mature seed-pods of this plant and 
cook them. The pods when ripe are armed with two sharp, horn-like projections and, 
being softened and split open, are used on braided work to ornament willow baskets." 

'Royle, J. F. lUustr. Bot. Himal. 1:414. 1839. 
'MueUer, F. Sel. Pis. 125. 1876. 
Mueller, F. Sel. Pis. 270. 1891. 
* Ibid. 

De CandoUe, A. Geog. Bot. 2:751. 1855. 
Clusius /f/. 2:34. 1 60 1. 
' Pliny lib. 20, c. 89. 
Columella, lib. 10, c. 356. 
Albertus Magnus Veg. Jessen Ed. 539. 1867. 
'"U. S. D. A. Rpt. 422. 1870. (AT. violacea) 

356 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

M. lutea Lindl. 

Brazil. This species, originally from Brazil, has yellow flowers.' It does not appear 
to be in American gardens nor is its seed advertised by our seedsmen. It reached Evirope 
in 1824.* It is described by Vilmorin as under kitchen-garden culture. 

M. proboscidea Glox. martynia. unicorn plant. 

Southwestern North America and now naturalized in northeastern America. Martynia 
is in cultivation in our gardens for its seed-pods, which when young are used for pickling. 
These seed-pods are green, very downy or hairy, fleshy, oval, an inch and a half in their 
greatest diameters and taper to a long, slender, incurved horn or beak. It is mentioned 
under American cultivation in 1841.' Martynia was known in England as a plant of 
ornament in 1738 ^ but has, even yet, scarcely entered the kitchen-garden. 

Marumia muscosa Blimie. Mclastomaceae. 

Java. Refreshing drinks are prepared from the berries.* 

M. stellulata Blume 

Siunatra and Java. Refreshing drinks are prepared from the berries.* 

Matisia cordata Humb. & Bonpl. Malvaceae, chupa-chupa. sapota. 

A tree of New Granada.' The oval fruit, about five inches long and three inches 
broad, in taste has been compared to an apricot or to a mango. It is sold in the markets 
of New Granada and Peru.' 

Matthiola incana R. Br. Crttciferae. stock. 

Mediterranean region. This plant is eaten in time of famine.' 

M. livida DC. 

Egypt and Arabia. This plant is eaten in time of famine.'" 

Mauritia flexuosa Linn. f. Palmae. ita palm, tree-of-life. 

Tropical South America. The tree-of-life of the missionaries, says Himiboldt," not 
only affords the Guaraons a safe dwelling during the risings of the Orinoco, but its fruit, its 
farinaceous pith, its juice, abounding in saccharine matter, and the fibers of its petioles 
furnish them with food, wine and thread. The fruit has somewhat the taste of an apple 
and when ripe is yellow within and red without. The sago of the pith is made into a bread. 

' Vilmorin Lei Pis. Potag. 330. 1883. 
' Noisette Man. Jard. 537. 1829. 

Kenrick, W. New Amer. Orch. 373. 1841. 

Gard. Chron. 60S. 1843. 

' Baillon, H. Hist. Pis. 7:35. 1881. 


' Jackson, J. R. Treas. Bot. 2:i$i6. 1876. 

Smith, J. Diet. Econ. Pis. 116. 1882. 

Baillon, H. Hist. Pis. 3:222. 1874. Note. 

" Humboldt, A. rrati. 1:331; 2:107; 3:9. 1889. 


The flour is called yuruma and is very agreeable to the taste, resembling cassava bread 
rather than the sago of India. From the juice, a slightly acid and extremely refreshing 
liquor is fermented. The ripe fruit contains first a rich, pulpy nut and last a hard core. 
Bates ' says the fruit is a common article of food, although the pulp is sour and unpalatable, 
at least to European tastes. It is boiled and then eaten with farina. This is the miriti. 
or ita, palm of Brazil; the sago-like flour is called ipuruma.^ 

M. vinifera Mart, wine palm. 

Brazil. This palm, says Gardner,' produces a great number of nuts about the size 
of an egg, covered with rhomboidal scales arranged in a spiral. Between these scales 
and the albuminous substance of the nut, there exists an oily pulp of a reddish color, 
which the inhabitants of Crato boil with sugar and make into a sweetmeat. In Piauhy, 
they prepare from this pulp an emulsion, which, when sweetened with sugar, forms a very 
palatable beverage, but if much used is said to tinge the skin a yellowish color. The juice 
of the stem also forms a very agreeable drink. 

Maximiliana regia Mart. Palmae. cucurite palm, inaja palm. 

Brazil. This is the inaja palm of the Rio Negro * and the cuctuite palm of Gmana.* 
The terminal leaf-bud furnishes a most delicious cabbage, says Seemann,^ and the fruit 
is eaten by the Indians. Brown ' says the nuts are covered with a yellow, juicy pulp, 
which is sweet and pleasant to the taste. The outer husk of the fruit, says A. Smith,* 
yields a kind of saline flour used by the natives for seasoning their food. 

Medeola virginica Linn. Liliaceae. Indian cucumber. 

Northeast America. The roots are eaten by the Indians, according to Pursh. ' Cutler '" 
says the roots are esculent and of an agreeable taste. Gray " says the tuberous, white 
rootstock has a taste like the cucumber. 

Medicago denticiilata Willd. Leguminosae. bur clover, shanghai trefoil. 

North temperate region of the Old World. A fine, broad-leaved variety of this plant 
was found by Fortune to be much used by the Chinese as a winter vegetable.'^ 

M. lupulina Linn, black medick. nonesuch. 

North temperate region of the Old World; nattiralized in places in America. In 
southern California, its seeds are much relished by the Indians." 

> Bates, H. W. Nat. Amaz. Humboldt Liftr. Sci. 647. 1879-80. 
Seemann, B. Pop. Hist. Palms 252, 253. 1856. 
'Gardner, G. Trav. Braz. 171, 172. 1849. 

* Agassiz 7oMr. Broz. 338. 1868. 

Brown, C. B. Camp Life Brit. Guiana 180. 1877. 

Seemann, B. Pop. Hist. Palms 261, 262. 1856. 

' Brown, C. B. Camp Life Brit. Guiana 180. 1877. 

Smith, A. Treas. Bol. 2:726. 1870. 

Pursh, F. Fl. Amer. Septent. 1:244. 1814. 
' Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 808. 1879. 
"Gray, A. iMan. Bot. $24. 1868. 
"Card. Chron. 815. 1844. 
" U. S. D. A. Rpt. 419. 1870. 

358 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

M. platycarpa Trautv. 

Siberia. The plant furnishes a food.* 

M. sativa Linn, alfalfa, lucerne. 

Europe and the Orient. The leaves are eaten by the Chinese as a vegetable.* 

M. scutellata Mill, snails. 

Mediterranean region. This plant is not edible but, like the caterpillar-plant, is 
grown on account of the singular shape of its seed-vessels. It was in Belgian and German 
gardens preceding 1616 * and in American gardens in 1863 or before.* 

Melia azadirachta Linn. Meliaceae. bean tree, china tree, false sycamore. 


East Indies. A kind of toddy is obtained by tapping the tree, and from the fruit 
a medicinal oil, known as bitter oil or taipoo oil, is made. 

M. azedarach Linn, syrian bead tree. 

A tree of Syria, the north of India and subtropical Japan and China. It is cultivated 
for ornament in different parts of the world. In southern France and Spain, it is planted 
in avenues. In our southern states, it adorns the streets of cities and has even become 
naturalized. The fruit is a round drupe, about as large as a cherry and yellowish when 
ripe, is sweetish, and, though said by some to be poisonous, is eaten by children.' In 
India, from incisions in the trunk near the base made in spring, a sap issues which is used 
as a cooling drink.' From the fruit, a bitter oil is extracted, called kohombe oD, and is 
used medicinally. The bitter leaves are used as a potherb in India, being made into soup, 
or curry, with other vegetables.^ 

Mellanthus major Linn. Sapindaceae. honey-flower. 

Cape of Good Hope. The flowers are of a dark brown color, in long, erect racemes 
a foot or more in length, containing a large quantity of honey, which is collected by the 
natives.' It is grown in French flower gardens.' 

Melicocca bijuga Linn. Sapindaceae. genip honey-berry. 

Tropical America. The pulp of the fruit, says Mueller,'" tastes like grapes, and the 
seeds can be used like sweet chestnuts. Lunan " says the tree was introduced into Jamaica 
from Surinam. The seed rarely more than one is covered with a deliciously sweet- 

' Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 357. 1859. {Trigonelia platycarpus) 

^Bretschneider, E. Bot. Sin. 53. 1882. 

' Dodonaeus Pempt. 575. 1616. 

< Burr, F. Field, Card. Veg. 398. 1863. 

^U. S. Disp. 153. 1865. 

Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 67. 1874. 

' Dutt, U. C. Mat. Med. Hindus 136. 1877. 

'Smith, J. Dom. Bot. 455. 1871. 

Vilmorin Fl. PL Ter. 690. 1870. 3rd Ed. 

'"Mueller, F. Sel. Pis. 276. 1891. 

"Lunan, J. Hort. Jam. 1:318. 1814. 


acid, gelatinous substance like the yolk of an egg, mixed with very fine fibers adhering 
tenaciously to the seed; the fleshy part is very agreeable to the taste. Titford ' calls this 
pulp pleasant and cooling. 

Melicjrtus ramiflorus Forst. Violarieae. ma hoe. 

New Zealand. This is the mahoe of New Zealand, not the mahoe of the West Indies, 
says A. Smith.^ The fruit of this tree is eaten by the natives. 

Melilotus officinalis Lam. Leguminosae. melilot. melist. sweet clover. 

Europe and adjoining Asia. The flowers and seeds are the chief ingredient in flavoring 
the Gruyfere cheese of Switzerland.' 

Melissa officinalis Linn. Lahiatae. balm. 

Mediterranean region and the Orient. This aromatic perennial has long been an inmate 
of gardens for the sake of its herbage, which finds use in seasonings and in the compounding 
of liquors and perfiimes as well as the domestic remedy known as balm tea. The plant 
in a green state has an agreeable odor of lemons and an austere and slightly aromatic 
taste, and hence is employed to flavor certain dishes in the absence of lemon thyme. ^ The 
culture was common with the ancients, as Pliny * directs it to be planted, and, as a bee- 
plant or otherwise, it finds mention by Greek and Latin poets and prose writers.* In 
the Ionian Islands, it is cultivated for bees. In Britain, it is said to have been intro- 
duced in 1573. It is mentioned in France by Ruellius,' 1536; in England, by Gerarde,' 
1597, who gives a most excellent figure; and also by Lyte,' 1586, and Ray,*" 1686. Mawe," 
1758, says great quantities of balm are cultivated about London for supplying the markets. 
In the United States, it is included among garden vegetables by McMahon,'^ 1806. As an 
escape, the plant is found in England " and sparingly in the eastern United States." 
Bertero ' found it wild on the island of Juan Fernandez. 

But one variety is known in our gardens, although the plant is described as being 
quite variable in nature. This would indicate that cultivation had not produced great 
changes. The only difference noted in the cultivated plant has been in regard to vigor. 

' Titford, W. J. Hort. Bot. Amer. 59. 1812. 
'Smith, A. Treas. Bot. 2:732. 1870. 
Don, G. Hisl. Dichl. Ph. 2:177. 1832. 

* Mcintosh, C. Book Card. 2:236. 1855. 
' Pliny lib. 21, c. 41. 

Theocritus, Idyll iv: 25; Dioscorides iii: 118; Varro iii: 116; Columella ix: 9; Virgil, Georgics iv; as 
quoted by Grandsagne, Pliny 8:485. 

' Ruellius Nat. Stirp. 733. 1536. 

Gerarde, J. Herb. $58. 1397. 

Dodoens Herb. 293. 1586. Lyte Ed. 
"Ray Hist. PI. 1:570. 

" Mawe and Abercrombie Univ. Card. Bot. 1778 
" McMahon, B. Amer. Card. Cal. 512. 1806. 
" De CandoUe, A. Geog. Bot. 2 : 68 1 , 72 1 . 1 855. 
*Gray, A. 5j'op/. F/. 2: Pt. i, 361. 1886. 
" De Candolle, A. Geog. Bot. 2:681. 721. 1855. 


A variegated variety is recorded by Mawe,' 1778, for the ornamental garden. This varia- 
tion is noted by Vilmorin.^ 

Melocactus communis Link & Otto. Cacteae. melon cactus, turk's-cap cactus. 

South America and the West Indies.* According to Unger,^ this cactus bears an 
edible fruit. 

Melocanna bambusoides Trin. Gramineae. 

East Indies. The fruit is very large, fleshy like an apple and contains a seed which 
is said to be very pleasant eating.* 

Melodinus monogynus Roxb. Apocynaceae. 

Himalayan region, Malay and China. This plant bears a fruit, says Firminger,* 
as large as a moderate-sized apple, which is said to be eatable and agreeable. Royle ' 
says it yields edible fruit. A. Smith * says the firm, sweet pulp is eaten by the natives. 
The berry is red, edible, sweet and somewhat astringent.' 

Melothria pendula Linn. Cucurhitaceae. 

North America and West Indies. The fruit, in Jamaica, is the size and shape of 
a nutmeg, smooth, blackish when ripe, and full of small, white seeds like other cucumbers, 
lodged within an insipid, cooling pulp. The fruit is eaten pickled when green and is good 
when fully ripe, according to Sloane.'" 

M. scabra Naud. 

Mexico. The fruit is an inch long, resembling little watermelons. It is pickled 
and eaten raw." 

Memecylon edule Roxb. Melastomaceae. 

Coromandel, tropical India and Burma. The juicy fruit is eaten by the natives 
when ripe. They have much pulp of a bluish-black color and of an astringent quality. ** 
The pulp of the fruit, though rather astringent, is eaten by the natives.'' 

Mentha canadensis Linn. Labiatae. mint. 

A plant found on the wet banks of brooks from New England to Kentucky and north- 

' Mawe and Abercrombie Univ. Card. Bot. 1778. 
' Vilmorin //. P/. Ter. 692. 1870. 3rd Ed. 
'$rnith, A. Treas. Bot. 2:732,. 1870. 

* Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 333. 1859. 
5 Masters, M. T. Treas. Bot. 2:1317. 1876. 

* Firminger, T. A. C. Card. Itid. 492. 1874. 
'Royle, J. P. Illustr. Bot. Himal. 1:272. 1839. 
' Smith, A. Treas. Bot. 2:72,^. 1870. 

'Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 4:26. 1838. (Oncinus sp.) 
' Lunan, J. Hort. Jam. 2:280. 1814. 
" Watson Conirib. U. S. Nat. Herb. 14:414. 1887. 
" Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 2:654. 1832. 
" Drury, H. Useful Pis. Ind. 290. 1873. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 361 

ward, and occasionally cultivated in gardens for the leaves, which are used in flavoring. 
The Indians of Maine eat mint roasted before the fire and salted and think it nourishing. 

M. piperita Linn, peppermint. 

Europe, Asia and northern Africa. Peppermint is grown on a large scale for the sake 
of its oil, which is obtained by distillation, and which finds extensive use for flavoring 
candies and cordials and in medicine. There are large centers of its culture in the United 
States, Europe and Asia. It is grown to a limited extent for the leaves which are used for 
seasoning. Mint is spoken of as if not a garden plant by Ray,' 1724, who describes two 
varieties, the broad and the narrow leaved. In 1778, it is included by Mawe,^ among 
garden herbs; in 1806, it is noticed among American garden plants' and is now. an escape 
from cultivation. There is no notice of peppermint preceding 1700, when it is mentioned 
by Plukenet * and Toumefort ' as a wild plant only. 

M. pulegium Linn, pennyroyal. 

Exirope and neighboring Asia. The leaves of pennyroyal are sometimes used as 
a condiment. Mawe,' in England, in 1778, calls it a fine aromatic; it was among 
American potherbs in 1806.' It was in high repute among the ancients and had numerous 
virtues ascribed to it by both Dioscorides and Pliny. From the frequent references to 
it in Anglo-Saxon and Welsh works on medicine, we may infer that it was much esteemed 
in northern Europe.' It has now fallen into disuse. 

M. viridis Linn, spearmint. 

Europe, Asia and north Africa; naturalized in America. This garden herb was well 
known to the ancients and is mentioned in aU early mediaeval lists of plants. Amatus 
Lusitanus,' 1554, says it is always in gardens and later botanists confirm this statement 
for Europe. It was in American gardens in 1806 '" and probably far earlier, for it was 
collected by Clayton in Virginia about 1 739 ". as a naturalized plant. 

Mentzelia albicaulis Dougl. Loaseae. prairie lily. 

Western North America. The oily seeds are pounded and used by the Indians in 
California as an ingredient of their pinole mantica, a kind of cake.'^ 

Menyanthes trifoliata Linn. Gentianeae. buckbean. marsh trefoil. 

Northern Europe, Asia and America. The intense bitter of the leaves of the buck- 

' Ray, J. Synop. Method. 234. 1724. 

' Ma we and Abercrombie Univ. Card. Bot. 1778. 

* McMahon Amer. Card. Col. 583. 1806 

* Pluc'netius Almag. Bot. 129. 1700 
' Toumefort Inst. 1719. 

Mawe and Abercrombie Univ. Card. Bot. 1778. 
' McMahon, B. Amer. Card. Cat. 583. 1806. 

' Fluckiger and Hanbury Pharm. 486. 1879. 

Dioscorides Amatus Lusitanus Ed. 319. 1554. 
"> McMahon Amer. Card. Cat. 583. 1806. 

" Gronovius Fl. Virg. 89. 1762. 

"Torrey, J. Bot. U. S. Mex. Bound. Surv. 2:67. 1859. 

362 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

bean has led to its use as a substitute for hops in brewing. Large quantities are said to 
be collected for the adulteration of beer. It has long been employed in Sweden for this 
purpose. In Lapland and Finland, the rhizomes are sometimes powdered, washed to 
get rid of the bitter principle and then made into a kind of bread.' In the outer Hebrides, 
when there is a deficiency of tobacco, the islanders console themselves by chewing the 
root of the marsh trefoil which has a bitter and acrid taste.' 

Mercurialis annua Linn. Euphorbiaceae. annual mercury. 

Europe and north Africa and occasionally found spontaneously growing in the United 
States. Annual mercury, says Johnson,' is eaten in Germany, the poisonous principle 
which it contains in small quantity being dissipated in boiling. 

Meriandra benghalensis Benth. Labiatae. bengal sage. 

India. Bengal sage, says Firminger,'* is in general use in lower Bengal as a substi- 
tute for sage but it is rather an indifferent substitute. 

Mesembryanthemum acinaciforme Linn. Ficoideae. hottentot fig. 

South Africa. This is one of the Hottentot figs of South Africa. The inner part 
of the fruit affords, says Mueller,* a really palatable and copious food. 

M. aequilaterale Haw. pig's face. 

Australia and South America. This is an Australian species whose fruit is eaten 
by the natives.* The inner part of the fruit affords a palatable and copious food, accord- 
ing to Mueller.' In California, say Brewer and Watson,* the fruit is edible and pleasant. 
This is perhaps the species referred to by Parry as littoral in southern California and as 
having an edible, juicy fruit. In Australia, says J. Smith,'" the watery and insipid fruit 
'is eaten by the natives. Wilhelmi " says two varieties of this genus in Australia have 
fruit of an agreeable flavor and are eaten by the aborigines of the Port Lincoln district. 

M. anatomicum Haw. canna root. kon. 

South Africa. The Hottentots, says Thunberg,'' come far and near to obtain this 
shrub with the root, leaves and all, which they beat together and afterwards twist up like 
pig-tail tobacco; after which they let the mass ferment and keep it by them for chewing, 
especially when they are thirsty. If it be chewed immediately after the fermentation, 
it intoxicates. 

' Johnson, C. P. Useful Pis. Gt. Brit. 179. 1862. 

' /ottrn. /4gr. 2:379. 1 83 1. 

> Johnson, C. P. Useful Pis. Gt. Brit. 226. 1862. {M. perennis) 

* Firminger, T. A. C. Gard. Ind. 158. 1874. 
'Mueller, F. Sel. Pis. 185. 1880. 

Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 347. 1859. 

'Mueller, F. Sel. Pis. 278. 1891. 

Brewer and Watson Bot. Col. 251. 1880. 

Parry Boi. U. S. Mex. Bound. Surv. 16. 1859. 
"Smith, J. Diet. Econ. Pis. 174. 1882. 

" Hooker, W. J. Joum. Bot. 9:266. 1857. 
" Thunberg, C. P. Trav. 2:89. 1796. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 363 

M. ciystallinum Linn, ice plant. 

Cape of Good Hope. The ice plant was introduced into Europe in 1727.' It is 
advertised in American seed lists ^ of 1 881 as a desirable vegetable for boiling like spinach, 
or for garnishing. Vilmorin ' says the thickness and slightly acid flavor of the fleshy 
parts of the leaves have caused it to be used as a fresh table vegetable for stumner use 
in warm, dry countries. It is, however, he adds, not without merit as an ornamental 
plant. Parry * found this species growing in large masses in southern California. 

M. edule Linn, hottentot fig. 

Cape of Good Hope. The mucilaginous capsules, says Captain Carmichael, are the 
chief material of an agreeable preserve. Figuier ^ says the leaves are pickled as a sub- 
stitute for the pickled cucumber, and Henfrey says the foliage is eaten at the Cape. 

M. forskahlei Hochst. 

North Africa. The capsules are soaked and dried by the Bedouins, and the seeds 
separated for making bread, which, however, is not eaten by other Arabs. 

M. pugionifonne Linn. 

South Africa. Its leaves form a good substitute for spinach.* 

M. tortuosum Linn. 

South Africa. This species possesses narcotic properties and is chewed by the Hot- 
tentots for the purpose of producing intoxication.' 

Mesua ferrea Linn. Guttiferae. ironwood. 

Java and East Indies. The fruit is reddish and wrinkled when ripe, with a rind like 
that of the chestnut. It resembles a chestnut in size, shape, substance and taste.* 

Metroxylon laeve Mart. Palmae. spineless sago palm. 

East Indies. This species furnishes a large part of the sago which is exported to 
Europe. " 

M. rumphii Mart, prickly sago palm. 

East Indies. This palm furnishes, saj^ Seemann," the best sago of the East Indies. 

M. sagu Rottb. sago palm. 

Sumatra and Malacca. The plant is employed in the preparation of sago for food. 

' Noisette Man. Jard. 538. 1829. 
Thorburn Ca/. 1881. 
'Vilmorin Keg. Cord. 275. 1885. 
Parry Bol. U. S. Mex. Bound. Sun. 2: 16. 1859. 
'Figuier Veg. World 4:i8. 1867. 
Smith, A. Treas. Bot. 2:738. 1870. 
' Ibid. 

Drury, H. Useful Pis. Ind. 291 . 1873. 
Smith, A. Treas. Bot. 2:1006. 1870. 
"Seemann, B. Pop. Hist. Palms 263. 1856. 
" Ibid. 

364 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

Considerable quantities are made at the Poggy Islands, lying ofif the west coast of Sumatra, 
where it forms the principal food of the inhabitants.' 

M. vitiense Benth. & Hook. f. sago palm. 

This is a true sago palm in Viti but its quality, Seemann * says, was not known to 
the natives until he pointed it out to them. 

Michelia champaca Linn. Magnoliaceae. champaca. fragrant champaca. 

Malay. The fruit is said to be edible, and in India the tree is cultivated for the 
exquisite perfimie of the flowers.' 

. Micromeria Juliana Benth. Labiatae. savory. 

East Mediterranean region. This savory is mentioned by Gerarde,* 1597, as sown 
in gardens. It is a native of the Mediterranean coimtries, called in Greece, ussopo, in 
Egypt, pesalem.^ It has disappeared from our seed catalogs. 

M. obovata Benth. 

West Indies and introduced in Britain in 1783. The species has two varieties. It 
was recorded by Burr," 1863, as in American gardens but as little used. It is said to be 
much used for seasoning in its native country. It is now recorded as in cultivation in 

Microseris forsteri Hook. f. Compositae. 

Australia and New Zealand. This is the native scorzonera of tropical Australia 
and New Zealand. The root is used as a food by the aborigines.' The roots are roasted 
by the natives and eaten. They have an agreeable taste.' 

M. sp.? 

This plant furnishes a small, succulent, and almost transparent root, full of a bit- 
terish, milky juice. The root is eaten raw by the Nez Perc^ Indians.' 

Milium nigricans Ruiz & Pav. Gramineae. 

Peru. A drink called ullpu is obtained from the farina of the seeds.'" 

Millettia atropurpurea Benth. Leguminosae. 

A tree of Burma and Malay. The tender leaves are said to be eaten." 

' Griffith, W. Palms Brit. Ind. 2$. 1850. {Sagus laevis) 

' Seemann, B. Fl. Viti. 279. 1865-73. 

Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 1:81. 1831. 

* Gerarde, J. Herb. 461. 1597. 

' Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 34$. 1879. (Satureia Juliana) 

'Burr, F. Field, Card. Veg. 442. 1863. {Satureia viminea) 

'Mueller, P. Sel. Pis. 2S0. 1891. 

'Hooker, W. J. Journ. Bot. 9:266. 1857. (Scorzonera lawrencii) 

'U. S. D. A. Rpt. 409. 1870. {Scorzonella ptilophora) 

^o Treas. Bot. 2:1 VSt. 1876. 

" Wallich PI. Asiat. 1:70. Tab. 78. 1830-32. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 365 

Mimusops elata Allem. Sapotaceae. cow tree. 

Brazil. To this species is referred the massaranduba, or cow tree, of the Amazon. 
Wallace ' says of it that the fruit is eatable and very good. It is the size of a small apple 
and full of a rich milk which exudes in abundance when the bark is cut. The milk has 
about the consistency of thick cream and, but for a very slight, peculiar taste, could 
scarcely be distinguished from the genuine product of the cow. Bates ^ says the fruit 
is eaten in Para, where it is sold in the streets. The milk is pleasant with coffee but has 
a slight ranlBiess when drunk pure; it soon thickens to a glue which is excessively tenacious. 
He was told that it was not safe to drink much of it. Hemdon ' probably refers to this 
tree when he says he obtained from the Indians the milk of the cow tree, which they drink 
fresh, and, when brought to him in a calabash, had a foamy appearance as if just drawn 
from the cow and looked very rich and tempting. It, however, coagulates very soon and 
becomes as hard and tenacious as glue. 

M. elengi Linn, medlar. 

East Indies and Malay. This plant is cultivated on account of its fragrant, star- 
shaped flowers, which are used in garlands. The small, ovoid, one-seeded berry, , yellow 
when ripe, about an inch long, is eaten, and oil is expressed from the seeds.'' Dutt ^ says 
the fruits are sweetish and edible when ripe. 

M. hexandra Roxb. 

East Indies and south India. This plant is commonly cultivated near villages. In 
Java, it is cultivated for its fruits which are eaten.' 

M. kauM Linn. 

Burma, Malay and Australia. This tree is found in gardens in Java. The fruit 
is edible.' Dr. Hooker ' states that this tree is cultivated in China, Manila and Malabar 
for its esculent, agreeably acid fruit. It is the khirnee of India.' 

M. kummel Bruce. 

Abyssinia. This is the M'nyemvee of interior Africa, a lofty tree whose one-stoned, 
dry, orange-yellow or reddish fruit is sweet in taste.'" 

M, manilkara G. Don. 

Malabar and the Philippines. This species is cultivated for its fruit, which is of 
the form and size of an olive and is succulent; the pulp is of a sweetish-acid flavor and 
contains but one or two seeds." 

' Wallace, A. R. Trav. Amaz. 28. 1853. 

Bates, H.W. Nat. Amaz. Humboldt Z,i6r. 5ct. 635. 1879-80. 
' Hemdon, W. L., and Gibbon, L. Explor. Vail. Amaz. 1:227. 1854. 
' Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 293, 294. 1876. 
' Dutt, U. C. Mat. Med. Hindus 188. 1877. 
Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 2^1 . 1876. (M.indica) 
'Unger, F. U. S. Pal. Off. Rpt. 337. 1859. {M. balota) 
Firminger, T. A. C. Card. Ind. 25$. 1874. 

"Speke, J. H. Journ. Disc. Source Nile 574. 1864. 
" Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 4:35. 1838. 

366 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

M. sieberi A. DC. naseberry. 

North America and West Indies. The fruit is delicious and highly flavored.* 

Mitchella repens Linn. Rubiaceae. partridge-berry, squaw-vine.' 

North America and Japan. The insipid, red fruits are eaten by children. 

MoIIugo hirta Thunb. Ficoideae. 

Tropical and subtropical regions. This plant is a common potherb in upper India.* 

Momordica balsamina Linn. Cucurbitaceae. balsam apple. 

Borders of the tropics. The balsam apple has purgative qualities but is eaten by 
the Chinese after careful washing in warm water and subsequent cooking.* 
M. charantia Linn. 

Borders of the tropics. This vine is very commonly cultivated about Bombay. In 
the wet season, the fruit is 12 or 15 inches long, notched and ridged like a crocodile's back 
and requires to be steeped in salt water before being cooked.* Firminger ' says the fruit 
is about the size and form of a hen's egg, pointed at the ends, and covered with little blimt 
tubercles, of intensely bi.tter taste, but is much constuned by the natives and is agreeable 
also to Europeans as an ingredient to flavor their curries by way of variety. In Patna, 
there are two varieties : jethwya, a plant growing in the heat of spring and dying with the 
first rains, and bara masiya, which lasts throughout the year. In France, it is grown in 
the flower garden.' 

M. dioica Roxb. 

East Indies. This species is imder cultivation in India for food purposes; the root 
is edible.^ There are several varieties, says Drury.* The yovuig, green fruits and tuberous 
roots of the female plant are eaten by the natives, and, in Burma, according to Mason,' 
the small, muricated fruit is occasionally eaten. At Bombay, this plant is cultivated for 
the fruit, which is the size of a pigeon's egg and knobbed, says Graham.'" 

Monarda didyma Linn. Lahiatae. bee balm, oswego tea. 

From New England to Wisconsin northward, and southward in the AUeghanies. It 
is mentioned by McMahon," 1806, in his list of aromatic pot and sweet herbs. It is called 
Oswego tea from the use sometimes made of its leaves. In France, it is grown in the 
flower gardens.'^ 

Vasey U. S. D. A. Rpt. 166. 1875. 

'Ainslie, W. Ma/. /n<i. 2:345. 1826. (Pharnaceum pentagoneum) 

'Smith, F. P. Contrib. Mat. Med. China 91. 1871. 

Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 462. 1879. 

'Firminger, T. A. C. Card: Ind. 125. 1874. 

Vilmorin Fl. PI. Ter. 705. 1870. 3rd Ed. 

'Royle, J. F. lUustr. Bot. Himal. i:2ig. 1839. 

' Dntry, H. Useful. Pis. Ind. 296. 1873. 

' Pickering Chron. Hist. Pis. 843. 1879. 
' Ibid. 

" McMahon, B. Amer. Card. Col. 583. 1806. {M. punctata) 
" Vilmorin F/. P/. rer. 708. 1870. 3rd Ed. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 367 

Moneses grandiflora S. F. Gray. Ericaceae, mossberry. one-flowered pyrola. 

North and Arctic regions. The fruit is used as food by the Indians of Alaska. The 
yield of berries is scant, however.' 

Monochoria vaginalis Presl. Pontederiaceae. 

Asia and African tropics. This species is esteemed as a medical plant in Japan, 
Java and on the Coromandel Coast. Its young shoots are edible.^ 

Monodora mjrristica Dun. Anonaceae. Jamaica nutmeg. 

This tree of Jamaica is supposed to have been introduced from South America, but 
is with more reason believed to have been taken by the negroes from the west coast of 
Africa. It is cultivated in Jamaica for its fruits, which furnish Jamaica nutmeg. The 
seeds contain a quantity of aromatic oil which imparts to them the odor and flavor of 

Monstera deliciosa Liebm. Aroideae. ceriman. 

American tropics. This fine plant has been somewhat cultivated in England for 
its fruit and may now be seen in greenhouses in this country. The leaves are broad, per- 
forated and dark, shining green. The fruit consists of the spadix, the eatable portion of 
which is of fine texture and very rich, juicy and fragrant, with a flavor somewhat like that 
of the pineapple and banana combined. The fruit is filled with a sort of spicule, which, 
luiless the fruit be thoroughly ripe, interferes with the pleasure of its eating. In 1874, 
specimens of the fruit were exhibited before the Massachusetts Horticultural vSociety and 
again in 1881. Dobrizhoffer,^ in his Account of the Abipones of Paraguay, 1784, refers 
to a fruit called guemhe which is " the more remarkable for its being so little known, even 
by many who have grown old in Paraguay, for the northern woods of that country only 
are its native soil. It is about a span long, almost cylindrical in shape, being thicker than 
a man's fist in the middle but smaller at both extremities, and resembles a pigeon stripped 
of its feathers, sometimes weighing as much as two pounds. It is entirely covered with 
a soft, yellowish skin, marked with little knobs and a dark spot in the middle. Its liquid 
pulp has a very sweet taste but is full of tender thorns, perceivable by the palate only, 
not by the eye, on which account it must be slowly chewed but quickly swallowed. . . . 
The stalk which occupies the middle, has something of wood in it and must be thrown 
away. You cannot imagine how agreeable and wholesome this fruit is. . . . This pon- 
derous fruit grows on a flexible shrub resembling a rope, which entwines itself aroimd 
high trees." If this description applies to oiu" species, it is certainly remarkable that this 
ancient missionary did not refer to the open spaces in the leaves. 

Moraea edulis Ker-Gawl. Irideae. 

South Africa. The bulbous root is eaten by the Hottentots. When cooked, it has 

>-U. S. D. A.Rpt. ^\^. 1870. (M.uniflora) 
' Case Bot. Index 25. 1879. 

Smith, A. Treas. Bot. 2:752. 1870. 

* DobrizhofiFer Acct. Abipones 1:380. 1784. 

368 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

the taste of potatoes.' Thunberg ' says, in Kaffraria, the roots were eaten roasted, boiled, 
or stewed with milk and appeared to him to be both palatable and nourishing, tasting 
much like potatoes. 

Morinda citrifolia Linn. Rubiaceae. awl tree. Indian mulberry. 

Tropical shores in Hindustan, throughout the Malayan Archipelago and neighboring 
Polynesian islands. Its fruit is a great favorite with the Burmese, served in their cur- 
ries.' Labillardi^re * says the fruit is in great request among the Friendly Islanders, but 
Its taste is insipid. Captain Cook states that the fruit is eaten in Tahiti in times of 
scarcity, and that the taste is very indifferent. 

M. tinctoria Roxb. ach-root. dyers' mulberry. 

East Indies and Malay. According to Brandis,' this species is cultivated throughout 
India. Don saj^ the green fruits are pickled and eaten with curries. 

Moringa aptera Gaertn. Moringeae. 

Nubia and Arabia. The seeds are exported to Syria and Palestine for medicinal 
and alimentary use.' 

M. concanensis Nimmo. 

East Indies and India. The unripe fruit is eaten.' 

M. pterygosperma Gaertn. horseradish tree. 

Northwest India. The horseradish tree is cultivated for its fruit, which is eaten 
as a vegetable and preserved as a pickle, and for its leaves and flowers which are likewise 
eaten.* Dutt ' says it is cultivated for its leaves, flowers and seed-vessels, which are 
used by the natives in their curries. The root, says Royle,'" is imiversally known to Euro- 
pean residents in India as a substitute for horseradish. Ainslie " says the root is generally 
used and the pods are an excellent vegetable. According to Firminger,'* the root serves 
as a horseradish and the long, unripe seed-pods are used boiled in curries. It is also cul- 
tivated by the Burmese for its pods, but by Europeans it is chiefly valued for its roots.'* 
In the Philippines, the leaves and fruit are cooked and eaten.'* In the West Indies, the 
oil expressed from the seeds is used in salads.'^ 

' Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 230. 1879. (Vieusseuxia edulis) 
' Thunberg, C. P. Traz). 1:144. 1795. {Iris edulis) 

Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 423. 1879. (Af. bracteata) 

* Labillardifere Voy. Recherche Perouse 2:153. 1799- 
' Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 278. 1874. 

Baillon, H. Hist. Pis. y.iyo. 1874. 

' Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 130. 1874. 


Dutt, U. C. Mat. Med. Hindus 117. 1877. 
" Royle, J. F. Illustr. Bot. Himal. 1:180. 1839. 
" Ainslie, W. Mat. Ind. 1:175. 1826. 
" Firminger Gard. /ji. 130. 1874. {Hyperanthera moringa) 
" Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pis. 298. 1879. 
" Ibid. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 369 

Moronobea grandiflora Choizy. Guttiferae. 

A tall tree of Brazil. Arruda ' says the fruit is nearly of the size of an orange but is 
oval and contains 23 stones covered with a white pulp of a pleasant taste, being sweet 
and somewhat acid. It is called bacuri. 

Moms alba Linn. Urticaceae. white mulberry. 

A tree of China and Japan but naturalized in Eiu'ope, Asia and America. It is com- 
monly supposed, says Thompson,^ that cuttings of the white mulberry were first brought 
into Tuscany from the Levant in 1434 and in the course of the century this species had 
almost entirely superceded M. nigra for the feeding of silk worms in Italy. The variety 
multicaulis was brought from Manila to Senegal, and some years afterwards to Europe, 
and was described by Kenrick,' 1835, preceding which date it had reached America. 
In 1773 or 1774, Wm. Bartram * noticed large plantations of M. alba grafted on M. rubra 
near Charleston, S. C, for the purpose of feeding silk worms, but it is probable that its 
first introduction was coeval with the interest in silk culture before 1660. The mulberry 
trees planted in Virginia in 1623 by order of the Colonial Assembly were probably of this 
species. There are many varieties of M. alba, and in India it is cultivated for its fruit, 
of which some kinds are sweet, some acid, and of all shades of color from white to a deep 
blackish-purple. In Kashmir and Afghanistan, the fruit furnishes a considerable portion 
of the food of the inhabitants in autimm and much of it is dried and preserved.^ In Kabul, 
there is a white, seedless variety called shah-toot, or royal mulberry. The fruits are from 
two to two and one-half inches long and of the thickness of the small finger, very sweet, 
and the tree is inexhaustibly prolific. In its season it forms the chief food of the 

M. ceWdifolia H. B. & K. 

Peru to Mexico. The tree bears an edible fruit.' 

M. indica Linn, aino mulberry. 

Tropical Asia. The aino mtol berry is cultivated in Bengal for feeding silk worms,* 
and about Bombay its dark red fruit is sold in the bazaars for making tarts. 

M. laevigata Wall. 

East Indies. This species is found wild and cidtivated in the Himalayas and else- 
where in India. The fruit is long, cylindrical, yellowish- white, sweet but insipid.' The 
long, cylindrical, purple fruit is much eaten.'" 

' Koster, H. Trav. Braz. 363. 181 7. (M. esculenta) 
Thompson, R. Treas. Bo/. 2:758. 1870. 
' Kenrick, W. New Amer. Orch. 225. 1835. 
' Hist. Mass. Hort. Soc. 27. 1880. 
Brandis, D. Forest Ft. 407. 1876. 
Harlan U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 529. 1861. 
' Mueller, F. Set. Pis. 285. 1891. 
Pickering, C. Chron. Hist. Pts. 570. 1879. 
' Brandis, D. Forest Ft. 409. 1874. 
" Royle, J. F. Itiustr. Bot. Himat. i :337. 1839. 

370 sturtevant's notes on edible plants 

M. nigra Linn, black mulberry. 

Temperate Asia. The black mulberry is a native of north Persia and the Caucasus. 
It was brought at a very early period to Greece. Theophrastus was acquainted with it 
and called it sukamttos. It is only at a late period that this tree, brought by Lucius Vitellus 
from Syria to Rome, was successfully reared in Italy, after all earlier experiments, accord- 
ing to Pliny, had been conducted in vain. At the time of Palladius and even in that of 
Athaneus, the mulberry tree had multiplied but little in that coimtry. The introduction 
of silk culture under Justinian gave a new importance to this tree, and, from that time 
to the present, its propagation in western and northern Europe, Denmark and Sweden 
has taken place very rapidly. It was not till the sixteenth century that this plant was 
superceded by M. alba for the feeding of silk worms.^ This species, according to Mueller,' 
was planted in France in 1500. In the United States, it is scarcely hardy north of New 
York, but there and southward it is occasionally cultivated for its fruit. In 1760, 
Jeflerys * states it was not fovmd in Louisiana. 

M. rubra Linn, red mulberry. 

From New England to Illinois and southward.^ The fruit is preferred, says Emer- 
son,' to that of any other species by most people. The tree grows abundantly in northern 
Missouri and along the rivers of Kansas. In Indian Territory, the large, sweet, black 
fruit is greatly esteemed by the Indians. This fruit was observed by De Soto * on the 
route to Apalachee, and the tree was seen by Strachey ' on James River planted around 
native dwellings. 

M. serrata Roxb. 

Himalayan region. This species is cultivated in Kimawar. It is common in the 
Himalayas. The purple fruit is mucilaginous and sweet but not very fleshy.' 

Mouriria pusa Gardn. Melastomaceae. silverwood. 

Brazil. Gardner ' says the fruit of this Brazilian tree is about the size of a small 
plum, black in color and resembles much in taste the fruit of Eugenia caulifiora. In the 
province of Ceara, this fruit is much esteemed and is carried through the streets for sale 
by the Indians. It is called pusa. 

M. rhizophoraefolia Gardn. 

Martinique. The fruit is regularly sold in the markets at St. Vincent, but no high 
value is set upon it, owing to the very small quantity of sweet pulp which tenaciously 

' Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Off. Rpt. 341. 1859. 

'Mueller, F. Sel. Pis. 285. 1891. 8th Ed. 

'Jefiferys, T. Nat. Hist. Amer. 1:155. 1760. 

* Gray, A. Man. Bot. 444. 1868. 

' Emerson, G. B. Trees, Shrubs Mass. 1:315. 1875. 

' Pickering, C. Chron. Hist Pis. 770. 1879. 

' Ibid. 

' Brandis, D. Forest Fl. 409. 1876. 

' Gardner, G. Trav. Braz. 146. 1849. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 371 

adheres to the seeds. The outer portion of the fruit is not pleasant to the taste, but the 
seed has the flavor of filberts.' 

Mucuna capitata Sweet. Leguminosae. 

Malay Archipelago and the Himalayas. This species, according to Elliott,^ is cul- 
tivated in native gardens in India and even among some of the Hill Tribes. 

M. cochinchinensis Lour. 

This sicies is cultivated in Cochin China for its legumes which are served and eaten 
as we do string beans.' 

M. gigantea DC. cowitch. 

East Indies. The beans are eaten by the natives and are esteemed as both palatable 
and wholesome.* 

M. monospenna DC. negro bean. 

East Indies. This is a favorite vegetable with Brahmins.' 

M. nivea DC. 

Bengal and Burma. This species is cultivated by the natives in India. Roxbtirgh 
says that, by removing the velvety skin of the large, fleshy, tender pods, they are a most 
excellent vegetable for the table, and the full-grown beans are scarcely inferior to the 
large garden beans of Exirope. Drury ^ reaiBrms this opinion. 

M. pruriens DC. cowitch. cowhage. 

Tropical Africa. The cowitch, or cowhage, has, ^y% Livingstone,' a velvety covering 
to its pods of minute prickles, which, if touched, enter the pores of the skin and cause a 
painful tingling. The women, in times of scarcity, collect the pods, kindle a fire of grass 
over them to destroy the prickles, then soak the beans until they begin to sprout, wash 
them in pure water and either boil them or pound them into meal. Its name on the 
Zambezi is kitedzi. 

M. urens Medic, horse-eye bean. 

In Jamaica, the legume is said by Plumier to have been eaten by the Caribs but 
Lunan ' says it is poisonous. 

Muntingia calabura Linn. Tiliaceae. calabur. 

West Indies. This is the guasem of Jamaica. An infusion of the leaves is used in 
the Caracas as a tea.'" 

' Hooker, W. J. Bot. Misc. 1:124. 1830. (Guildingia psidiodes) 
'Elliott, W. Bot. Soc. Edinb. 7:297. 1863. 

' Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 2:342. 1832. (Macranthus cochinchinensis) 
* Hooker, W. J. Bot. Misc. 2:352. 1831. 
Drury, H. Useful Pis. Ind. 299. 1873. 
Firminger, T. A. C. Card. Ind. 149. 1874. 
' Drury, H. Useful Pis. Ind. 299. 1873. 
' Livingstone, D. & C. Exped. Zambesi 503. 1866. 
' Lunan, J. Hort. Jam. 1:383. 1814. 
'^ Treas. Bot. 2:1301. 1876. 


Murraya exotica Linn. Rutaceae. Chinese box. 

Asia and Australian tropics. The fruit is red and edible.* 

M. koenigii Spreng. curry-leaf tree. 

A tree of tropical Hindustan, cultivated for its leaves, which are used to flavor curries. 
The leaves are aromatic and fragrant and, with the root and bark, are used medicinally. 
Prom the seeds, a medicinal oil called zimbolee oil is extracted.* 

M. longifolia Bltmie. 

Java. The fruit is edible.* 

Musa chinensis Sweet. Scitamineae. Chinese dwarf banana. 

China. This very delicious plantain, says Firminger,* is of a rich and peculiar flavor. 
The fruits are borne in enormous bunches, each fruit about lo inches long, of moderate 
and uniform shape and thickness, and when ripe are pea-green in color. The bananas 
are exceedingly difficult to obtain in perfection, as they are imeatable until quite ripe, 
and on becoming ripe, commence almost immediately to decay. This variety, in 1841, 
was grown in abundance for the table of the King of France at Versailles and Menton. 
In 1867, yoimg plants of this dwarf banana were sent to Florida from the United States 
Department of Agriculture, and now they may be seen quite generally in gardens 
there. It is quite frequently fruited in greenhouses, being of easy culture and man- 
agement. Hawkins,' 1593, saw small, round, plantains, " green when they are ripe " in 

M. ensete J. F. Gmel. abyssinian banana. 

Tropical Africa. The fruit is dry and inedible, containing a few large, stony seeds, 
but, says Masters,* the base of the flower-stalk is cooked and eaten by the natives. 
Unger ' says the fruit is not palatable and is rarely eaten, but the white, marrowy portion 
of the young stems, freed from the rind and cooked, has the taste of the best wheat bread 
and, dressed with milk and butter, supplies a very excellent, wholesome diet. The plant 
occurs even in the Egyptian antiques and seems to have been more widely distributed 
at an earlier period than at the present. There are large plantations of it at Maitsha 
and Goutto. The tree grows about 20 feet high and is a striking ornament in our best 

M. maculata Jacq. banana. 

Mauritius Islands. The fruit is very spicy and of excellent flavor. This is a tender 
banana not profitable for cultivation above south Florida.' 

' Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 1:585. 1831. 

Masters, M. T. Treas. Boi. 1:136. 1870. (Bergera konigii) 

Don, G. Hist. Dichl. Pis. 1:585. 1831. 

'Firminger, T. A. C. Card. Ind. 181. 1874. 

Hawkins, R. Voy. So. Seas 1593. Hakl. Soc. Ed. 50, 93. 1847. 

Masters, M. T. Treas. Bot. 2:765., 1874. 

' Unger, F. U. S. Pat. Of. Rpt. 352. 1859. 

Van Daman U. S. D. A. Pom. Bid. No. 1:37. 1887. 

sturtevant's notes on edible plants 373 

M. rosacea Jacq. banana. 

Tropical Asia. This is the vai of Cook, the fahie of Wilkes, the foe of the natives. 
It was seen by Wilkes ' in groves in Tahiti, the fruit borne on an upright spike, of the 
shape of the banana but twice as large and of a deep golden hue, with pulp of a dark orange 
color. It is destitute of seeds, of high flavor and greatly esteemed by the natives. On 
the Fiji Islands, it is found cultivated. The fruit is eaten either roasted or boiled. Ellis ^ 
says there^ are nearly 20 kinds of wild bananas, very large and serviceable, in the moun- 
tains of Tahiti. In India, says Firminger,' this species is called ram kela and, when in 
good condition, is a remarkably fine fruit. The fruit is about seven inches long and rather 
thin, at first of a very dark red, but ripening to a yellowish-red. 

M. sapientum Linn, adam's fig. banana, plantain. 

In general, says Humboldt,* the musa, known by every people in the Torrid Zone, 
though hitherto never found in a wild state, has as great a variety of fruit as the apple 
or pear. The names " plantain " and " banana " are very discriminately applied, but 
the term plantain is usually restricted to the larger plants whose fruits are eaten cooked, 
while the term banana is given to sorts whose fruits are eaten raw. The plantain, says 
Forster,' varies almost ad infinitum, like our apple. At Tongatabu, says Captain Cook\ 
they have 15 sorts of plantain. In Tenasserim, says Simmonds,^ there are 20 varieties, 
in Ceylon 10 and in Burma 30. The Dacca plantain is 9 inches long. In Madagascar,. 
the plantains are as large as a man's forearm. In the mountains of the Philippines, a 
single btmch is said to be a load for a man. The banana is cultivated in more varieties 
in India than is the plantain, says Roxburgh.' The plantain is abundant in Africa, 
according to Burton * and other African travelers. In Peru, according to Herndon ' and 
others, it abounds. One of the dainties of the Mosquito Indians, says Bancroft,'" is bis- 
bire, the name given to plantains kept in leaves till putrid; it is eaten boiled. The plan- 
tain is imquestionably of ancient culture, for one of the Mohammedan traditions is that 
the leaves used for girdles by Adam and Eve were plantain leaves. Plantains with fruit 
from 10 to 12 inches long were grown in Louisiana in 1855 and probably earlier. The 
flesh was eaten roasted, fried or boiled. 

It seems probable th